Pinyin/On Contradiction/Chapter 1

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PrefaceEdit

§1.1Edit


The law of contradiction in things, that is the law of the unity of opposites, is the basic law of materialist dialectics.

事物的矛盾法则,也就是对立统一的法则,是唯物辩证法的根本法则。

Shìwù de máodùn fǎzé, yějiùshì duìlì tǒngyī de fǎzé, shì wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ de gēnběn fǎzé.


Lenin said, "Dialectics in the proper sense is the study of contradiction in the very essence of objects."

Lenin 说:“就本来的意义讲,辩证法是研究对象的本质自身中的矛盾。”

Lenin shuō: “Jiù běnlái de yìyì jiǎng, biànzhèngfǎ shì yánjiū duìxiàng de běnzhì zìshēn zhōng de máodùn.”


Lenin often called this law the essence of dialectics; he also called it the kernel of dialectics.

Lenin 常称这个法则为辩证法的本质,又称之为辩证法的核心。

Lenin cháng chēng zhège fǎzé wéi biànzhèngfǎ de běnzhì, yòu chēngzhīwéi biànzhèngfǎ de héxīn.


In studying this law, therefore, we cannot but touch upon a variety of questions, upon a number of philosophical problems.

因此,我们在研究这个法则时,不得不涉及广泛的方面,不得不涉及许多的哲学问题。

Yīncǐ, wǒmen zài yánjiū zhège fǎzé shí, bùdébù shèjí guǎngfàn de fāngmiàn, bùdébù shèjí xǔduō de zhéxué wèntí.


If we can become clear on all these problems, we shall arrive at a fundamental understanding of materialist dialectics.

如果我们把这些问题都弄清楚了,我们就在根本上懂得了唯物辩证法。

Rúguǒ wǒmen bǎ zhèxiē wèntí dōu nòng qīngchǔle, wǒmen jiù zài gēnběn shang dǒngdéle wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ.


The problems are: the two world outlooks, the universality of contradiction, the particularity of contradiction, the principal contradiction and the principal aspect of a contradiction, the identity and struggle of the aspects of a contradiction, and the place of antagonism in contradiction.

这些问题是:两种宇宙观;矛盾的普遍性;矛盾的特殊性;主要的矛盾和矛盾的主要方面;矛盾诸方面的同一性和斗争性;对抗在矛盾中的地位。

Zhèxiē wèntí shì: Liǎng zhǒng Yǔzhòuguān; máodùn de pǔbiànxìng; máodùn de tèshūxìng; zhǔyào de máodùn hé máodùn de zhǔyào fāngmiàn; máodùn zhū fāngmiàn de tóngyīxìng hé dòuzhēngxìng; duìkàng zài máodùn zhōng de dìwèi.


§1.2Edit


The criticism to which the idealism of the Deborin school has been subjected in Soviet philosophical circles in recent years has aroused great interest among us.

苏联哲学界在最近数年中批判了 Deborin 学派的唯心论,这件事引起了我们的极大的兴趣。

Sūlián zhéxuéjiè zài zuìjìn shù nián zhōng pīpànle Deborin xuépài de wéixīnlùn, zhè jiàn shìqing yǐnqǐle wǒmen de jídà de xìngqù.


Deborin's idealism has exerted a very bad influence in the Chinese Communist Party, and it cannot be said that the dogmatist thinking in our Party is unrelated to the approach of that school.

Deborin 的唯心论在中国共产党内发生了极坏的影响,我们党内的教条主义思想不能说和这个学派的作风没有关系。

Deborin de wéixīnlùn zài Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng nèi fāshēngle jí huài de yǐngxiǎng, wǒmen Dǎng nèi de jiàotiáozhǔyì sīxiǎng bùnéng shuō he zhège xuépài de zuòfēng méiyǒu guānxì.


Our present study of philosophy should therefore have the eradication of dogmatist thinking as its main objective.

