Pinyin/On Contradiction/Chapter 2

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II. THE UNIVERSALITY OF CONTRADICTIONEdit

二、矛盾的普遍性

2. Máodùn de Pǔbiànxìng


§2.1Edit


For convenience of exposition, I shall deal first with the universality of contradiction and then proceed to the particularity of contradiction.

为了叙述的便利起见,我在这里先说矛盾的普遍性,再说矛盾的特殊性。

Wèile xùshù de biànlì qǐjiàn, wǒ zài zhèlǐ xiān shuō máodùn de pǔbiànxìng, zài shuō máodùn de tèshūxìng.


The reason is that the universality of contradiction can be explained more briefly, for it has been widely recognized ever since the materialist-dialectical world outlook was discovered and materialist dialectics applied with outstanding success to analysing many aspects of human history and natural history and to changing many aspects of society and nature (as in the Soviet Union) by the great creators and continuers of Marxism--Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin; whereas the particularity of contradiction is still not dearly understood by many comrades, and especially by the dogmatists.

这是因为马克思主义的伟大的创造者和继承者马克思、恩格斯、列宁、斯大林他们发现了唯物辩证法的宇宙观,已经把唯物辩证法应用在人类历史的分析和自然历史的分析的许多方面,应用在社会的变革和自然的变革(例如在苏联)的许多方面,获得了极其伟大的成功,矛盾的普遍性已经被很多人所承认,因此,关于这个问题只需要很少的话就可以说明白;而关于矛盾的特殊性的问题,则还有很多的同志,特别是教条主义者,弄不清楚。

Zhè shì yīnwéi Marxzhǔyì de wěidà de chuàngzàozhě hé jìchéngzhě Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin tāmen fāxiànle wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ de Yǔzhòuguān, yǐjīng bǎ wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ yìngyòng zài rénlèi lìshǐ de fēnxī hé zìrán lìshǐ de fēnxī de xǔduō fāngmiàn, yìngyòng zài shèhuì de biàngé hé zìrán de biàngé (lìrú zài Sūlián) de xǔduō fāngmiàn, huòdéle jíqí wěidà de chénggōng, máodùn de pǔbiànxìng yǐjīng bèi hěnduō rén suǒ chéngrèn, yīncǐ, guānyú zhège wèntí zhǐ xūyào hěn shǎo de huà jiù kěyǐ shuō míngbái; ér guānyú máodùn de tèshūxìng de wèntí, zé hái yǒu hěnduō de tóngzhì, tèbié shì jiàotiáozhǔyìzhě, nòng bù qīngchǔ.


They do not understand that it is precisely in the particularity of contradiction that the universality of contradiction resides.

他们不了解矛盾的普遍性寓于矛盾的特殊性之中。

Tāmen bù liǎojiě máodùn de pǔbiànxìng yùyú máodùn de tèshūxìng zhīzhōng.


Nor do they understand how important is the study of the particularity of contradiction in the concrete things confronting us for guiding the course of revolutionary practice.

他们也不了解研究当前具体事物的矛盾的特殊性,对于我们指导革命实践的发展有何等重要的意义。

Tāmen yě bù liǎojiě yánjiū dāngqián jùtǐ shìwù de máodùn de tèshūxìng, duìyú wǒmen zhǐdǎo gémìng shíjiàn de fǎzhǎn yǒu héděng zhòngyào de yìyì.


Therefore, it is necessary to stress the study of the particularity of contradiction and to explain it at adequate length.

因此,关于矛盾的特殊性的问题应当着重地加以研究,并用足够的篇幅加以说明。

Yīncǐ, guānyú máodùn de tèshūxìng de wèntí yīngdāng zhuózhòng de jiāyǐ yánjiū, bìngyòng zúgòu de piānfú jiāyǐ shuōmíng.


For this reason, in our analysis of the law of contradiction in things, we shall first analyse the universality of contradiction, then place special stress on analysing the particularity of contradiction, and finally return to the universality of contradiction.

