Pinyin/On Contradiction/Chapter 3

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III. THE PARTICULARITY OF CONTRADICTIONEdit

三、矛盾的特殊性

3. Máodùn de Tèshūxìng


IntroductionEdit


§3.1Edit


Contradiction is present in the process of development of all things; it permeates the process of development of each thing from beginning to end. This is the universality and absoluteness of contradiction which we have discussed above.

矛盾存在于一切事物发展的过程中,矛盾贯串于每一事物发展过程的始终,这是矛盾的普遍性和绝对性,前面已经说过了。

Máodùn cúnzài yú yīqiè shìwù fāzhǎn de guòchéng zhōng, máodùn guànchuàn yú měi yī shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de shǐzhōng, zhè shì máodùn de pǔbiànxìng hé juéduìxìng, qiánmiàn yǐjīng shuōguo le.


Now let us discuss the particularity and relativity of contradiction.

现在来说矛盾的特殊性和相对性。

Xiànzài lái shuō máodùn de tèshūxìng hé xiāngduìxìng.


§3.2Edit


This problem should be studied on several levels.

这个问题,应从几种情形中去研究。

Zhè ge wèntí, yīnggāi cóng jǐ zhǒng qíngxíng zhōng qù yánjiū.


The forms of motionEdit


§3.3Edit


First, the contradiction in each form of motion of matter has its particularity.

首先是各种物质运动形式中的矛盾,都带特殊性。

Shǒuxiān shi gè zhǒng wùzhì yùndòng xíngshì zhōng de máodùn, dōu dài tèshūxìng.


Man's knowledge of matter is knowledge of its forms of motion, because there is nothing in this world except matter in motion and this motion must assume certain forms.

人的认识物质,就是认识物质的运动形式,因为除了运动的物质以外,世界上什么也没有,而物质的运动则必取一定的形式。

Rén de rènshí wùzhì, jiù shì rènshí wùzhì de yùndòng xíngshì, yīnwèi chúle yùndòng de wùzhì yǐwài, shìjiè shang shénme yě méiyǒu, ér wùzhì de yùndòng bìxū cǎiqǔ yīdìng de xíngshì.


In considering each form of motion of matter, we must observe the points which it has in common with other forms of motion.

对于物质的每一种运动形式,必须注意它和其他各种运动形式的共同点。

Duìyú wùzhì de měi yī zhǒng yùndòng xíngshì, bìxū zhùyì tā hé qítā gè zhǒng yùndòng xíngshì de gòngtóngdiǎn.


But what is especially important and necessary, constituting as it does the foundation of our knowledge of a thing, is to observe what is particular to this form of motion of matter, namely, to observe the qualitative difference between this form of motion and other forms.

但是,尤其重要的,成为我们认识事物的基础的东西,则是必须注意它的特殊点,就是说,注意它和其他运动形式的质的区别。

Dànshì, yóuqí zhòngyào de, chéngwéi wǒmen rènshí shìwù de jīchǔ de dōngxī, zé shì bìxū zhùyì tā de tèshū diǎn, jiù shì shuō, zhùyì tā hé qítā yùndòng xíngshì de xìngzhì de qūbié.


Only when we have done so can we distinguish between things.

只有注意了这一点,才有可能区别事物。

Zhǐyǒu zhùyì le zhè yīdiǎn, cái yǒu kěnéng qūbié shìwù.


Every form of motion contains within itself its own particular contradiction.

任何运动形式,其内部都包含着本身特殊的矛盾。

Rènhé yùndòng xíngshì, tā de nèibù dōu bāohánzhe běnshēn tèshū de máodùn.


This particular contradiction constitutes the particular essence which distinguishes one thing from another.

这种特殊的矛盾,就构成一事物区别于他事物的特殊的本质。

Zhè zhǒng tèshū de máodùn, jiù gòuchéng yī shìwù qūbié yú qítā shìwù de tèshū de běnzhì.


It is the internal cause or, as it may be called, the basis for the immense variety of things in the world.

这就是世界上诸种事物所以有千差万别的内在的原因,或者叫做根据。

Zhè jiù shì shìjiè shang gè zhǒng shìwù suǒyǐ yǒu qiānchāwànbié de nèizài de yuányīn, huòzhě jiàozuò gēnjù.


There are many forms of motion in nature, mechanical motion, sound, light, heat, electricity, dissociation, combination, and so on.

自然界存在着许多的运动形式,机械运动、发声、发光、发热、电流、化分、化合等等都是。

Zìránjiè cúnzàizhe xǔduō de yùndòng xíngshì, jīxiè yùndòng, fāshēng, fāguāng, fārè, diànliú, huàxué fēnjiě, huàhé děngděng dōu shì.


All these forms are interdependent, but in its essence each is different from the others.

所有这些物质的运动形式,都是互相依存的,又是本质上互相区别的。

Suǒyǒu zhèxiē wùzhì de yùndòng xíngshì, dōu shì hùxiāng yīcún de, yòu shì běnzhì shang hùxiāng qūbié de.


The particular essence of each form of motion is determined by its own particular contradiction.

每一物质的运动形式所具有的特殊的本质,为它自己的特殊的矛盾所规定。

Měiyī wùzhì de yùndòng xíngshì suǒ jùyǒu de tèshū de běnzhì, bèi tā zìjǐ de tèshū de máodùn suǒ guīdìng.


This holds true not only for nature but also for social and ideological phenomena.

这种情形,不但在自然界中存在着,在社会现象和思想现象中也是同样地存在着。

Zhè zhǒng qíngxíng, bùdàn zài zìránjiè zhōng cúnzàizhe, zài shèhuì xiànxiàng hé sīxiǎng xiànxiàng zhōng yě shì tóngyàng de cúnzàizhe.


Every form of society, every form of ideology, has its own particular contradiction and particular essence.

每一种社会形式和思想形式,都有它的特殊的矛盾和特殊的本质。

Měi yī zhǒng shèhuì xíngshì hé sīxiǎng xíngshì, dōu yǒu tā de tèshū de máodùn hé tèshū de běnzhì.


The fields of scienceEdit


§3.4Edit


The sciences are differentiated precisely on the basis of the particular contradictions inherent in their respective objects of study.

科学研究的区分,就是根据科学对象所具有的特殊的矛盾性。

Kēxué yánjiū de qūfēn, jiù shì gēnjù kēxué duìxiàng suǒ jùyǒu de tèshū de máodùnxìng.


Thus the contradiction peculiar to a certain field of phenomena constitutes the object of study for a specific branch of science.