因此,我们现在的哲学研究工作,应当以扫除教条主义思想为主要的目标。

Yīncǐ, wǒmen xiànzài de zhéxué yánjiū gōngzuò, yīngdāng yǐ sǎochú jiàotiáozhǔyì sīxiǎng wéi zhǔyào de mùbiāo.


I. THE TWO WORLD OUTLOOKSEdit

一、两种宇宙观

1. Liǎng Zhǒng Yǔzhòuguān


§1.3Edit


Throughout the history of human knowledge, there have been two conceptions concerning the law of development of the Universe, the metaphysical conception and the dialectical conception, which form two opposing world outlooks.

在人类的认识史中,从来就有关于宇宙发展法则的两种见解,一种是形而上学的见解,一种是辩证法的见解,形成了互相对立的两种宇宙观。

Zài rénlèi de rènshí-shǐ zhōng, cónglái jiù yǒu guānyú Yǔzhòu fāzhǎn fǎzé de liǎng zhǒng jiànjiě, yī zhǒng shì xíng'érshàngxué de jiànjiě, yī zhǒng shì biànzhèngfǎ de jiànjiě, xíngchéngle hùxiāng duìlì de liǎng zhǒng Yǔzhòuguān.


Lenin said:

Lenin 说:

Lenin shuō:


"The two basic (or two possible? or two historically observable?) conceptions of development (evolution) are: development as decrease and increase, as repetition, and development as a unity of opposites (the division of a unity into mutually exclusive opposites and their reciprocal relation)."

“对于发展(进化)所持的两种基本的(或两种可能的?或两种在历史上常见的?)观点是:(一)认为发展是减少和增加,是重复;(二)认为发展是对立的统一(统一物分成为两个互相排斥的对立,而两个对立又互相关联着)。”

“Duìyú fāzhǎn (jìnhuà) suǒchí de liǎng zhǒng jīběn de (huò liǎng zhǒng kěnéng de? huò liǎng zhǒng zài lìshǐ shàng chángjiàn de?) guāndiǎn shì: (1) rènwéi fāzhǎn shì jiǎnshǎo hé zēngjiā, shì chóngfù; (2) rènwéi fāzhǎn shì duìlì de tǒngyī (tǒngyī-wù fēn chéngwéi liǎng ge hùxiāng páichì de duìlì, ér liǎng ge duìlì yòu hùxiāng guānliánzhe).”


Here Lenin was referring to these two different world outlooks.

Lenin 说的就是这两种不同的宇宙观。

Lenin shuō de jiùshì zhè liǎng zhǒng bùtóng de Yǔzhòuguān.


§1.4Edit


In China another name for metaphysics is xuanxue.

形而上学也叫做玄学。

Xíng'érshàngxué yě jiàozuò xuánxué.


For a long period in history whether in China or in Europe, this way of thinking, which is part and parcel of the idealist world outlook, occupied a dominant position in human thought.

这种思想无论在中国或在欧洲,在一个很长的历史时间内,是属于唯心论的宇宙观,并在人们的思想中占了统治的地位。

Zhè zhǒng sīxiǎng wúlùn zài Zhōngguó huò zài Ōuzhōu, zài yīge hěn cháng de lìshǐ shíjiān nèi, shì shǔyú wéixīnlùn de Yǔzhòuguān, bìng zài rénmen de sīxiǎng zhōng zhànle tǒngzhì de dìwèi.


In Europe, the materialism of the bourgeoisie in its early days was also metaphysical.

在欧洲,资产阶级初期的唯物论,也是形而上学的。

Zài Ōuzhōu, zīchǎnjiējí chūqī de wéiwùlùn, yěshì xíng'érshàngxué de.


As the social economy of many European countries advanced to the stage of highly developed capitalism, as the forces of production, the class struggle and the sciences developed to a level unprecedented in history, and as the industrial proletariat became the greatest motive force in historical development, there arose the Marxist world outlook of materialist dialectics.