为了这个缘故,当着我们分析事物矛盾的法则的时候,我们就先来分析矛盾的普遍性的问题,然后再着重地分析矛盾的特殊性的问题,最后仍归到矛盾的普遍性的问题。

Wèile zhège yuángù, dāngzhe wǒmen fēnxī shìwù máodùn de fǎzé de shíhòu, wǒmen jiù xiān lái fēnxī máodùn de pǔbiànxìng de wèntí, ránhòu zài zhuózhòng de fēnxī máodùn de tèshūxìng de wèntí, zuìhòu réng huídào máodùn de pǔbiànxìng de wèntí.


§2.2Edit


The universality or absoluteness of contradiction has a twofold meaning.

矛盾的普遍性或绝对性这个问题有两方面的意义。

Máodùn de pǔbiànxìng huò juéduìxìng zhège wèntí yǒu liǎng fāngmiàn de yìyì.


One is that contradiction exists in the process of development of all things, and the other is that in the process of development of each thing a movement of opposites exists from beginning to end.

其一是说,矛盾存在于一切事物的发展过程中;其二是说,每一事物的发展过程中存在着自始至终的矛盾运动。

Qíyī shì shuō, máodùn cúnzài yú yīqiè shìwù de fǎzhǎn guòchéng zhōng; qí'èr shì shuō, měiyī shìwù de fǎzhǎn guòchéng zhōng cúnzàizhe zìshǐzhìzhōng de máodùn yùndòng.


§2.3Edit


Engels said, "Motion itself is a contradiction."

恩格斯说:“运动本身就是矛盾。”

Engels shuō: “Yùndòng běnshēn jiùshì máodùn.”


Lenin defined the law of the unity of opposites as "the recognition (discovery) of the contradictory, mutually exclusive, opposite tendencies in all phenomena and processes of nature (including mind and society)".

列宁对于对立统一法则所下的定义,说它就是“承认(发现)自然界(精神和社会两者也在内)的一切现象和过程都含有互相矛盾、互相排斥、互相对立的趋向”。

Lenin duìyú duìlì tǒngyī fǎzé suǒ xià de dìngyì, shuō tā jiùshì “chéngrèn (fāxiàn) zìránjiè (jīngshén hé shèhuì liǎngzhě yě zài nèi) de yīqiè xiànxiàng hé guòchéng dōu hányǒu hùxiāng máodùn, hùxiàng páichì, hùxiāng duìlì de qūxiàng”


Are these ideas correct? Yes, they are.

这些意见是对的吗?是对的。

Zhèxiē yìjiàn shì duì de ma? Shì duì de.


The interdependence of the contradictory aspects present in all things and the struggle between these aspects determine the life of all things and push their development forward.

一切事物中包含的矛盾方面的相互依赖和相互斗争,决定一切事物的生命,推动一切事物的发展。

Yīqiè shìwù zhòng bāohán de máodùn fāngmiàn de xiānghù yīlài hé xiānghù dòuzhēng, juédìng yīqiè shìwù de shēngmìng, tuīdòng yīqiè shìwù de fāzhǎn.


There is nothing that does not contain contradiction; without contradiction nothing would exist.

没有什么事物是不包含矛盾的,没有矛盾就没有世界。

Méiyǒu shénme shìwù shì bù bāohán máodùn de, méiyǒu máodùn jiù méiyǒu shìjiè.


§2.4Edit


Contradiction is the basis of the simple forms of motion (for instance, mechanical motion) and still more so of the complex forms of motion.

矛盾是简单的运动形式(例如机械性的运动)的基础,更是复杂的运动形式的基础。

Máodùn shì jiǎndān de yùndòng xíngshì (lìrú jīxièxìng de yùndòng) de jīchǔ, gèng shì fùzá de yùndòng xíngshì de jīchǔ.


