Proto-Turkic/Basics

Welcome to the second lesson of Proto-Turkic!

BasicsEdit

ClausesEdit

Verb clausesEdit

Verb clauses are formed by adding a tense to the end of the verb. Let's consider the aorist suffix *-ur, *-ür[1] and its opposite *-maŕ, *meŕ[2].

  • I love horses. - Bẹ ătïŕïg sebür.
  • My mother doesn't love him. - Anam anï sebmeŕ.

However, in some Turkic languages like Turkish, Tatar, or even Old Turkic, this suffix was combined with another suffix *-aŕ or *-eŕ to form unpredictable choice of aorist form.

Noun clausesEdit

There are no noun clauses in Proto-Turkic. The verb to stand or to be (auxiliary) takes the suffix *-ur, *-ür in the present tense, and noun phrases are provided in this way. If the sentence is positive, it may not take any verb or suffix.

  • Hen is a bird - Tiakïgu kuĺ (turur/erür).
  • Butter is not a fruit - Yāg yẹ̄miĺč turmaŕ/ermeŕ.

Family membersEdit

  • mother - *ana
  • father - *ata[3]
  • girl, daughter - *kï̄ŕ[4]
  • boy - *ēr[5]
  • son - *ogul[6]
  • elder sister - *eke
  • elder brother - *ĕčey
  • younger sister - *siŋil
  • younger brother - *ini (unclear, perhaps Proto-Common-Turkic)
  • bride - *kẹlin[7]
  • son-in-law - *küdegü
  • a man's wife's younger sister - *bāldïŕ
  • husbands of sisters - *bāčanak

The reason why *ini is not clear is that it is not found in the Oghur group. Sometimes some words are reconstructed for Proto-Turkic even though they are not found in Lir Turkic. These configurations include Proto-Common-Turkic, non-Lir legacy configurations are not Proto-Turkic.

Next Lesson: Locative-ablative case and plurality

ReferencesEdit

  1. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Turkic/-%C3%BCr
  2. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Turkic/-me%C5%95
  3. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Turkic/ata
  4. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Turkic/k%C3%AF%CC%84%C5%95
  5. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Turkic/%C4%93r
  6. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Turkic/ogul
  7. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Turkic/k%E1%BA%B9lin