因此,对于某一现象的领域所特有的某一种矛盾的研究,就构成某一门科学的对象。

Yīncǐ, duìyú mǒu yī xiànxiàng de lǐngyù suǒ tèyǒu de mǒu yī zhǒng máodùn de yánjiū, jiù gòuchéng mǒu yī mén kēxué de duìxiàng.


For example, positive and negative numbers in mathematics; action and reaction in mechanics; positive and negative electricity in physics; dissociation and combination in chemistry; forces of production and relations of production, classes and class struggle, in social science; offence and defence in military science; idealism and materialism, the metaphysical outlook and the dialectical outlook, in philosophy; and so on--all these are the objects of study of different branches of science precisely because each branch has its own particular contradiction and particular essence.

例如,数学中的正数和负数,机械学中的作用和反作用,物理学中的阴电和阳电,化学中的化分和化合,社会科学中的生产力和生产关系、阶级和阶级的互相斗争,军事学中的攻击和防御,哲学中的唯心论和唯物论、形而上学观和辩证法观等等,都是因为具有特殊的矛盾和特殊的本质,才构成了不同的科学研究的对象。

Lìrú, shùxué zhōng de zhèngshù hé fùshù, jīxièxué zhōng de zuòyòng hé fǎnzuòyòng, wùlǐxué zhōng de yīndiàn hé yángdiàn, huàxué zhōng de fēnjiě hé héchéng, shèhuì kēxué zhōng de shēngchǎnlì hé shēngchǎn guānxì, jiējí hé jiējí de hùxiāng dòuzhēng, jūnshìxué zhōng de gōngjī hé fángyù, zhéxué zhōng de wéixīnlùn hé wéiwùlùn, xíng'érshàngxuéguān hé biànzhèngfǎguān děngděng, dōu shì yīnwèi jùyǒu tèshū de máodùn hé tèshū de běnzhí, cái gòuchéng le bù tóng de kēxué yánjiū de duìxiàng.


Of course, unless we understand the universality of contradiction, we have no way of discovering the universal cause or universal basis for the movement or development of things; however, unless we study the particularity of contradiction, we have no way of determining the particular essence of a thing which differentiates it from other things, no way of discovering the particular cause or particular basis for the movement or development of a thing, and no way of distinguishing one thing from another or of demarcating the fields of science.

固然,如果不认识矛盾的普遍性,就无从发现事物运动发展的普遍的原因或普遍的根据;但是,如果不研究矛盾的特殊性,就无从确定一事物不同于他事物的特殊的本质,就无从发现事物运动发展的特殊的原因,或特殊的根据,也就无从辨别事物,无从区分科学研究的领域。

Gùrán, rúguǒ bù rènshí máodùn de pǔbiànxìng, jiù wúcóng fāxiàn shìwù yùndòng fāzhǎn de pǔbiàn de yuányīn huò pǔbiàn de gēnjù; dànshì, rúguǒ bù yánjiū máodùn de tèshūxìng, jiù wúcóng quèdìng yī shìwù bù tóng yú qítā shìwù de tèshū de běnzhì, jiù wúcóng fāxiàn shìwù yùndòng fāzhǎn de tèshū de yuányīn, huò tèshū de gēnjù, yě jiù wúcóng biànbié shìwù, wúcóng qūfēn kēxué yánjiū de lǐngyù.


The processes of cognitionEdit


§3.5Edit


As regards the sequence in the movement of man's knowledge, there is always a gradual growth from the knowledge of individual and particular things to the knowledge of things in general.

就人类认识运动的秩序说来,总是由认识个别的和特殊的事物,逐步地扩大到认识一般的事物。

Jiù rénlèi rènshí yùndòng de zhìxù shuōlái, zǒngshì yóu rènshí gèbié de hé tèshū de shìwù, zhúbù de kuòdà dào rènshí yībān de shìwù.


Only after man knows the particular essence of many different things can he proceed to generalization and know the common essence of things.

人们总是首先认识了许多不同事物的特殊的本质,然后才有可能更进一步地进行概括工作,认识诸种事物的共同的本质。

Rénmen zǒngshì shǒuxiān rènshí le xǔduō bùtóng shìwù de tèshū de běnzhì, ránhòu cái yǒu kěnéng gèng jìnyībù de jìnxíng gàikuò gōngzuò, rènshí gè zhǒng shìwù de gòngtóng de běnzhì.


When man attains the knowledge of this common essence, he uses it as a guide and proceeds to study various concrete things which have not yet been studied, or studied thoroughly, and to discover the particular essence of each; only thus is he able to supplement, enrich and develop his knowledge of their common essence and prevent such knowledge from withering or petrifying.

当着人们已经认识了这种共同的本质以后,就以这种共同的认识为指导,继续地向着尚未研究过的或者尚未深入地研究过的各种具体的事物进行研究,找出其特殊的本质,这样才可以补充、丰富和发展这种共同的本质的认识,而使这种共同的本质的认识不致变成枯槁的和僵死的东西。

Dāngzhe rénmen yǐjīng rènshí le zhè zhǒng gòngtóng de běnzhì yǐhòu, jiù yǐ zhèzhǒng gòngtóng de rènshí wéi zhǐdǎo, jìxù de xiàngzhe shàngwèi yánjiūguo de huòzhě shàngwèi shēnrù de yánjiūguo de gè zhǒng jùtǐ de shìwù jìnxíng yánjiū, zhǎochū tā de tèshū de běnzhì, zhèyàng cái kěyǐ bǔchōng, fēngfù hé fāzhǎn zhè zhǒng gòngtóng de běnzhì de rènshí, ér shǐ zhè zhǒng gòngtóng de běnzhì de rènshí bùzhì biànchéng kūwěi de hé jiāngsǐ de dōngxī.


These are the two processes of cognition: one, from the particular to the general, and the other, from the general to the particular.

这是两个认识的过程:一个是由特殊到一般,一个是由一般到特殊。

Zhè shì liǎng ge rènshí de guòchéng: Yī ge shì yóu tèshū dào yībān, yī ge shì yóu yībān dào tèshū.


Thus cognition always moves in cycles and (so long as scientific method is strictly adhered to) each cycle advances human knowledge a step higher and so makes it more and more profound.

人类的认识总是这样循环往复地进行的,而每一次的循环(只要是严格地按照科学的方法)都可能使人类的认识提高一步,使人类的认识不断地深化。

Rénlèi de rènshí zǒngshì zhèyàng xúnhuán wǎngfù de jìnxíng de, ér měi yī cì de xúnhuán (zhǐyào shì yángé de ànzhào kēxué de fāngfǎ) dōu kěnéng shǐ rénlèi de rènshí tígāo yī bù, shǐ rénlèi de rènshí bùduàn de shēnhuà.


