Statistical Analysis: an Introduction using R/R/R fundamentals
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R fundamentals edit
If you carry out the exercises in all these topics, you should be relatively competent in using R (also see programming)
- Depending on how you are viewing this book, may see a ">" character in front of each command. This is not part of the command to type: it is produced by R itself to prompt you to type something. This character should be automatically omitted if you are copying and pasting from the online version of this book, but if you are reading the paper or pdf version, you should omit the ">" prompt when typing into R.
- If you are familiar with computer programming languages, you may be used to using the underscore ("_") character in names. In R, "." is usually used in its place.
- you can use either single (') or double (") quotes to delimit text strings, as long as the start and end quotes match
- These are special words in R, and cannot be used as names for objects. The objects
Fare temporary shortcuts for
FALSE, but if you use them, watch out: since T and F are just normal object names you can change their meaning by overwriting them.
- There are actually 3 types of allowed numbers: "normal" numbers, complex numbers, and simple integers. This book deals almost exclusively with the first of these.
- This is not quite true, but unless you are a computer specialist, you are unlikely to use the final type: a vectors of elements storing "raw" computer bits, see