§2.5Edit


Engels explained the universality of contradiction as follows:

If simple mechanical change of place contains a contradiction, this is even more true of the higher forms of motion of matter, and especially of organic life and its development. ...

恩格斯这样说明过矛盾的普遍性:“如果简单的机械的移动本身包含着矛盾,那末,物质的更高的运动形式,特别是有机生命及其发展,就更加包含着矛盾。……

Engels zhèyàng shuōmíngguò máodùn de pǔbiànxìng: “Rúguǒ jiǎndān de jīxiè de yídòng běnshēn bāohánzhe máodùn, nàme, wùzhí de gèng gāo de yùndòng xíngshì, tèbié shì yǒujī shēngmìng hé tā de fāzhǎn, jiù gèngjiā bāohánzhe máodùn.……


life consists precisely and primarily in this--that a being is at each moment itself and yet something else.

生命首先就在于:生物在每一个瞬间是它自身,但却又是别的什么。

Shēngmìng shǒuxiān jiù zàiyú: Shēngwù zài měi yīgè shùnjiān shì tā zìshēn, dàn què yòu shì bié de shénme.


Life is therefore also a contradiction which is present in things and processes themselves, and which constantly originates and resolves itself; and as soon as the contradiction ceases, life, too, comes to an end, and death steps in.

所以,生命也是存在于物体和过程本身中的不断地自行产生并自行解决的矛盾;这一矛盾一停止,生命亦即停止,于是死就来到。

Suǒyǐ, shēngmìng yěshì cúnzài yú wùtǐ hé guòchéng běnshēn zhōng de bùduàn de zìxíng chǎnshēng bìng zìxíng jiějué de máodùn; zhè yī máodùn yī tíngzhǐ, shēngmìng yě tíngzhǐ, yúshì sǐ jiù láidào.


We likewise saw that also in the sphere of thought we could not escape contradictions, and that for example the contradiction between man's inherently unlimited capacity for knowledge and its actual presence only in men who are externally limited and possess limited cognition finds its solution in what is--at least practically, for us--an endless succession of generations, in infinite progress.

同样,我们看到了,在思维的范围以内我们也不能避免矛盾,并且我们看到了,例如,人的内部无限的认识能力与此种认识能力仅在外部被局限的而且认识上也被局限的个别人们身上的实际的实现二者之间的矛盾,是在人类世代的无穷的――至少对于我们,实际上是无穷的――连续系列之中,是在无穷的前进运动之中解决的。”

Tóngyàng, wǒmen kàndàole, zài sīwéi de fànwéi yǐnèi wǒmen yě bùnéng bìmiǎn máodùn, bìngqiě wǒmen kàndàole, lìrú, rén de nèibù wúxiàn de rènshí nénglì yǔ zhè zhǒng rènshí nénglì jǐn zài wàibù bèi júxiàn de érqiě rènshí shàng yě bèi júxiàn de gèbié rénmen shēnshang de shíjì de shíxiàn èrzhě zhījiān de máodùn, shì zài rénlèi shìdài de wúqióng de――zhìshǎo duìyú wǒmen, shíjì shang shì wúqióng de――liánxù xìliè zhīzhōng, shì zài wúqióng de qiánjìn yùndòng zhīzhōng jiějué de.”


... one of the basic principles of higher mathematics is the contradiction that in certain circumstances straight lines and curves may be the same....

But even lower mathematics teems with contradictions.

“高等数学的主要基础之一,就是矛盾……”

“就是初等数学,也充满着矛盾。……”

“Gāoděng shùxué de zhǔyào jīchǔ zhīyī, jiùshì máodùn……”

“Jiùshì chūděng shùxué, yě chōngmǎnzhe máodùn.……”


§2.6Edit


Lenin illustrated the universality of contradiction as follows:

列宁也这样说明过矛盾的普遍性:

Lenin yě zhèyàng shuōmíngguo máodùn de pǔbiànxìng:


In mathematics: + and - . Differential and integral.

