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Slovio is an international auxiliary language created by Mark Hucko in 1999. It has simple, logical grammar similar to that of Esperanto, and its vocabulary is taken from roots common in most Slavic languages, including Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian, Sorbian, Old Church Slavonic, and Macedonian. The name Slovio derives from the proto-Slavic root meaning "word." Slovio is easily understood by anyone familiar with at least one Slavic language, and thus has a natural base of an approximate 400 million people. Slovio uses the Roman alphabet but can be transcribed into Cyrilic.
Sample Text edit
The Pater Noster in Slovio:
- Nasx otec ktor es vo nebo,
- Sanktju es tvoi imen.
- Tvoi kralenie pridib.
- Tvoi hcenie bu na zemla takak na nebo.
- Darij mi dnes nasx denju hleb.
- I uprostij mi nasx grehis takak mi uprostime tamktor grehitu protiv mi.
- I ne vestij mi vo pokusenie, no spasij mi ot zlo.
External Links edit
Alphabet and pronunciation
Lesson 1 - Alphabet and pronunciation edit
The Slovio language can be written either using Latin alphabet based on English, which is purely ASCII, or using a cyrillic alphabet, which is based on Russian. This guide will mostly use the Latin alphabet for simplicity and not to overwhelm learners, but you should familiarize yourself with cyrillic as well. This is the basic Slovio alphabet, both in Latin and the corresponding cyrillic:
A B C Cx D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S Sx T U V Z Zx А Б Ц Ч Д Е Ф Г Х И Й К Л М Н О П Р С Ш Т У В З Ж
a b c cx d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s sx t u v z zx а б ц ч д е ф г х и й к л м н о п р с ш т у в з ж
cx, sx, and zx are always represented by two characters in conjunction and form only one letter each.
Vowels are pronounced the same way they would be in German or Polish.
As in most Slavic languages, r should be rolled.
J is used only in some cases:
- When j sound is at the beginning of the word.
- In suffixes like -ju, -just, etc.
Otherwise, i is used to represent that sound.
Slovio also includes several optional letters, mainly for expressing sounds of foreign words:
- Gx Wx X
- Дж Щ Кс
Gx is used to present the sound that would be formed by "dzx", as in George. Wx is used to present the "sxcx" sound, as in Yushchenko. X, if used apart from cx, sx or zx, is equivalent to "ks", as in box.
Pronunciation and stresses edit
In cases of vowel combination (like ai, oi, io, uo, etc.) it is recommended to pronounce the combination as one diphthong.
It is recommended to accent the penultimate syllable (the syllable before the last one).
Lesson 2 - Introducing yourself edit
Please take a look at how Ana might introduce herself:
- Imenijm Ana. Ja es ucxnik.
imenit - name (verb, "to be named") ja - I es - to be ucxnik - student
Ana introduced herself with "imenijm Ana", meaning "my name is Ana". Imenijm is the first person singular form of the verb imenit in the present tense. In this case, it was unnecessary to use personal pronoun ja (I), as it would be in most Slavic languages, as it is assumed that subject is "ja" from the verb suffix -ijm.
Verb conjugation (delaslovju koniugenie) edit
Verbs are conjugated by adding a suffix to the stem of the word. Stems are formed by removing the infinitive ending -t (if the stem ends in o), -it (if it ends in a consonant) or -vit (if it ends in a, e, i or u). The verb endings for the present tense are: ijm, ijsx, ijt, ime, ite and ijut, if the word ends in a consonant as seen in this example:
|imenijm||my name is|
|imenijsx||your name is|
|imenijt||her, his, its name is|
|imenime||our name is|
|imenite||your (plural) name is|
|imenijut||their name is|
So, for example:
Mlodic imenijt Dusxan. - Boy is named Dushan. (literal translation)
Imenime Vikibuks. - Our name is Wikibooks.
Words that end in a vowel lose i in the ending, so the endings are: -jm, -jsx, -jt, -me, -te and -jut. The use of i in such cases is optional, but it is easier to omit it. For example: delat (to work), would be delajm, delajsx, delajt, delame, delate or delajut.
Pronouns (zamenslovis) edit
Pronouns in Slovio appear in three forms:
- Subject (nominative)
This is a table of pronouns when they are in the subject position:
|Please take a look at to. It is a gender neutral form of third person singular, and can be used to designate either he, she or it. Plural equivalent, oni is also gender neutral.|
Verb 'to be' (delaslov 'but') edit
Conjugation of the verb 'to be' in slovio is very easy, it is es in every case. If the verb is used without a pronoun, verb personal ending (see above section) is added to the stem es.
|ja es||I am||esijm|
|ti es||you are||esijsx|
|to es||he/she/it is||esijt|
|on es||he is||esijt|
|ona es||she is||esijt|
|ono es||it is||esijt|
|mi es||we are||esime|
|vi es||you are||esite|
|oni es||they are||esijut|
For example, Ana said:
- Ja es ucxnik.
Meaning I am a student. She also could have said Esijm ucxnik.
Question words edit
Asking questions in Slovio can be done either by adding the word li to the beginning of otherwise affirmative sentence, or by using one of the question words.
Please take a look at this dialogue:
|Marek: Zdrav Katia, kak ti cxutijsx?|
|Katia: Cxutijm dobruo. Sxto derzxijsx vo tvoi ruk?|
|Marek: To es brosxur.|
|Katia: Kai brosxur?|
|Marek: To es turistju brosxur.|
|Katia: Interesju! Gdem ti putovajsx?|
|Marek: Idijm ko Praga.|
|Katia: Kto idijt so te?|
|Marek: Nikto. Putovajm samuo.|
|Katia: Pocx idijsx ko Praga?|
|Marek: Ibo Praga es krasju.|
|Katia: Da, ja tozxe hcejm ko Cxehju Republik putovat. Gda idijsx?|
|Marek: Idijm sledju mesiac.|