Packages management Edit
In Terminal Edit You have to softwares for packages management : "dpkg" and "apt-get".
1. If you want to install new software/package from repositories just type in Terminal as root:
apt-get install package_name
2. If you want to install a package "deb" downloaded from other site:
dpkg -i package_name.deb
a. If a package needs additional dependences and installation has been stoped, then:
apt-get install -f
b. If a package has been not configurated correctly, fix it:
dpkg --reconfigure -a
3. Removing packages:
apt-get remove package_name
4. Removing package with it's dependences:
apt-get --purge remove package_name
5. Removing old versions of installation packages:
6. If you don't know a package name look for it using:
apt-cache search package_name
apt-file search package_name
7. If you want to install "bin" package, make:
If the package doesn't have execute rights, change it:
chmod a+x package_name
Packages installation with Synaptic Edit sidux developers suggest to install packages using "apt-get" command only.
But you can do it with "apt-get" GUI called Synaptic, if you'd like:
apt-get install synaptic
Run Synaptic from: Menu-> System-> Synaptic Package Manager-> type your root password.
1. First icon "Reload" will refresh packages list.
2. "Search" icon will help you to find exect software.
3. When you recive package list mark your one clicking on "Mark for installation" and "Apply".
4. Confirm it and wait for finishing, then close Synaptic down.
System upgrading Edit 1. sidux developers suggest to make system upgrade using
only "apt-get" command:
2. If you want to keep older version of a package (upgrading will not be made), just block it:
echo package_name hold|dpkg --set-selections
a. To check blocked packages agains upgrading:
dpkg --get-selections | grep hold
b. If you want unblock blocked package for upgrading it:
echo package_name install|dpkg --set-selections
Other repositories and public key Edit If you want to install a package from other server, just add an address to repositories list
using any text editor as a root to file:
2. Then refresh package list with command:
2. If you recive a missing public key message so install it:
a. Sofware makers have public key sometimes to download so take it.
b. If not add a key using command:
gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv key_ID
gpg --export key_ID | apt-key add -
System management Edit
Removing old system kernel Edit
sidux makers upgrade system kernel often but they have given a small script to help removing old one easy.
1. Menu-> System-> kernel-remover
2. Mark a kernel version with lower number-> then OK.
3. Should I remove this kernel? -> OK.
The software doesn't show present version of kernel for removing just old ones but I suggest to not
removing all of theme, keep one old just in a case.
System administration Edit
If you want to make any system changes just run: Menu-> Settings-> Xfce4 Settings Manager.
I'll show you the most important only.
1. Preferred Applications.
a. If you want to change any application for your one choose it from the list or "Other".
b. If you've selected "Other" choose an execute script from "/usr/bin" or your own folder.
2. Removable Drives and Media.
a. Storage tab: I suggest to not mark "Auto-run" and "Auto-open" programs and files on new drives.
b. Multimedia tab: Play audio or video CD's - choose any media player or do not mark it,
so you will run CD's files manually.
c. Cameras tab: Import digital photos when connected - use one of theme: gThumb, F-spot or DigiKam.
3. File Manager: Bahavior tab - Single or Double click to activate items to choose.
4. Workspaces: choose one or more.
5. Desktop: choose a wallpaper, icon size or media mounting on Desktop.
6. Display: choose a screen if you have more then one, its resolution and refresh rate.
7. Window Manager.
a. Style tab: choose a theme.
b. Keyboard tab: shortcut to manage.
8. Session and Startup.
a. Splash tab: choose any.
b. Application Autostart: you may add any application to start it when system starts.
9. Panel: castomize the panel settings - size, position, autohide or add new one.
10. Appearance: change windows style, icons theme or fonts.
Working on files Edit
Midnight Commander Edit
Sometimes you have to work on files and folders (often as a root).
One of the best way is using terminal's Midnight Commander:
a. To copy a file/folder mark it in one window and click F5 key, it do that to a folder in second window.
b. To move a file/folder use F6 key.
c. If you want to delete a file/folder use F8.
d. F7 key creates new folder.
e. If you want to make a view for a file use F3 key, to edit it F4.
In Terminal Edit 2. Another way to make all the works is typing a command in Terminal:
a. To create a file:
b. To create folder:
c. To copy a file:
cp /path_to_file /path_to_new_folder
d. To copy a folder:
cd -r /path_to_folder /path_to_new_folder
e. To remove a file:
f. To remove folder:
rm -r /path_to_folder
g. If a folder is not empty:
rm -rf /path_to_folder
h. To check files in a folder:
i. To go to a folder one level lower:
j. To go to a folder one level upper:
k. To go to other folder:
Another way to do that with graphic application is using Thunar File Manager with mouse helps menu.