“在数学中,正和负,微分和积分。

“Zài shùxué zhōng: + hé - . Wēifēn hé jīfēn.


In mechanics: action and reaction.

在力学中,作用和反作用。

Zài lìxué zhōng: zuòyòng hé fǎnzuòyòng.


In physics: positive and negative electricity.

在物理学中,阳电和阴电。

Zài wùlǐxué zhōng: yángdiàn hé yīndiàn.


In chemistry: the combination and dissociation of atoms.

在化学中,原子的化合和分解。

Zài huàxué zhōng: yuánzǐ de huàhé hé fēnjiě.


In social science: the class struggle.

在社会科学中,阶级斗争。”

Zài shèhuì kēxué zhōng: jiējí dòuzhēng.”


§2.7Edit


In war, offence and defence, advance and retreat, victory and defeat are all mutually contradictory phenomena.

战争中的攻守,进退,胜败,都是矛盾着的现象。

Zhànzhēng zhōng de gōng-shǒu, jìn-tuì, shèng-bài, dōu shì máodùnzhe de xiànxiàng.


One cannot exist without the other.

失去一方,他方就不存在。

Shīqù yīfāng, lìngyī fāngmiàn jiù bù cúnzài.


The two aspects are at once in conflict and in interdependence, and this constitutes the totality of a war, pushes its development forward and solves its problems.

双方斗争而又联结,组成了战争的总体,推动了战争的发展,解决了战争的问题。

Shuāngfāng dòuzhēng ér yòu liánjié, zǔchéngle zhànzhēng de zǒngtǐ, tuīdòngle zhànzhēng de fāzhǎn, jiějuéle zhànzhēng de wèntí.


§2.8Edit


Every difference in men's concepts should be regarded as reflecting an objective contradiction.

人的概念的每一差异,都应把它看作是客观矛盾的反映。

Rén de gàiniàn de měiyī chāyì, dōu yīnggāi kànzuò kèguān máodùn de fǎnyìng.


Objective contradictions are reflected in subjective thinking, and this process constitutes the contradictory movement of concepts, pushes forward the development of thought, and ceaselessly solves problems in man's thinking.

客观矛盾反映入主观的思想,组成了概念的矛盾运动,推动了思想的发展,不断地解决了人们的思想问题。

Kèguān máodùn fǎnyìng rù zhǔguān de sīxiǎng, zǔchéngle gàiniàn de máodùn yùndòng, tuīdòngle sīxiǎng de fāzhǎn, bùduàn de jiějuéle rénmen de sīxiǎng wèntí.


§2.9Edit


Opposition and struggle between ideas of different kinds constantly occur within the Party; this is a reflection within the Party of contradictions between classes and between the new and the old in society.

党内不同思想的对立和斗争是经常发生的,这是社会的阶级矛盾和新旧事物的矛盾在党内的反映。

Dǎng nèi bùtóng sīxiǎng de duìlì hé dòuzhēng shì jīngcháng fāshēng de, zhè shì shèhuì de jiējí máodùn hé xīnjiù shìwù de máodùn zài Dǎng nèi de fǎnyìng.


If there were no contradictions in the Party and no ideological struggles to resolve them, the Party's life would come to an end.

党内如果没有矛盾和解决矛盾的思想斗争,党的生命也就停止了。

Dǎng nèi rúguǒ méiyǒu máodùn hé jiějué máodùn de sīxiǎng dòuzhēng, Dǎng de shēngmìng yě jiù tíngzhǐle.


§2.10Edit


Thus it is already clear that contradiction exists universally and in all processes, whether in the simple or in the complex forms of motion, whether in objective phenomena or ideological phenomena.