Where our dogmatists err on this question is that, on the one hand, they do not understand that we have to study the particularity of contradiction and know the particular essence of individual things before we can adequately know the universality of contradiction and the common essence of things, and that, on the other hand, they do not understand that after knowing the common essence of things, we must go further and study the concrete things that have not yet been thoroughly studied or have only just emerged.

我们的教条主义者在这个问题上的错误,就是,一方面,不懂得必须研究矛盾的特殊性,认识各别事物的特殊的本质,才有可能充分地认识矛盾的普遍性,充分地认识诸种事物的共同的本质;另一方面,不懂得在我们认识了事物的共同的本质以后,还必须继续研究那些尚未深入地研究过的或者新冒出来的具体的事物。

Wǒmen de jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě zài zhè ge wèntí shang de cuòwù, jiù shì, yīfāngmiàn, bù dǒngdé bìxū yánjiū máodùn de tèshūxìng, rènshí gèbié shìwù de tèshū de běnzhí, cái yǒu kěnéng chōngfèn de rènshí máodùn de pǔbiànxìng, chōngfèn de rènshí gè zhǒng shìwù de gòngtóng de běnzhì; lìngyī fāngmiàn, bù dǒngdé zài wǒmen rènshí le shìwù de gòngtóng de běnzhì yǐhòu, hái bìxū jìxù yánjiū nàxiē shàngwèi shēnrù de yánjiūguo de huòzhě xīn màochūlái de jùtǐ de shìwù.


Our dogmatists are lazy-bones. They refuse to undertake any painstaking study of concrete things, they regard general truths as emerging out of the void, they turn them into purely abstract unfathomable formulas, and thereby completely deny and reverse the normal sequence by which man comes to know truth.

我们的教条主义者是懒汉,他们拒绝对于具体事物做任何艰苦的研究工作,他们把一般真理看成是凭空出现的东西,把它变成为人们所不能够捉摸的纯粹抽象的公式,完全否认了并且颠倒了这个人类认识真理的正常秩序。

Wǒmen de jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě shì lǎnhàn, tāmen jùjué duìyú jùtǐ shìwù zuò rènhé jiānkǔ de yánjiū gōngzuò, tāmen bǎ yībān zhēnlǐ kànchéng shì píngkōng chūxiàn de dōngxī, bǎ tā biànchéng wéi rénmen suǒ bù nénggòu zhuōmō de chúncuì chōuxiàng de gōngshì, wánquán fǒurèn le bìngqiě diāndǎo le zhè ge rénlèi rènshí zhēnlǐ de zhèngcháng zhìxù.


Nor do they understand the interconnection of the two processes in cognition-- from the particular to the general and then from the general to the particular. They understand nothing of the Marxist theory of knowledge.

他们也不懂得人类认识的两个过程的互相联结――由特殊到一般,又由一般到特殊,他们完全不懂得马克思主义的认识论。

Tāmen yě bù dǒngdé rénlèi rènshí de liǎng ge guòchéng de hùxiāng liánjié――yóu tèshū dào yībān, yòu yóu yībān dào tèshū, tāmen wánquán bù dǒngdé Marxzhǔyì de rènshílùn.


The process of development in motionEdit


§3.6Edit


It is necessary not only to study the particular contradiction and the essence determined thereby of every great system of the forms of motion of matter, but also to study the particular contradiction and the essence of each process in the long course of development of each form of motion of matter.

不但要研究每一个大系统的物质运动形式的特殊的矛盾性及其所规定的本质,而且要研究每一个物质运动形式在其发展长途中的每一个过程的特殊的矛盾及其本质。

Bùdàn yào yánjiū měi yī ge dà xìtǒng de wùzhì yùndòng xíngshì de tèshū de máodùnxìng hé tā suǒ guīdìng de běnzhì, érqiě yào yánjiū měi yī ge wùzhì yùndòng xíngshì zài tā de fāzhǎn chángtú zhōng de měi yī ge guòchéng de tèshū de máodùn hé tā de běnzhì.


In every form of motion, each process of development which is real (and not imaginary) is qualitatively different.

一切运动形式的每一个实在的非臆造的发展过程内,都是不同质的。

Yīqiè yùndòng xíngshì de měi yī ge shízài de fēi-jiǎxiǎng de fāzhǎn guòchéng nèi, dōu shì bù tóng xìngzhì de.


Our study must emphasize and start from this point.

我们的研究工作必须着重这一点,而且必须从这一点开始。

Wǒmen de yánjiū gōngzuò bìxū zhuózhòng zhè yī diǎn, érqiě bìxū cóng zhè yī diǎn kāishǐ.


The methods for resolving contraditionsEdit


§3.7Edit


Qualitatively different contradictions can only be resolved by qualitatively different methods.

不同质的矛盾,只有用不同质的方法才能解决。

Bù tóng xìngzhì de máodùn, zhǐ yǒu yòng bù tóng xìngzhì de fāngfǎ cái néng jiějué.


For instance, the contradiction between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie is resolved by the method of socialist revolution; the contradiction between the great masses of the people and the feudal system is resolved by the method of democratic revolution; the contradiction between the colonies and imperialism is resolved by the method of national revolutionary war; the contradiction between the working class and the peasant class in socialist society is resolved by the method of collectivization and mechanization in agriculture; contradiction within the Communist Party is resolved by the method of criticism and self-criticism; the contradiction between society and nature is resolved by the method of developing the productive forces.

例如,无产阶级和资产阶级的矛盾,用社会主义革命的方法去解决;人民大众和封建制度的矛盾,用民主革命的方法去解决;殖民地和帝国主义的矛盾,用民族革命战争的方法去解决;在社会主义社会中工人阶级和农民阶级的矛盾,用农业集体化和农业机械化的方法去解决;共产党内的矛盾,用批评和自我批评的方法去解决;社会和自然的矛盾,用发展生产力的方法去解决。

Lìrú, wúchǎnjiējí hé zīchǎnjiējí de máodùn, yòng shèhuìzhǔyì gémìng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; rénmín dàzhòng hé fēngjiàn zhìdù de máodùn, yòng mínzhǔ gémìng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; zhímíndì hé dìguózhǔyì de máodùn, yòng mínzú gémìng zhànzhēng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; zài shèhuìzhǔyì shèhuì zhōng gōngrénjiējí hé nóngmínjiējí de máodùn, yòng nóngyè jítǐhuà hé nóngyè jīxièhuà de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; Gòngchǎndǎng nèi de máodùn, yòng pīpíng hé zìwǒ pīpíng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué; shèhuì hé zìrán de máodùn, yòng fāzhǎn shēngchǎnlì de fāngfǎ qù jiějué.


Processes change, old processes and old contradictions disappear, new processes and new contradictions emerge, and the methods of resolving contradictions differ accordingly.

