Proto-Turkic/Converbs and sentence formation

Welcome to the twelve lesson of the Proto-Turkic!

Sentence formationEdit

Unlike English which has subject–verb–object (SVO), the basic Proto-Turkic word order is SOV, that it is subject–object–verb. The precise order look like this:

Parts of speech by order
Adjective (attributive) Subject Adjective (predicative) Postposition Object (anything) Adverb Verb Pronoun (certain tenses, see more)

There is no prepositions in Proto-Turkic, postpositions, of which succeeds its objects, serve that role instead. This is a list of some postpositions found in Proto-Turkic:

  • *üčün "for, because of"
  • *togru "toward"

ExamplesEdit

Sentence *Bẹ ebke tǖn kẹltim.
Gloss "I house-dat night come-past-1sg"
Part of speech Pronoun (subj.) Object Adverb Verb
Meaning "I came to the house night."
Sentence *Anam doŋuŕ eti yēdi.
Gloss "Mother-1sg.poss pig meal-3sg.poss eat-past.3sg."
Part of speech Subject Object (compound) Verb
Meaning "My mother ate pork (← pig meal)."

ConverbsEdit

Converbs are conjunctions that connect verbs to sentences. In Turkic languages, verbs can be connected to sentences when they turn into verbal.

In English this is mostly done by conjunctions and prepositions. This is how we translate it. But have you noticed that verbs are not connected the way we translate them into sentences. For example, when we say while going, we are actually saying goingly (just like rallingly). The linking of verbs is through being either nouns, adjectives or adverbs. These are connected to a sentence on their own without the need for a conjunction like while, and they even have a meaning on their own. Considering that we count words such as winningly, seethingly, meaningly as words alone, there are verb-based endless adverbs in a Turkic language.

All right, so why is there such a title?

*verb-verbal adjective (as a noun)-possessive-ablativeEdit

"Since I came late yesterday, everyone was already asleep." Note that there is no because in Proto-Turkic. So how do we connect this sentence and translate it into Proto-Turkic?

We use adjective verbs and possessives.

"Tǖn kēč kẹldükümten, bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti."

Let's examine the first part of the sentence.

From my coming late yesterday - Tǖn kēč kẹldükümten

Next up is the second part you know.

Everybody was asleep - bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti

verb verbal adjective

(as verbal noun)

possesive ablative
kẹl dük üm ten

"Since (from) I (my) came (coming) late yesterday, everyone was (already) asleep (sleeping)."

"Tǖn kēč kẹl dükümten, bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti."

*verb-verbal adjective (as a noun)-possessive-locativeEdit

When I came late yesterday, everyone was already asleep. - "Tǖn kēč kẹldükümte, bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti."

Let's examine the first part of the sentence.

At my coming late yesterday - Tǖn kēč kẹldükümte

Next up is the second part you know.

Everybody was asleep - bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti

verb verbal adjective

(as verbal noun)

possesive locative
kẹl dük üm te

"When (at) I (my) came (coming) late yesterday, everyone was (already) asleep (sleeping)."

"Tǖn kēč kẹldükümte, bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti."

*verb-verbal adjective (as a noun)-possessive forEdit

Since I came late yesterday, everyone was already asleep. - "Tǖn kēč kẹldüküm üčün, bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti."

Let's examine the first part of the sentence.

For my coming late yesterday - Tǖn kēč kẹldüküm üčün

Next up is the second part you know.

Everybody was asleep - bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti

verb verbal adjective

(as verbal noun)

possesive for
kẹl dük üm üčün

"Since (for) I (my) came (coming) late yesterday, everyone was (already) asleep (sleeping)."

"Tǖn kēč kẹldüküm üčün, bārča kiĺi ūdïma(k)da erti."

*verb-verbal adjective (as a noun)-possessive-equativeEdit

I saw as I came. - "Kẹldükümče, körtüm."

Let's examine the first part of the sentence.

As I came (this much) - Kẹldükümče

Next up is the second part you know.

I saw - körtüm

verb verbal adjective

(as verbal noun)

possesive equative
kẹl dük üm če

Notes:Edit

  1. In many modern Turkic languages there is *-gAn instead of *-dUk. But *-dUk used in Yenisei inscriptions, Köktürk inscriptions and both Volga and Danube Bulgarian inscriptions[1]. So using *-dUk is more realistic to Proto-Turkic language.
  2. Today, some Turkic languages use as follows: pronoun verb-verbal adjective-ablative/locative/ for/equative
Next lesson: Abilities, future tense and present continuous

ReferencesEdit

  1. Tekin, Talat (1988), Volga Bulgar kitabeleri ve Volga Bulgarcası‎[1], Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, page 30