由此看来,不论是简单的运动形式,或复杂的运动形式,不论是客观现象,或思想现象,矛盾是普遍地存在着,矛盾存在于一切过程中,这一点已经弄清楚了。

Yóucǐ kànlái, bùlùn shì jiǎndān de yùndòng xíngshì, huò fùzá de yùndòng xíngshì, bùlùn shì kèguān xiànxiàng, huò sīxiǎng xiànxiàng, máodùn shì pǔbiàn de cúnzàizhe, máodùn cúnzài yú yīqiè guòchéng zhōng, zhè yīdiǎn yǐjīng nòng qīngchǔle.


But does contradiction also exist at the initial stage of each process?

但是每一过程的开始阶段,是否也有矛盾存在呢?

Dànshì měiyī guòchéng de kāishǐ jiēduàn, shìfǒu yě yǒu máodùn cúnzài ne?


Is there a movement of opposites from beginning to end in the process of development of every single thing?

是否每一事物的发展过程具有自始至终的矛盾运动呢?

Shìfǒu měiyī shìwù de fāzhǎn guòchéng jùyǒu zìshǐzhìzhōng de máodùn yùndòng ne?


§2.11Edit


As can be seen from the articles written by Soviet philosophers criticizing it, the Deborin school maintains that contradiction appears not at the inception of a process but only when it has developed to a certain stage.

从苏联哲学界批判德波林学派的文章中看出,德波林学派有这样一种见解,他们认为矛盾不是一开始就在过程中出现,须待过程发展到一定的阶段才出现。

Cóng Sūlián zhéxuéjiè pīpàn Deborin xuépài de wénzhāng zhòng kànchū, Deborin xuépài yǒu zhèyàng yī zhǒng jiànjiě, tāmen rènwéi máodùn bùshì yī kāishǐ jiù zài guòchéng zhòng chūxiàn, xū dài guòchéng fāzhǎn dào yīdìng de jiēduàn cái chūxiàn.


If this were the case, then the cause of the development of the process before that stage would be external and not internal.

那末,在那一时间以前,过程发展的原因不是由于内部的原因,而是由于外部的原因了。

Nàme, zài nà yī shíjiān yǐqián, guòchéng fāzhǎn de yuányīn bùshì yóuyú nèibù de yuányīn, ér shì yóuyú wàibù de yuányīn le.


Deborin thus reverts to the metaphysical theories of external causality and of mechanism.

这样,德波林回到形而上学的外因论和机械论去了。

Zhèyàng, Deborin huí dào xíng'érshàngxué de wàiyīnlùn hé jīxièlùn qù le.


Applying this view in the analysis of concrete problems, the Deborin school sees only differences but not contradictions between the kulaks and the peasants in general under existing conditions in the Soviet Union, thus entirely agreeing with Bukharin.

拿这种见解去分析具体的问题,他们就看见在苏联条件下富农和一般农民之间只有差异,并无矛盾,完全同意了布哈林的意见。

Ná zhè zhǒng jiànjiě qù fēnxī jùtǐ de wèntí, tāmen jiù kànjiàn zài Sūlián tiáojiàn xià fùnóng hé yībān nóngmín zhījiān zhǐyǒu chāyì, bìng wú máodùn, wánquán tóngyìle Bukharin de yìjiàn.


In analysing the French Revolution, it holds that before the Revolution there were likewise only differences but not contradictions within the Third Estate, which was composed of the workers, the peasants and the bourgeoisie.

在分析法国革命时,他们就认为在革命前,工农资产阶级合组的第三等级中,也只有差异,并无矛盾。

Zài fēnxī Fǎguó gémìng shí, tāmen jiù rènwéi zài gémìng qián, gōng-nóng zīchǎnjiējí hézǔ de dì-3 děngjí zhōng, yě zhǐyǒu chāyì, bìng wú máodùn.


These views of the Deborin school are anti-Marxist.

德波林学派这类见解是反马克思主义的。

Deborin xuépài zhè lèi jiànjiě shì fǎn-Marxzhǔyì de.


This school does not understand that each and every difference already contains contradiction and that difference itself is contradiction.