过程变化,旧过程和旧矛盾消灭,新过程和新矛盾发生,解决矛盾的方法也因之而不同。

Guòchéng biànhuà, jiù guòchéng hé jiù máodùn xiāomiè, xīn guòchéng hé xīn máodùn fāshēng, jiějué máodùn de fāngfǎ yě yīnzhī ér bù tóng.


In Russia, there was a fundamental difference between the contradiction resolved by the February Revolution and the contradiction resolved by the October Revolution, as well as between the methods used to resolve them.

俄国的二月革命和十月革命所解决的矛盾及其所用以解决矛盾的方法是根本上不相同的。

Éguó de Èryuè gémìng hé Shíyuè gémìng suǒ jiějué de máodùn hé tā suǒ yòngyǐ jiějué máodùn de fāngfǎ shì gēnběn shang bù xiāngtóng de.


The principle of using different methods to resolve different contradictions is one which Marxist-Leninists must strictly observe.

用不同的方法去解决不同的矛盾,这是马克思列宁主义者必须严格地遵守的一个原则。

Yòng bù tóng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué bù tóng de máodùn, zhè shì Marxist-Leninzhǔyìzhě bìxū yángé de zūnshǒu de yī ge yuánzé.


The dogmatists do not observe this principle; they do not understand that conditions differ in different kinds of revolution and so do not understand that different methods should be used to resolve different contradictions; on the contrary, they invariably adopt what they imagine to be an unalterable formula and arbitrarily apply it everywhere, which only causes setbacks to the revolution or makes a sorry mess of what was originally well done.

教条主义者不遵守这个原则,他们不了解诸种革命情况的区别,因而也不了解应当用不同的方法去解决不同的矛盾,而只是千篇一律地使用一种自以为不可改变的公式到处硬套,这就只能使革命遭受挫折,或者将本来做得好的事情弄得很坏。

Jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě bù zūnshǒu zhè ge yuánzé, tāmen bù liǎojiě gè zhǒng gémìng qíngkuàng de qūbié, yīn'ér yě bù liǎojiě yīngdāng yòng bù tóng de fāngfǎ qù jiějué bù tóng de máodùn, ér zhǐ shì qiānpiānyīlǜ de shǐyòng yī zhǒng zìyǐwéi bù kě gǎibiàn de gōngshì dàochù yìngtào, zhè jiù zhǐ néng shǐ gémìng zāoshòu cuòzhé, huòzhě jiāng běnlái zuò dé hǎo de shìqíng nòng de hěn huài.


To discover the essence of the process of contradictionEdit


§3.8Edit


In order to reveal the particularity of the contradictions in any process in the development of a thing, in their totality or interconnections, that is, in order to reveal the essence of the process, it is necessary to reveal the particularity of the two aspects of each of the contradictions in that process; otherwise it will be impossible to discover the essence of the process. This likewise requires the utmost attention in our study.

为要暴露事物发展过程中的矛盾在其总体上、在其相互联结上的特殊性,就是说暴露事物发展过程的本质,就必须暴露过程中矛盾各方面的特殊性,否则暴露过程的本质成为不可能,这也是我们作研究工作时必须十分注意的。

Wèi yào bàolù shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng zhōng de máodùn zài qí zǒngtǐ shang, zài qí xiānghù liánjié shang de tèshūxìng, jiù shì shuō bàolù shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de běnzhì, jiù bìxū bàolù guòchéng zhōng máodùn gè fāngmiàn de tèshūxìng, fǒuzé bàolù guòchéng de běnzhì chéngwéi bù kěnéng, zhè yěshì wǒmen zuò yánjiū gōngzuò shí bìxū shífēn zhùyì de.


§3.9Edit


There are many contradictions in the course of development of any major thing.

一个大的事物,在其发展过程中,包含着许多的矛盾。

Yī ge dà de shìwù, zài tā de fāzhǎn guòchéng zhōng, bāohánzhe xǔduō de máodùn.


For instance, in the course of China's bourgeois-democratic revolution, where the conditions are exceedingly complex, there exist the contradiction between all the oppressed classes in Chinese society and imperialism, the contradiction between the great masses of the people and feudalism, the contradiction between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, the contradiction between the peasantry and the urban petty bourgeoisie on the one hand and the bourgeoisie on the other, the contradiction between the various reactionary ruling groups, and so on.

例如,在中国资产阶级民主革命过程中,有中国社会各被压迫阶级和帝国主义的矛盾,有人民大众和封建制度的矛盾,有无产阶级和资产阶级的矛盾,有农民及城市小资产阶级和资产阶级的矛盾,有各个反动的统治集团之间的矛盾等等,情形是非常复杂的。

Lìrú, zài Zhōngguó zīchǎnjiējí mínzhǔ gémìng guòchéng zhōng, yǒu Zhòngguó shèhuì gè bèi-yāpò jiējí hé dìguózhǔyì de máodùn, yǒu rénmín dàzhòng hé fēngjiàn zhìdù de máodùn, yǒu wúchǎnjiējí hé zīchǎnjiējí de máodùn, yǒu nóngmín hé chéngshì xiǎozīchǎnjiējí yǐjí zīchǎnjiējí de máodùn, yǒu gè ge fǎndòng de tǒngzhì jítuán zhījiān de máodùn děngděng, qíngxíng shì fēicháng fùzá de.


These contradictions cannot be treated in the same way since each has its own particularity; moreover, the two aspects of each contradiction cannot be treated in the same way since each aspect has its own characteristics.

这些矛盾,不但各各有其特殊性,不能一律看待,而且每一矛盾的两方面,又各各有其特点,也是不能一律看待的。

Zhèxiē máodùn, bùdàn gègè yǒu qí tèshūxìng, bù néng yīlǜ kàndài, érqiě měi yī máodùn de liǎng fāngmiàn, yòu gègè yǒu tā de tèdiǎn, yěshì bùnéng yīlǜ kàndài de. 


We who are engages in the Chinese revolution should not only understand the particularity of these contradictions in their totality, that is, in their interconnections, but should also study the two aspects of each contradiction as the only means of understanding the totality.

我们从事中国革命的人,不但要在各个矛盾的总体上,即矛盾的相互联结上,了解其特殊性,而且只有从矛盾的各个方面着手研究,才有可能了解其总体。

Wǒmen cóngshì Zhōngguó gémìng de rén, bùdàn yào zài gè ge máodùn de zǒngtǐ shang, yějiùshì máodùn de xiānghù liánjié shang, liǎojiě tā de tèshūxìng, érqiě zhǐyǒu cóng máodùn de gè ge fāngmiàn zhuóshǒu yánjiū, cái yǒu kěnéng liǎojiě tā de zǒngtǐ.


