Usage edit

The dative is used for the indirect object.

  • `B 5~V6 `C4# `B qE6t# `B `Vm#5 i nér anta i parma i eldan "the man gives the book to the elf"

The word order is free because we can always recognize the indirect object by its ending:

  • `B 5~V6 `C4# `B `Vm#5 `B qE6t# i nér anta i eldan i parma "the man gives the elf the book"
  • `B `Vm#5 `B 5~V6 `C4# `B qE6t# i eldan i nér anta i parma "to the elf the man gives the book"
  • `B 5~V6 `B `Vm#5 `C4# `B qE6t# i nér i eldan anta i parma "the man, to the elf, gives the book"

Some verbs can have an indirect object without a direct object:

  • `B yR2% j%j1E6 `B `C7E5$5 i vendi liltar i aranen "the girls dance for the king"

The verb `CqiR5\ apsen- "remit, forgive" has a direct object in the dative:

  • `B `C7E5 `CqiR5$ `B 5$7R5 i aran apsenë i neren "the king forgives the man"

The preposition 7~C "on behalf of, for" is used with the dative:

  • `B `N6aY 1Uj°$ 7~C 8.D7Y2$5 i orco tullë rá Sauronden "the orc came on behalf of Sauron"

Impersonal verbs edit

The dative is also used for the recipient of certain impersonal verbs:

  • `B iRm^5 ~Nj# lDnT`N5 i seldon óla aiwion "the boy dreams about birds"

(see also: Special Verbs)

Formation edit

We discuss each of the numbers separately:

Singular edit

The basic ending is \5 -n after vowels and \`V5 -en after consonants.

Most words simply add this ending:

  • `C7E5 aran "king" → `C7E5$5 aranen
  • 1~C7T tári "queen" → 1~C7T5 tárin
  • yR2$ vendë "girl" → yR2$5 venden

Words that have a stem-form use this stem-form:

  • 5~B8 nís "woman" → 5%,R5 nissen (stem-form 5%,\ niss-)
  • aU7Y curo "device" → aU7U5 curun (stem-form aU7U\ curu-)
  • j~N5$ lómë "night" → j~Nt%5 lómin (stem-form j~Nt%\ lómi-)

Plural edit

The ending is \`B5 -in:

  • t#aGj macil "sword" → t#aGj%5 macilin
  • `Vm# elda "elf" → `VmlD5 eldain

(Note: this ending forms a diphthong when the noun ends in \`C -a , \`N -o or \`M -u)


Words ending in \`V -ë drop this -ë and have ~B5 -ín as ending:
  • j#,R lassë "leaf" → j#,~B5 lassín

Words ending in \`B`V - drop this - and have \~B5 -ín as ending:
  • t^65%`V mornië "darkness" → t^65~B5 mornín

Words ending in \`B -i (or with a stem-form in -i) also get \~B5 -ín:
  • 1~C7T tári "queen" → 1~C7T5 tárín
  • j~Nt$ lómë "night" → j~Nt~B5 lómín

Dual edit

The dual is regular:

U-duals get \5 -n:
  • `Cm& aldu "a pair of trees" → `Cm&5 aldun (nom.sing.: `Cm# alda)
In t-duals the final \1 -t is replaced by \4 -nt:
  • aG7ÎE1 ciryat "a pair of ships" → aG7ÎE4 ciryant (nom.sing.: aG7ÎE cirya)
  • `C7E5$1 aranet "a pair of kings" → `C7E5$4 aranent (nom.sing.: `C7E5 aran)

(Note: these words are the only Neo-Quenya words that end in more than one consonant)

Partitive Plural edit

We always add -n to the nominative partitive plural:

  • aG7ÎEj% ciryali "some ships" → aG7ÎEj%5 ciryalin (nom.sing.: aG7ÎE cirya)

>> Neo-Quenya >> Nouns >> Dative