他们不知道世界上的每一差异中就已经包含着矛盾,差异就是矛盾。

Tāmen bù zhīdào shìjiè shang de měiyī chāyì zhōng jiù yǐjīng bāohánzhe máodùn, chāyì jiùshì máodùn.


Labour and capital have been in contradiction ever since the two classes came into being, only at first the contradiction had not yet become intense.

劳资之间,从两阶级发生的时候起,就是互相矛盾的,仅仅还没有激化而已。

Láo-zī zhījiān, cóng liǎng jiējí fāshēng de shíhòu qǐ, jiùshì hùxiāng máodùn de, jǐnjǐn hái méiyǒu jīhuà éryǐ.


Even under the social conditions existing in the Soviet Union, there is a difference between workers and peasants and this very difference is a contradiction, although, unlike the contradiction between labour and capital, it will not become intensified into antagonism or assume the form of class struggle; the workers and the peasants have established a firm alliance in the course of socialist construction and are gradually resolving this contradiction in the course of the advance from socialism to communism.

工农之间,即使在苏联的社会条件下,也有差异,它们的差异就是矛盾,仅仅不会激化成为对抗,不取阶级斗争的形态,不同于劳资间的矛盾;它们在社会主义建设中形成巩固的联盟,并在由社会主义走向共产主义的发展过程中逐渐地解决这个矛盾。

Gōngnóng zhījiān, jíshǐ zài Sūlián de shèhuì tiáojiàn xià, yě yǒu chāyì, tāmen de chāyì jiùshì máodùn, jǐnjǐn bù huì jīhuà chéngwéi duìkàng, bù qǔ jiējí dòuzhēng de xíngtài, bùtóng yú láo-zī jiān de máodùn; tāmen zài shèhuìzhǔyì jiànshè zhōng xíngchéng gǒnggù de liánméng, bìng zài yóu shèhuì zhǔyì zǒuxiàng gòngchǎnzhǔyì de fāzhǎn guòchéng zhōng zhújiàn de jiějué zhège máodùn.


The question is one of different kinds of contradiction, not of the presence or absence of contradiction.

这是矛盾的差别性的问题,不是矛盾的有无的问题。

Zhè shì máodùn de chābiéxìng de wèntí, bùshì máodùn de yǒu-wú de wèntí.


Contradiction is universal and absolute, it is present in the process of development of all things and permeates every process from beginning to end.

矛盾是普遍的、绝对的,存在于事物发展的一切过程中,又贯串于一切过程的始终。

Máodùn shì pǔbiàn de, juéduì de, cúnzài yú shìwù fāzhǎn de yīqiè guòchéng zhōng, yòu guànchuàn yú yīqiè guòchéng de shǐzhōng.


§2.12Edit


What is meant by the emergence of a new process?

新过程的发生是什么呢?

Xīn guòchéng de fāshēng shì shénme ne?


The old unity with its constituent opposites yields to a new unity with its constituent opposites, whereupon a new process emerges to replace the old.

这是旧的统一和组成此统一的对立成分让位于新的统一和组成此统一的对立成分,于是新过程就代替旧过程而发生。

Zhè shì jiù de tǒngyī hè zǔchéng cǐ tǒngyī de duìlì chéngfèn ràngwèi yú xīn de tǒngyī hé zǔchéng cǐ tǒngyī de duìlì chéngfèn, yúshì xīn guòchéng jiù dàitì jiù guòchéng ér fāshēng.


The old process ends and the new one begins.

旧过程完结了,新过程发生了。

Jiù guòchéng wánjiéle, xīn guòchéng fāshēngle.


The new process contains new contradictions and begins its own history of the development of contradictions.

新过程又包含着新矛盾,开始它自己的矛盾发展史。

Xīn guòchéng yòu bāohánzhe xīn máodùn, kāishǐ tā zìjǐ de máodùn fāzhǎnshǐ.