由于欧洲许多国家的社会经济情况进到了资本主义高度发展的阶段,生产力、阶级斗争和科学均发展到了历史上未有过的水平,工业无产阶级成为历史发展的最伟大的动力,因而产生了Marx主义的唯物辩证法的宇宙观。

Yóuyú Ōuzhōu xǔduō guójiā de shèhuì jīngjì qíngkuàng jìndàole zīběnzhǔyì gāodù fāzhǎn de jiēduàn, shēngchǎnlì, jiējí dòuzhēng hé kēxué dōu fāzhǎn dàole lìshǐ shàng wèiyǒuguò de shuǐpíng, gōngyè wúchǎnjiējí chéngwéi lìshǐ fāzhǎn de zuì wěidà de dònglì, yīn'ér chǎnshēngle Marxzhǔyì de wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ de Yǔzhòuguān.


Then, in addition to open and barefaced reactionary idealism, vulgar evolutionism emerged among the bourgeoisie to oppose materialist dialectics.

于是,在资产阶级那里,除了公开的极端露骨的反动的唯心论之外,还出现了庸俗的进化论,出来对抗唯物辩证法。

Yúshì, zài zīchǎnjiējí nàlǐ, chúle gōngkāi de jíduān lùgǔ de fǎndòng de wéixīnlùn zhīwài, hái chūxiànle yōngsú de jìnhuàlùn, chūlái duìkàng wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ.


§1.5Edit


The metaphysical or vulgar evolutionist world outlook sees things as isolated, static and one-sided.

所谓形而上学的或庸俗进化论的宇宙观,就是用孤立的、静止的和片面的观点去看世界。

Suǒwèi xíng'érshàngxué de huò yōngsú jìnhuàlùn de Yǔzhòuguān, jiùshì yòng gūlì de, jìngzhǐ de hé piànmiàn de guāndiǎn qù kàn shìjiè.


It regards all things in the Universe, their forms and their species, as eternally isolated from one another and immutable.

这种宇宙观把世界一切事物,一切事物的形态和种类,都看成是永远彼此孤立和永远不变化的。

Zhè zhǒng Yǔzhòuguān bǎ shìjiè yīqiè shìwù, yīqiè shìwù de xíngtài hé zhǒnglèi, dōu kànchéng shì yǒngyuǎn bǐcǐ gūlì hé yǒngyuǎn bù biànhuà de.


Such change as there is can only be an increase or decrease in quantity or a change of place.

如果说有变化,也只是数量的增减和场所的变更。

Rúguǒ shuō yǒu biànhuà, yě zhǐshì shùliàng de zēngjiǎn hé chǎngsuǒ de biàngēng.


Moreover, the cause of such an increase or decrease or change of place is not inside things but outside them, that is, the motive force is external.

而这种增减和变更的原因,不在事物的内部而在事物的外部,即是由于外力的推动。

Ér zhè zhǒng zēngjiǎn hé biàngēng de yuányīn, bù zài shìwù de nèibù ér zài shìwù de wàibù, jíshì yóuyú wàilì de tuīdòng.


Metaphysicians hold that all the different kinds of things in the Universe and all their characteristics have been the same ever since they first came into being.

形而上学家认为,世界上各种不同事物和事物的特性,从它们一开始存在的时候就是如此。

Xíng'érshàngxuéjiā rènwéi, shìjiè shàng gèzhǒng bùtóng shìwù hé shìwù de tèxìng, cóng tāmen yī kāishǐ cúnzài de shíhòu jiùshì rúcǐ.


All subsequent changes have simply been increases or decreases in quantity.

后来的变化,不过是数量上的扩大或缩小。

Hòulái de biànhuà, bùguò shì shùliàng shang de kuòdà huò suōxiǎo.


They contend that a thing can only keep on repeating itself as the same kind of thing and cannot change into anything different.

