Pulsars and neutron stars/Modelling timing residuals


Pulse numberingEdit

Glitch eventsEdit

In tempo/tempo2, glitch events are modelled as an offset in pulse phase,   and the permanent increments in the pulse frequency   and first frequency time derivative  . In addition it is sometimes necessary to in a transient frequency increment   which decays exponentially to zero with a timescale of  . The phase model (caused by the glitch) is therefore taken as:


where   is the glitch epoch and   is the current time.

Frequency-dependent and frequency-independent noiseEdit

Spatially correlated timing residualsEdit

Spectral analysis of timing residualsEdit

Interpolation and extrapolation of pulsar timing residualsEdit