When we speak of understanding each aspect of a contradiction, we mean understanding what specific position each aspect occupies, what concrete forms it assumes in its interdependence and in its contradiction with its opposite, and what concrete methods are employed in the struggle with its opposite, when the two are both interdependent and in contradiction, and also after the interdependence breaks down.

所谓了解矛盾的各个方面,就是了解它们每一方面各占何等特定的地位,各用何种具体形式和对方发生互相依存又互相矛盾的关系,在互相依存又互相矛盾中,以及依存破裂后,又各用何种具体的方法和对方作斗争。

Suǒwèi liǎojiě máodùn de gè ge fāngmiàn, jiùshì liǎojiě tāmen měi yī fāngmiàn gè zhàn shénme tèdìng de dìwèi, gè yòng shénme jùtǐ xíngshì hé duìfāng fāshēng hùxiāng yīcún yòu hùxiāng máodùn de guānxì, zài hùxiāng yīcún yòu hùxiāng máodùn zhōng, yǐjí yīcún pòliè hòu, yòu gè yòng shénme fāngfǎ hé duìfāng zuò dòuzhēng.


It is of great importance to study these problems.

研究这些问题,是十分重要的事情。

Yánjiū zhèxiē wèntí, shì shífèn zhòngyào de shìqíng. 


Lenin meant just this when he said that the most essential thing in Marxism, the living soul of Marxism, is the concrete analysis of concrete conditions.

列宁说:马克思主义的最本质的东西,马克思主义的活的灵魂,就在于具体地分析具体的情况。就是说的这个意思。

Lièníng shuō: Marxzhǔyì de zuì běnzhì de dōngxi, Marxzhǔyì de huó de línghún, jiù zàiyú jùtǐ de fēnxī jùtǐ de qíngkuàng. Jiù shì shuō de zhè ge yìsī.


Our dogmatists have violated Lenin's teachings; they never use their brains to analyse anything concretely, and in their writings and speeches they always use stereotypes devoid of content, thereby creating a very bad style of work in our Party.

我们的教条主义者违背列宁的指示,从来不用脑筋具体地分析任何事物,做起文章或演说来,总是空洞无物的八股调,在我们党内造成了一种极坏的作风。

Wǒmen de jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě wéibèi Lenin de zhǐshì, cónglái bù yòng nǎojīn jùtǐ de fēnxī rènhé shìwù, zuò qǐ wénzhāng huò yǎnshuō lái, zǒngshì kōngdòng-wúwù de bāgǔ-diào, zài wǒmen Dǎng nèi zàochéng le yī zhǒng jí huài de zuòfēng.


To avoid subjectivity, one-sidedness and superficialityEdit


§3.10Edit


In studying a problem, we must avoid subjectivity, one-sidedness and superficiality.

研究问题,忌带主观性、片面性和表面性。

Yánjiū wèntí, bìmiǎn dài zhǔguānxìng, piànmiànxìng hé biǎomiànxìng.


To be subjective means not to look at problems objectively, that is, not to use the materialist viewpoint in looking at problems.

所谓主观性,就是不知道客观地看问题,也就是不知道用唯物的观点去看问题。

Suǒwèi zhǔguānxìng, jiù shì bù zhīdào kèguān de kàn wèntí, yě jiùshì bù zhīdào yòng wéiwù de guāndiǎn qù kàn wèntí.


I have discussed this in my essay "On Practice".

这一点,我在《实践论》一文中已经说过了。

Zhè yī diǎn, wǒ zài “Shíjiàn Lùn” de wénzhāng zhōng yǐjīng shuōguo le.


To be one-sided means not to look at problems all-sidedly, for example, to understand only China but not Japan, only the Communist Party but not the Guomindang, only the proletariat but not the bourgeoisie, only the peasants but not the landlords, only the favourable conditions but not the difficult ones, only the past but not the future, only individual parts but not the whole, only the defects but not the achievements, only the plaintiff's case but not the defendant's, only underground revolutionary work but not open revolutionary work, and so on.

所谓片面性,就是不知道全面地看问题。例如:只了解中国一方、不了解日本一方,只了解共产党一方、不了解国民党一方,只了解无产阶级一方、不了解资产阶级一方,只了解农民一方、不了解地主一方,只了解顺利情形一方、不了解困难情形一方,只了解过去一方、不了解将来一方,只了解个体一方、不了解总体一方,只了解缺点一方、不了解成绩一方,只了解原告一方、不了解被告一方,只了解革命的秘密工作一方、不了解革命的公开工作一方,如此等等。

Suǒwèi piànmiànxìng, jiù shì bù zhīdào quánmiàn de kàn wèntí. Lìrú: Zhǐ liǎojiě Zhōngguó yīfāng, bù liǎojiě Rìběn yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě Gòngchǎndǎng yīfāng, bù liǎojiě Guómíndǎng yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě wúchǎnjiējí yīfāng, bù liǎojiě zīchǎnjiējí yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě nóngmín yīfāng, bù liǎojiě dìzhǔ yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě shùnlì qíngxíng yīfāng, bù liǎojiě kùnnán qíngxíng yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě guòqù yīfāng, bù liǎojiě jiānglái yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě gètǐ yīfāng, bù liǎojiě zǒngtǐ yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě quēdiǎn yīfāng, bù liǎojiě chéngjī yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě yuángào yīfāng, bù liǎojiě bèigào yīfāng, zhǐ liǎojiě gémìng de mìmì gōngzuò yīfāng, bù liǎojiě gémìng de gōngkāi gōngzuò yīfāng, rúcǐ děngděng.


In a word, it means not to understand the characteristics of both aspects of a contradiction.

一句话,不了解矛盾各方的特点。

Yījùhuà, bù liǎojiě máodùn gèfāng de tèdiǎn.


This is what we mean by looking at a problem one-sidedly.

这就叫做片面地看问题。

Zhè jiù jiàozuò piànmiàn de kàn wèntí.


Or it may be called seeing the part but not the whole, seeing the trees but not the forest.

或者叫做只看见局部,不看见全体,只看见树木,不看见森林。

Huòzhě jiàozuò zhǐ kànjiàn júbù, bù kànjiàn quántǐ, zhǐ kànjiàn shùmù, bù kànjiàn sēnlín.


That way it is impossible to kind the method for resolving a contradiction, it is impossible to accomplish the tasks of the revolution, to carry out assignments well or to develop inner-Party ideological struggle correctly.