他们认为一种事物永远只能反复地产生为同样的事物,而不能变化为另一种不同的事物。

Tāmen rènwéi yī zhǒng shìwù yǒngyuǎn zhǐnéng fǎnfù de chǎnshēng wéi tóngyàng de shìwù, ér bùnéng biànhuà wéi lìngyī zhǒng bùtóng de shìwù.


In their opinion, capitalist exploitation, capitalist competition, the individualist ideology of capitalist society, and so on, can all be found in ancient slave society, or even in primitive society, and will exist for ever unchanged.

在形而上学家看来,资本主义的剥削,资本主义的竞争,资本主义社会的个人主义思想等,就是在古代的奴隶社会里,甚至在原始社会里,都可以找得出来,而且会要永远不变地存在下去。

Zài xíng'érshàngxuéjiā kànlái, zīběnzhǔyì de bōxuē, zīběnzhǔyì de jìngzhēng, zīběnzhǔyì shèhuì de gèrénzhǔyì sīxiǎng děng, jiùshì zài gǔdài de núlì shèhuì li, shènzhì zài yuánshǐ shèhuì li, dōu kěyǐ zhǎo de chūlái, érqiě huì yào yǒngyuǎn bùbiàn de cúnzài xiàqù.


They ascribe the causes of social development to factors external to society, such as geography and climate.

说到社会发展的原因,他们就用社会外部的地理、气候等条件去说明。

Shuō dào shèhuì fāzhǎn de yuányīn, tāmen jiù yòng shèhuì wàibù de dìlǐ, qìhòu děng tiáojiàn qù shuōmíng.


They search in an over-simplified way outside a thing for the causes of its development, and they deny the theory of materialist dialectics which holds that development arises from the contradictions inside a thing.

他们简单地从事物外部去找发展的原因,否认唯物辩证法所主张的事物因内部矛盾引起发展的学说。

Tāmen jiǎndān de cóng shìwù wàibù qù zhǎo fāzhǎn de yuányīn, fǒurèn wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ suǒ zhǔzhāng de shìwù yīnwèi nèibù máodùn yǐnqǐ fāzhǎn de xuéshuō.


Consequently they can explain neither the qualitative diversity of things, nor the phenomenon of one quality changing into another.

因此,他们不能解释事物的质的多样性,不能解释一种质变为他种质的现象。

Yīncǐ, tāmen bùnéng jiěshì shìwù de xìngzhì de duōyàngxìng, bùnéng jiěshì yī zhǒng xìngzhì biànwéi lìngyī zhǒng xìngzhì de xiànxiàng.


In Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, this idea was mechanical materialism, and there was vulgar evolution in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

在17和18世纪的欧洲,这种思想是机械唯物论,在19世纪末和20世纪初则有庸俗进化论。

Zài 17 hé 18 shìjì de Ōuzhōu, zhèzhǒng sīxiǎng shì jīxiè wéiwùlùn, zài 19 shìjìmò hé 20 shìjìchū zé yǒu yōngsú jìnhuàlùn.


In China, there was the metaphysical thinking exemplified in the saying "Heaven changeth not, likewise the Dao changeth not", and it was supported by the decadent feudal ruling classes for a long time.

在中国,则有所谓“天不变,道亦不变”的形而上学的思想,曾经长期地为腐朽了的封建统治阶级所拥护。

Zài zhōngguó, zé yǒu suǒwèi “Tiān bù biàn, Dào yì bù biàn” de xíng'érshàngxué de sīxiǎng, céngjīng chángqī de wéi fǔxiǔle de fēngjiàn tǒngzhì jiējí suǒ yōnghù.


Mechanical materialism and vulgar evolutionism, which were imported from Europe in the last hundred years, are supported by the bourgeoisie.

近百年来输入了欧洲的机械唯物论和庸俗进化论,则为资产阶级所拥护。

Jìn bǎinián lái shūrùle Ōuzhōu de jīxiè wéiwùlùn hé yōngsú jìnhuàlùn, zé wéi zīchǎnjiējí suǒ yōnghù.