GRUB boot loader Edit GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) is a boot loader package installed in main drive sector.
It can run many operating systems.
There is Grub version 2 provided with sidux.
1. If you can't find all installed systems on your hard drive on boot loader list, type in Terminal as root:
Changes will be effective after reboot system.
2. If you want to change system startup delay (it's normally 5 sec.) just edit the file as root:
and change the line: GRUB_TIMEOUT=5 for any you'd like and save the file.
More about GRUB2 read on the project page:
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-2.en.html And on Wikipedia:
Time zone Edit If your system's clock doesn't display exect time, just reconfigure it:
Terminal as root:
Choose a continent first and a town after.
Default system language Edit To change it just type in Terminal as root:
Depending of "locales" package version mark your language or choose from a list (I suggest UTF8).
Most applications installers have scripts adding entry to Menu but sometimes you have to do it yourself.
Terminal as a root:
And type it in the new file:
Comment=What is it for
Save the file and close Mousepad down. There is en example for "Touchepad" application below:
The icon file patch can be different.
Desktop theme changing Edit 1. Wallpaper: download new one from:
gnome-look.org for example or use any picture.
a. Right click on your picture and choose: "Set as wallpaper"
2. Icons: download a set of icons from the same webside.
a. Extract it.
b. Open Terminal as root and run "mc" then move extracted new icon folder to: "/usr/share/icons".
c. Choose new icon theme from: Menu-> Settings-> Appearance-> Icons tab-> choose the new one or any.
d. Icon size changing: Menu-> Settings-> Desktop-> Icons tab-> Icon size.
3. Style: Menu-> Settings-> Appearance-> Style tab-> choose any.
4. Login window: download new one from the same webside from DGM Themes department.
a. Open: Menu-> Settings-> Login Window-> Local tab.
b. Click on "Add" and choose downloaded package.
c. Mark it and close the window down, the new login style will be working after next log in.
Panel castomize Edit
Panel applets make faster access to many system and personal functions. I'll show you a few only.
1. Action Buttons lets you block desktop or shut system down in quick way.
2. DateTime adds a clock, date and calendar.
3. Weather Update brings temperature, atmosphere pressure, humidity, wind speed, etc.
4. Mail Watcher checks all your e-mail boxes on "pop3, imap, gmail" servers.
5. Network Monitor shows incoming and outgoing speed trafic.
6. Mixer Plugin lets you controling sound level for speakers and microphones.
7. Xfce4 Stopper just let you set a timer up.
Users and groups Edit
User account changes Edit 1. To add new user type in Terminal as root:
2. If you want to change your password type in Terminal (not as root):
Changing password for your_name
type your present password
Enter the new password (minimum 5, maximum 8 characters).
Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.
New password: type your new password
Re-enter new password: re-type your new password
3. Removing an user:
4. Removing an user with its home folder and all files:
userdel -r user_name
Root account changes Edit 1. To change root password make (if you know it):
type present root password
New password UNIX: type new root password
Re-enter new password for UNIX: re-type new root password
2. To change root password (if you forgot or don't know it):
a. Run computer from sidux LiveCD or any Linux Live distribition.
b. Open Terminal as root:
check root "/" partition name (it's "/dev/sda6" on my computer):
su or sudo (depends of Live distribution)
create new folder "sid_temp" for example in "media" folder:
mount root "/" partition of hard drive file system in Live system:
mount /dev/sda6 /media/sid_temp
check has been it mounted correctly:
and change unknown root password for new one:
chroot /media/sda6 passwd
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully
Operations on groups Edit 1. To create a new group:
2. To remove a group:
3. To add an user to a group:
adduser user_name group_name
Basic informations Edit 1. The main system security thing is the system itself becouse the system is locked with root password;
demaging it is very difficult.
2. Linux file system is virus-proof for most known malwares.
3. Regular updating remove mistakes and provides new applications functions.
The firewall keeps out incoming access to your computer from outside.
So the first thing after system installation is the firewall activation.
You can do that in a few ways, just have a look:
Antivirus application Edit Sincerely - you don't need it at all but you can use it for outgoing e-mails scanning
- most our friends use diffrent operating system; and for external drives scanning befor
connecting theme to the diffrent OS.
If you'd like try an antivirus application avilable from Debian's repositories ClamAV with KlamAV GUI:
apt-get install clamav klamav
More about ClamAV here:
clamav.net and on Wikipedia: Clam AntiVirus
Try others antivirus applications for Linux:
Rootkit is a dengerous tool hidding processes with can take control of your computer over.
A tool for looking for and removing rootkits from linux system is
chkrootkit. Install it in Terminal:
apt-get install chkrootkit
To scan your operating system run the command:
Useable applications Back to