这样,是不能找出解决矛盾的方法的,是不能完成革命任务的,是不能做好所任工作的,是不能正确地发展党内的思想斗争的。

Zhèyàng, shì bù néng zhǎo chū jiějué máodùn de fāngfǎ de, shì bù néng wánchéng gémìng rènwù de, shì bù néng zuò hǎo suǒ rèn gōngzuò de, shì bù néng zhèngquè de fāzhǎn Dǎng nèi de sīxiǎng dòuzhēng de.


When Sunzi said in discussing military science, "Know the enemy and know yourself, and you can fight a hundred battles with no danger of defeat", he was referring to the two sides in a battle.

孙子论军事说:“知彼知己,百战不殆。” 他说的是作战的双方。

Sūnzǐ lùn jūnshì shuō: “Zhībǐzhījǐ, bǎizhànbùdài.” Tā shuō de shì zuòzhàn de shuāngfāng.


Wei Zheng of the Tang Dynasty also understood the error of one-sidedness when he said, "Listen to both sides and you will be enlightened, heed only one side and you will be benighted."

唐朝人魏徵说过:“兼听则明,偏信则暗。” 也懂得片面性不对。

Tángcháo rén Wèi Zhēng shuōguo: “Jiān-tīng-zé-míng, piān-xìn-zé-àn.” Yě dǒngdé piànmiànxìng bù duì.


But our comrades often look at problems one-sidedly, and so they often run into snags.

可是我们的同志看问题,往往带片面性,这样的人就往往碰钉子。

Kěshì wǒmen de tóngzhì kàn wèntí, wǎngwǎng dài piànmiànxìng, zhèyàng de rén jiù wǎngwǎng pèngdīngzi.


In the novel Shuihu Zhuan, Song Jiang thrice attacked Zhu Village. Twice he was defeated because he was ignorant of the local conditions and used the wrong method.

《水浒传》上宋江三打祝家庄,两次都因情况不明,方法不对,打了败仗。

“Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn” shang Sòng Jiāng 3 cì dǎ Zhùjiāzhuāng, 2 cì dōu yīnwèi qíngkuàng bùmíng, fāngfǎ bù duì, dǎ le bàizhàng.


Later he changed his method; first he investigated the situation, and he familiarized himself with the maze of roads, then he broke up the alliance between the Li, Hu and Zhu Villages and sent his men in disguise into the enemy camp to lie in wait, using a stratagem similar to that of the Trojan Horse in the foreign story. And on the third occasion he won.

后来改变方法,从调查情形入手,于是熟悉了盘陀路,拆散了李家庄、扈家庄和祝家庄的联盟,并且布置了藏在敌人营盘里的伏兵,用了和外国故事中所说木马计相像的方法,第三次就打了胜仗。

Hòulái gǎibiàn fāngfǎ, cóng diàochá qíngxíng rùshǒu, yúshì shúxī le pántuólù, chāisàn le Lǐjiāzhuāng, Hùjiāzhuāng hé Zhùjiāzhuāng de liánméng, bìngqiě bùzhì le cáng zài dírén yíngpán li de fúbīng, yòng le hé wàiguó gùshì zhōng suǒ shuō Mùmǎ Jì xiāngxiàng de fāngfǎ, dì-3 cì jiù dǎ le shèngzhàng.


There are many examples of materialist dialectics in Shuihu Zhuan, of which the episode of the three attacks on Zhu Village is one of the best.

《水浒传》上有很多唯物辩证法的事例,这个三打祝家庄,算是最好的一个。

“Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn” shang yǒu hěnduō wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ de shìlì, zhè ge 3 cì dǎ Zhùjiāzhuāng, suànshì zuì hǎo de yī ge.


Lenin said:

... in order really to know an object we must embrace, study, all its sides, all connections and "mediations". We shall never achieve this completely, but the demand for all-sidedness is a safeguard against mistakes and rigidity.

列宁说: “要真正地认识对象,就必须把握和研究它的一切方面、一切联系和 ’媒介’。我们决不会完全地作到这一点,可是要求全面性,将使我们防止错误,防止僵化。”

Lenin shuō: “Yào zhēnzhèng de rènshí duìxiàng, jiù bìxū bǎwò hé yánjiū tā de yīqiè fāngmiàn, yīqiè liánxì hé ’méijiè’. Wǒmen juébù huì wánquán de zuòdào zhè yī diǎn, kěshì yāoqiú quánmiànxìng, jiāng shǐ wǒmen fángzhǐ cuòwù, fángzhǐ jiānghuà.”


We should remember his words. To be superficial means to consider neither the characteristics of a contradiction in its totality nor the characteristics of each of its aspects; it means to deny the necessity for probing deeply into a thing and minutely studying the characteristics of its contradiction, but instead merely to look from afar and, after glimpsing the rough outline, immediately to try to resolve the contradiction (to answer a question, settle a dispute, handle work, or direct a military operation).

我们应该记得他的话。 表面性,是对矛盾总体和矛盾各方的特点都不去看,否认深入事物里面精细地研究矛盾特点的必要,仅仅站在那里远远地望一望,粗枝大叶地看到一点矛盾的形相,就想动手去解决矛盾(答复问题、解决纠纷、处理工作、指挥战争)。

Wǒmen yīnggāi jìdé tā de huà. Biǎomiànxìng, shì duì máodùn zǒngtǐ hé máodùn gèfāng de tèdiǎn dōu bù qù kàn, fǒurèn shēnrù shìwù lǐmiàn jīngxì de yánjiū máodùn tèdiǎn de bìyào, jǐnjǐn zhàn zài nàli yuǎnyuǎn de wàng yī wàng, cūzhīdàyè de kàn dào yīdiǎn máodùn de xíngxiàng, jiù xiǎng dòngshǒu qù jiějué máodùn (dáfù wèntí, jiějué jiūfēn, chǔlǐ gōngzuò, zhǐhuī zhànzhēng).


This way of doing things is bound to lead to trouble. The reason the dogmatist and empiricist comrades in China have made mistakes lies precisely in their subjectivist, one-sided and superficial way of looking at things.

这样的做法,没有不出乱子的。中国的教条主义和经验主义的同志们所以犯错误,就是因为他们看事物的方法是主观的、片面的和表面的。

Zhèyàng de zuòfǎ, méiyǒu bù chūluànzi de. Zhōngguó de jiàotiáozhǔyì hé jīngyànzhǔyì de tóngzhìmen suǒyǐ fàn cuòwù, jiùshì yīnwèi tāmen kàn shìwù de fāngfǎ shì zhǔguān de, piànmiàn de hé biǎomiàn de.


To be one-sided and superficial is at the same time to be subjective. For all objective things are actually interconnected and are governed by inner laws, but instead of undertaking the task of reflecting things as they really are some people only look at things one-sidedly or superficially and who know neither their interconnections nor their inner laws, and so their method is subjectivist.