§1.6Edit


As opposed to the metaphysical world outlook, the world outlook of materialist dialectics holds that in order to understand the development of a thing we should study it internally and in its relations with other things; in other words, the development of things should be seen as their internal and necessary self-movement, while each thing in its movement is interrelated with and interacts on the things around it.

和形而上学的宇宙观相反,唯物辩证法的宇宙观主张从事物的内部、从一事物对他事物的关系去研究事物的发展,亦即把事物的发展看做是事物内部的必然的自己的运动,而每一事物的运动都和它的周围其他事物互相联系着和互相影响着。

Hé xíng'érshàngxué de Yǔzhòuguān xiāngfǎn, wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ de Yǔzhòuguān zhǔzhāng cóng shìwù de nèibù, cóng yī shìwù duì tā shìwù de guānxì qù yánjiū shìwù de fāzhǎn, yìjí bǎ shìwù de fāzhǎn kànzuò shì shìwù nèibù de bìrán de zìjǐ de yùndòng, ér měiyī shìwù de yùndòng dōu hé tā de zhōuwéi qítā shìwù hùxiāng liánxìzhe hé hùxiāng yǐngxiǎngzhe.


The fundamental cause of the development of a thing is not external but internal; it lies in the contradictoriness within the thing.

事物发展的根本原因,不是在事物的外部而是在事物的内部,在于事物内部的矛盾性。

Shìwù fāzhǎn de gēnběn yuányīn, bùshì zài shìwù de wàibù érshì zài shìwù de nèibù, zàiyú shìwù nèibù de máodùnxìng.


There is internal contradiction in every single thing, hence its motion and development.

任何事物内部都有这种矛盾性,因此引起了事物的运动和发展。

Rènhé shìwù nèibù dōu yǒu zhè zhǒng máodùnxìng, yīncǐ yǐnqǐle shìwù de yùndòng hé fāzhǎn.


Contradictoriness within a thing is the fundamental cause of its development, while its interrelations and interactions with other things are secondary causes.

事物内部的这种矛盾性是事物发展的根本原因,一事物和他事物的互相联系和互相影响则是事物发展的第二位的原因。

Shìwù nèibù de zhè zhǒng máodùnxìng shì shìwù fāzhǎn de gēnběn yuányīn, yī shìwù hé tā shìwù de hùxiāng liánxì hé hùxiāng yǐngxiǎng zé shì shìwù fāzhǎn de dì'èrwèi de yuányīn.


Thus materialist dialectics effectively combats the theory of external causes, or of an external motive force, advanced by metaphysical mechanical materialism and vulgar evolutionism.

这样,唯物辩证法就有力地反对了形而上学的机械唯物论和庸俗进化论的外因论或被动论。

Zhèyàng, wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ jiù yǒulì de fǎnduìle xíng'érshàngxué de jīxiè wéiwùlùn hé yōngsú jìnhuàlùn de wàiyīnlùn huò bèidònglùn.


It is evident that purely external causes can only give rise to mechanical motion, that is, to changes in scale or quantity, but cannot explain why things differ qualitatively in thousands of ways and why one thing changes into another.

这是清楚的,单纯的外部原因只能引起事物的机械的运动,亦即范围的大小,数量的增减,不能说明事物为什么有性质上的千差万别及其互相变化。

Zhè shì qīngchǔ de, dānchún de wàibù yuányīn zhǐnéng yǐnqǐ shìwù de jīxiè de yùndòng, yìjí fànwéi de dàxiǎo, shùliàng de zēngjiǎn, bùnéng shuōmíng shìwù wèishéme yǒu xìngzhì shang de qiānchāwànbié jíqí hùxiāng biànhuà.


As a matter of fact, even mechanical motion under external force occurs through the internal contradictoriness of things.