§2.13Edit

As Lenin pointed out, Marx in his Capital gave a model analysis of this movement of opposites which runs through the process of development of things from beginning to end.

事物发展过程的自始至终的矛盾运动,列宁指出马克思在《资本论》中模范地作了这样的分析。

Shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng de zìshǐzhìzhōng de máodùn yùndòng, Lenin zhǐchū Marx zài <<Zīběnlùn>> zhōng mófàn de zuòle zhèyàng de fēnxī.


This is the method that must be employed in studying the development of all things.

这是研究任何事物发展过程所必须应用的方法。

Zhè shì yánjiū rènhé shìwù fāzhǎn guòchéng suǒ bìxū yìngyòng de fāngfǎ.


Lenin, too, employed this method correctly and adhered to it in all his writings.

列宁自己也正确地应用了它,贯彻于他的全部著作中。

Lenin zìjǐ yě zhèngquè de yìngyòngle tā, guànchè yú tā de quánbù zhùzuò zhōng.


§2.14Edit


In his Capital, Marx first analyses the simplest, most ordinary and fundamental, most common and everyday relation of bourgeois (commodity) society, a relation encountered billions of times, viz. the exchange of commodities.

“马克思在《资本论》中,首先分析的是资产阶级社会(商品社会)里最简单的、最普通的、最基本的、最常见的、最平常的、碰到亿万次的关系――商品交换。

“Marx zài <<Zīběnlùn>> zhōng, shǒuxiān fēnxī de shì zīchǎnjiējí shèhuì (shāngpǐn shèhuì) lǐ zuì jiǎndān de, zuì pǔtōng de, zuì jīběn de, zuì chángjiàn de, zuì píngcháng de, pèngdào yìwàn cì de guānxì――shāngpǐn jiāohuàn.


In this very simple phenomenon (in this "cell" of bourgeois society) analysis reveals all the contradictions (or the germs of all the contradictions) of modern society.

这一分析在这个最简单的现象之中(资产阶级社会的这个’细胞’之中)暴露了现代社会的一切矛盾(以及一切矛盾的胚芽)。

Zhè yī fēnxī zài zhège zuì jiǎndān de xiànxiàng zhīzhōng (zīchǎnjiējí shèhuì de zhège 'xìbāo' zhīzhōng) bàolùle xiàndài shèhuì de yīqiè máodùn (yǐjí yīqiè máodùn de pēiyá).


The subsequent exposition shows us the development (both growth and movement) of these contradictions and of this society in the [summation] of its individual parts, from its beginning to its end.

往后的叙述又向我们表明了这些矛盾和这个社会各个部分总和的自始至终的发展(增长与运动两者)。”

Wǎnghòu de xùshù yòu xiàng wǒmen biǎomíngle zhèxiē máodùn hé zhège shèhuì gège bùfèn zǒnghé de zìshǐzhìzhōng de fāzhǎn (zēngzhǎng yǔ yùndòng liǎngzhě).”


§2.15Edit


Lenin added, "Such must also be the method of exposition (or study) of dialectics in general."

列宁说了上面的话之后,接着说道:“这应该是一般辩证法的……叙述(以及研究)方法。”

Lenin shuōle shàngmiàn de huà zhīhòu, jiēzhe shuō: “Zhè yīnggāi shì yībān biànzhèngfǎ de……xùshù (yǐjí yánjiū) fāngfǎ.”


§2.16Edit


Chinese Communists must learn this method; only then will they be able correctly to analyse the history and the present state of the Chinese revolution and infer its future.

中国共产党人必须学会这个方法,才能正确地分析中国革命的历史和现状,并推断革命的将来。

Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng rén bìxū xuéhuì zhège fāngfǎ, cái néng zhèngquè de fēnxī zhōngguó gémìng de lìshǐ hé xiànzhuàng, bìng tuīduàn gémìng de jiānglái.


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Pinyin/On Contradiction