片面性、表面性也是主观性,因为一切客观事物本来是互相联系的和具有内部规律的,人们不去如实地反映这些情况,而只是片面地或表面地去看它们,不认识事物的互相联系,不认识事物的内部规律,所以这种方法是主观主义的。

Piànmiànxìng, biǎomiànxìng yěshì zhǔguānxìng, yīnwéi yīqiè kèguān shìwù běnlái shì hùxiāng liánxì de hé jùyǒu nèibù guīlǜ de, rénmen bù qù rúshí de fǎnyìng zhèxiē qíngkuàng, ér zhǐ shì piànmiàn de huò biǎomiàn de qù kàn tāmen, bù rènshí shìwù de hùxiāng liánxì, bù rènshí shìwù de nèibù guīlǜ, suǒyǐ zhè zhǒng fāngfǎ shì zhǔguānzhǔyì de.


§3.11Edit

Not only does the whole process of the movement of opposites in the development of a thing, both in their interconnections and in each of the aspects, have particular features to which we must give attention, but each stage in the process has its particular features to which we must give attention too.

不但事物发展的全过程中的矛盾运动,在其相互联结上,在其各方情况上,我们必须注意其特点,而且在过程发展的各个阶段中,也有其特点,也必须注意。

Bùdàn shìwù fāzhǎn de quán guòchéng zhōng de máodùn yùndòng, zài qí xiānghù liánjié shang, zài qí gèfāng qíngkuàng shang, wǒmen bìxū zhùyì qí tèdiǎn, érqiě zài guòchéng fāzhǎn de gè ge jiēduàn zhōng, yě yǒu qí tèdiǎn, yě bìxū zhùyì.


The stages of contradictionEdit


§3.12Edit


The fundamental contradiction in the process of development of a thing and the essence of the process determined by this fundamental contradiction will not disappear until the process is completed; but in a lengthy process the conditions usually differ at each stage.

事物发展过程的根本矛盾及为此根本矛盾所规定的过程的本质,非到过程完结之日,是不会消灭的;但是事物发展的长过程中的各个发展的阶段,情形又往往互相区别。

Shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de gēnběn máodùn jí wèicǐ gēnběn máodùn suǒ guīdìng de guòchéng de běnzhì, fēi dào guòchéng wánjié zhī rì, shì bù huì xiāomiè de; dànshì shìwù fāzhǎn de cháng guòchéng zhōng de gè ge fāzhǎn de jiēduàn, qíngxíng yòu wǎngwǎng hùxiāng qūbié.


The reason is that, although the nature of the fundamental contradiction in the process of development of a thing and the essence of the process remain unchanged, the fundamental contradiction becomes more and more intensified as it passes from one stage to another in the lengthy process.

这是因为事物发展过程的根本矛盾的性质和过程的本质虽然没有变化,但是根本矛盾在长过程中的各个发展阶段上采取了逐渐激化的形式。

Zhè shì yīnwèi shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de gēnběn máodùn de xìngzhì hé guòchéng de běnzhì suīrán méiyǒu biànhuà, dànshì gēnběn máodùn zài cháng guòchéng zhōng de gè ge fāzhǎn jiēduàn shang cǎiqǔ le zhújiàn jīhuà de xíngshì.


In addition, among the numerous major and minor contradictions which are determined or influenced by the fundamental contradiction, some become intensified, some are temporarily or partially resolved or mitigated, and some new ones emerge; hence the process is marked by stages.

并且,被根本矛盾所规定或影响的许多大小矛盾中,有些是激化了,有些是暂时地或局部地解决了,或者缓和了,又有些是发生了,因此,过程就显出阶段性来。

Bìngqiě, bèi gēnběn máodùn suǒ guīdìng huò yǐngxiǎng de xǔduō dà-xiǎo máodùn zhōng, yǒuxiē shì jīhuà le, yǒuxiē shì zhànshí de huò júbù de jiějué le, huòzhě huǎnhé le, yòu yǒuxiē shì fāshēng le, yīncǐ, guòchéng jiù xiǎnchū jiēduànxìng lái.


If people do not pay attention to the stages in the process of development of a thing, they cannot deal with its contradictions properly.

如果人们不去注意事物发展过程中的阶段性,人们就不能适当地处理事物的矛盾。

Rúguǒ rénmen bù qù zhùyì shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng zhōng de jiēduànxìng, rénmen jiù bù néng shìdàng de chǔlǐ shìwù de máodùn.


§3.13Edit


For instance, when the capitalism of the era of free competition developed into imperialism, there was no change in the class nature of the two classes in fundamental contradiction, namely, the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, or in the capitalist essence of society; however, the contradiction between these two classes became intensified, the contradiction between monopoly and non-monopoly capital emerged, the contradiction between the colonial powers and the colonies became intensified, the contradiction among the capitalist countries resulting from their uneven development manifested itself with particular sharpness, and thus there arose the special stage of capitalism, the stage of imperialism.

例如,自由竞争时代的资本主义发展为帝国主义,这时,无产阶级和资产阶级这两个根本矛盾着的阶级的性质和这个社会的资本主义的本质,并没有变化;但是,两阶级的矛盾激化了,独占资本和自由资本之间的矛盾发生了,宗主国和殖民地的矛盾激化了,各资本主义国家间的矛盾即由各国发展不平衡的状态而引起的矛盾特别尖锐地表现出来了,因此形成了资本主义的特殊阶段,形成了帝国主义阶段。

Lìrú, zìyóu jìngzhēng shídài de zīběnzhǔyì fāzhǎn wéi dìguózhǔyì, zhè shí, wúchǎnjiējí hé zīchǎnjiējí zhè liǎng ge gēnběn máodùnzhe de jiējí de xìngzhì hé zhè ge shèhuì de zīběnzhǔyì de běnzhì, bìng méiyǒu biànhuà; dànshì, liǎng jiējí de máodùn jīhuà le, dúzhàn zīběn hé zìyóu zīběn zhījiān de máodùn fāshēng le, zōngzhǔguó hé zhímíndì de máodùn jīhuà le, gè zīběnzhǔyì guójiā jiān de máodùn jí yóu gè guó fāzhǎn bù pínghéng de zhuàngtài ér yǐnqǐ de máodùn tèbié jiānruì de biǎoxiàn chūlái le, Yīncǐ xíngchéng le zīběnzhǔyì de tèshū jiēduàn, xíngchéng le dìguózhǔyì jiēduàn.


Leninism is the Marxism of the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution precisely because Lenin and Stalin have correctly explained these contradictions and correctly formulated the theory and tactics of the proletarian revolution for their resolution.