事实上,即使是外力推动的机械运动,也要通过事物内部的矛盾性。

Shìshíshang, jíshǐ shì wàilì tuīdòng de jīxiè yùndòng, yě yào tōngguò shìwù nèibù de máodùnxìng.


Simple growth in plants and animals, their quantitative development, is likewise chiefly the result of their internal contradictions.

植物和动物的单纯的增长,数量的发展,主要地也是由于内部矛盾所引起的。

Zhíwù hé dòngwù de dānchún de zēngzhǎng, shùliàng de fāzhǎn, zhǔyào de yěshì yóuyú nèibù máodùn suǒ yǐnqǐ de.


Similarly, social development is due chiefly not to external but to internal causes.

同样,社会的发展,主要地不是由于外因而是由于内因。

Tóngyàng, shèhuì de fāzhǎn, zhǔyào de bùshì yóuyú wàiyīn érshì yóuyú nèiyīn.


Countries with almost the same geographical and climatic conditions display great diversity and unevenness in their development.

许多国家在差不多一样的地理和气候的条件下,它们发展的差异性和不平衡性非常大。

Xǔduō guójiā zài chàbùduō yīyàng de dìlǐ hé qìhòu de tiáojiàn xià, tāmen fāzhǎn de chāyìxìng hé bùpínghéngxìng fēicháng dà.


Moreover, great social changes may take place in one and the same country although its geography and climate remain unchanged.

同一个国家吧,在地理和气候并没有变化的情形下,社会的变化却是很大的。

Tóng yīge guójiā ba, zài dìlǐ hé qìhòu bìng méiyǒu biànhuà de qíngxíng xià, shèhuì de biànhuà quèshì hěn dà de.


Imperialist Russia changed into the socialist Soviet Union, and feudal Japan, which had locked its doors against the world, changed into imperialist Japan, although no change occurred in the geography and climate of either country.

帝国主义的Russia变为社会主义的苏联,封建的闭关锁国的日本变为帝国主义的日本,这些国家的地理和气候并没有变化。

Dìguózhǔyì de Russia biànwéi shèhuìzhǔyì de Sūlián, fēngjiàn de bìguānsuǒguó de Rìběn biànwéi dìguózhǔyì de Rìběn, zhèxiē guójiā de dìlǐ hé qìhòu bìng méiyǒu biànhuà.


Long dominated by feudalism, China has undergone great changes in the last hundred years and is now changing in the direction of a new China, liberated and-free, and yet no change has occurred in her geography and climate.

长期地被封建制度统治的中国,近百年来发生了很大的变化,现在正在变化到一个自由解放的新中国的方向去,中国的地理和气候并没有变化。

Chángqí de bèi fēngjiàn zhìdù tǒngzhì de Zhōngguó, jìn bǎinián lái fāshēngle hěn dà de biànhuà, xiànzài zhèngzài biànhuà dào yīge zìyóu jiěfàng de xīn Zhōngguó de fāngxiàng qù, Zhōngguó de dìlǐ hé qìhòu bìng méiyǒu biànhuà.


Changes do take place in the geography and climate of the Earth as a whole and in every part of it, but they are insignificant when compared with changes in society; geographical and climatic changes manifest themselves in terms of tens of thousands of years, while social changes manifest themselves in thousands, hundreds or tens of years, and even in a few years or months in times of revolution.

整个地球和地球各部分的地理和气候也是变化着的,但是以它们的变化和社会的变化相比较,则显得很微小,前者是以若干万年为单位而显现它的变化的,后者则在几千年、几百年、几十年、甚至几年或几个月(在革命时期)内就显现它的变化了。

Zhěngge Dìqiú hé Dìqiú gè bùfèn de dìlǐ hé qìhòu yěshì biànhuàzhe de, dànshì yǐ tāmen de biànhuà hé shèhuì de biànhuà xiāngbǐjiào, zé xiǎndé hěn wēixiǎo, qiánzhě shì yǐ ruògān wàn nián wéi dānwèi ér xiǎnxiàn tā de biànhuà de, hòuzhě zé zài jǐ qiān nián, jǐ bǎi nián, jǐ shí nián, shènzhì jǐ nián huò jǐ ge yuè (zài gémìng shíqī) nèi jiù xiǎnxiàn tā de biànhuà le.