列宁主义之所以成为帝国主义和无产阶级革命时代的马克思主义,就是因为列宁和斯大林正确地说明了这些矛盾,并正确地作出了解决这些矛盾的无产阶级革命的理论和策略。

Leninzhǔyì zhīsuǒyǐ chéngwéi dìguózhǔyì hé wúchǎnjiējí gémìng shídài de Marxzhǔyì, jiùshì yīnwèi Lenin hé Stalin zhèngquè de shuōmíng le zhèxiē máodùn, bìng zhèngquè de zuò chū le jiějué zhèxiē máodùn de wúchǎnjiējí gémìng de lǐlùn hé cèlüè.


§3.14Edit


Take the process of China's bourgeois-democratic revolution, which began with the Revolution of 1911; it, too, has several distinct stages.

拿从辛亥革命开始的中国资产阶级民主革命过程的情形来看,也有了若干特殊阶段。

Ná cóng Xīnhài Gémìng kāishǐ de Zhōngguó zīchǎnjiējí mínzhǔ gémìng guòchéng de qíngxíng lái kàn, yě yǒu le ruògān tèshū jiēduàn.


In particular, the revolution in its period of bourgeois leadership and the revolution in its period of proletarian leadership represent two vastly different historical stages.

特别是在资产阶级领导时期的革命和在无产阶级领导时期的革命,区别为两个很大不同的历史阶段。

Tèbié shì zài zīchǎnjiējí lǐngdǎo shíqī de gémìng hé zài wúchǎnjiējí lǐngdǎo shíqī de gémìng, qūbié wéi liǎng gè hěn dà bù tóng de lìshǐ jiēduàn.


In other words, proletarian leadership has fundamentally changed the whole face of the revolution, has brought about a new alignment of classes, given rise to a tremendous upsurge in the peasant revolution, imparted thoroughness to the revolution against imperialism and feudalism, created the possibility of the transition from the democratic revolution to the socialist revolution, and so on.

这就是:由于无产阶级的领导,根本地改变了革命的面貌,引出了阶级关系的新调度,农民革命的大发动,反帝国主义和反封建主义的革命彻底性,由民主革命转变到社会主义革命的可能性,等等。

Zhè jiù shì: Yóuyú wúchǎnjiējí de lǐngdǎo, gēnběn de gǎibiàn le gémìng de miànmào, yǐnchū le jiējí guānxì de xīn diàodù, nóngmín gémìng de dà fādòng, fǎn dìguózhǔyì hé fǎn fēngjiànzhǔyì de gémìng chèdǐxìng, yóu mínzhǔ gémìng zhuǎnbiàn dào shèhuìzhǔyì gémìng de kěnéngxìng, děngděng.


None of these was possible in the period when the revolution was under bourgeois leadership.

所有这些,都是在资产阶级领导革命时期不可能出现的。

Suǒyǒu zhèxiē, dōu shì zài zīchǎnjiējí lǐngdǎo gémìng shíqī bù kěnéng chūxiàn de.


Although no change has taken place in the nature of the fundamental contradiction in the process as a whole, i.e., in the anti-imperialist, anti- feudal, democratic-revolutionary nature of the process (the opposite of which is its semi-colonial and semi-feudal nature), nonetheless this process has passed through several stages of development in the course of more than twenty years; during this time many great events have taken place-- the failure of the Revolution of 1911 and the establishment of the regime of the Northern warlords, the formation of the first national united front and the revolution of 1924-27, the break-up of the united front and the desertion of the bourgeoisie to the side of the counterrevolution, the wars among the new warlords, the Agrarian Revolutionary War, the establishment of the second national united front and the War of Resistance Against Japan.

虽然整个过程中根本矛盾的性质,过程之反帝反封建的民主革命的性质(其反面是半殖民地半封建的性质),并没有变化,但是,在这长时间中,经过了辛亥革命失败和北洋军阀统治,第一次民族统一战线的建立和一九二四年至一九二七年的革命,统一战线破裂和资产阶级转入反革命,新的军阀战争,土地革命战争,第二次民族统一战线建立和抗日战争等等大事变,二十多年间经过了几个发展阶段。

Suīrán zhěnggè guòchéng zhōng gēnběn máodùn de xìngzhì, guòchéng zhī fǎn-dì fǎn fēngjiàn de mínzhǔ gémìng de xìngzhì (qí fǎnmiàn shì bàn zhímíndì bàn fēngjiàn de xìngzhì), bìng méiyǒu biànhuà, dànshì, zài zhè cháng shíjiān zhōng, jīngguò le xīnhài gémìng shībài hé Běiyáng Jūnfá tǒngzhì, dì-1 cì mínzú tǒngyī zhànxiàn de jiànlì hé 1924 nián zhì 1927 nián de gémìng, tǒngyī zhànxiàn pòliè hé zīchǎnjiējí zhuǎnrù fǎn gémìng, xīn de jūnfá zhànzhēng, tǔdì gémìng zhànzhēng, dì-2 cì mínzú tǒngyī zhànxiàn jiànlì hé Kàng-Rì Zhànzhēng děngděng dà shìbiàn, 20 duō nián jiān jīngguò le jǐ gè fāzhǎn jiēduàn.


These stages are marked by particular features such as the intensification of certain contradictions (e.g., the Agrarian Revolutionary War and the Japanese invasion of the four northeastern provinces), the partial or temporary resolution of other contradictions (e.g., the destruction of the Northern warlords and our confiscation of the land of the landlords), and the emergence of yet other contradictions (e.g., the conflicts among the new warlords, and the landlords' recapture of the land after the loss of our revolutionary base areas in the south).

在这些阶段中,包含着有些矛盾激化了(例如土地革命战争和日本侵入东北四省),有些矛盾部分地或暂时地解决了(例如北洋军阀的被消灭,我们没收了地主的土地),有些矛盾重新发生了(例如新军阀之间的斗争,南方各革命根据地丧失后地主又重新收回土地)等等特殊的情形。

Zài zhèxiē jiēduàn zhōng, bāohánzhe yǒuxiē máodùn jīhuà le (lìrú Tǔdì Gémìng Zhànzhēng hé Rìběn qīnrù Dōngběi 4 shěng), yǒuxiē máodùn bùfèn de huò zhànshí de jiějué le (lìrú Běiyáng Jūnfá de bèi xiāomiè, wǒmen mòshōu le dìzhǔ de tǔdì), yǒuxiē máodùn chóngxīn fāshēng le (lìrú xīn jūnfá zhījiān de dòuzhēng, Nánfāng gè gémìng gēnjùdì sàngshī hòu dìzhǔ yòu chóngxīn shōuhuí tǔdì) děngděng tèshū de qíngxíng.


§3.15Edit


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Pinyin/On Contradiction