According to materialist dialectics, changes in nature are due chiefly to the development of the internal contradictions in nature.

按照唯物辩证法的观点,自然界的变化,主要地是由于自然界内部矛盾的发展。

Ànzhào wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ de guāndiǎn, zìránjiè de biànhuà, zhǔyào de shì yóuyú zìránjiè nèibù máodùn de fāzhǎn.


Changes in society are due chiefly to the development of the internal contradictions in society, that is, the contradiction between the productive forces and the relations of production, the contradiction between classes and the contradiction between the old and the new; it is the development of these contradictions that pushes society forward and gives the impetus for the supersession of the old society by the new.

社会的变化,主要地是由于社会内部矛盾的发展,亦即生产力和生产关系的矛盾,阶级之间的矛盾,新旧之间的矛盾,由于这些矛盾的发展,推动了社会的前进,推动了新旧社会的代谢。

Shèhuì de biànhuà, zhǔyào de shì yóuyú shèhuì nèibù máodùn de fāzhǎn, yìjí shēngchǎnlì hé shēngchǎn guānxì de máodùn, jiējí zhījiān de máodùn, xīnjiù zhījiān de máodùn, yóuyú zhèxiē máodùn de fāzhǎn, tuīdòngle shèhuì de qiánjìn, tuīdòngle xīnjiù shèhuì de dàixiè.


Does materialist dialectics exclude external causes? Not at all.

唯物辩证法是否排除外部的原因呢?并不排除。

Wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ shìfǒu páichú wàibù de yuányīn ne? Bìngbù páichú.


It holds that external causes are the condition of change and internal causes are the basis of change, and that external causes become operative through internal causes.

唯物辩证法认为外因是变化的条件,内因是变化的根据,外因通过内因而起作用。

Wéiwù biànzhèngfǎ rènwéi wàiyīn shì biànhuà de tiáojiàn, nèiyīn shì biànhuà de gēnjù, wàiyīn tōngguò nèiyīn ér qǐ zuòyòng.


In a suitable temperature an egg changes into a chicken, but no temperature can change a stone into a chicken, because each has a different basis.

鸡蛋因为得到适当的温度而变化为鸡子,但是温度不能使石头变为鸡子,因为二者的根据是不同的。

Jīdàn yīnwèi dédào shìdàng de wēndù ér biànhuà wéi jīzi, dànshì wēndù bùnéng shǐ shítou biànwèi jīzi, yīnwèi èrzhě de gēnjù shì bùtóng de.


There is constant interaction between the peoples of different countries.

各国人民之间的互相影响是时常存在的。

Gèguó rénmín zhījiān de hùxiāng yǐngxiǎng shì shícháng cúnzài de.


In the era of capitalism, and especially in the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution, the interaction and mutual impact of different countries in the political, economic and cultural spheres are extremely great.

在资本主义时代,特别是在帝国主义和无产阶级革命的时代,各国在政治上、经济上和文化上的互相影响和互相激动,是极其巨大的。

Zài zīběnzhǔyì shídài, tèbié shì zài dìguózhǔyì hé wúchǎnjiējí gémìng de shídài, gèguó zài zhèngzhì shang, jīngjì shang hé wénhuà shang de hùxiāng yǐngxiǎng hé hùxiāng jīdòng, shì jíqí jùdà de.


The October Socialist Revolution ushered in a new epoch in world history as well as in Russian history. It exerted influence on internal changes in the other countries in the world and, similarly and in a particularly profound way, on internal changes in China.

十月社会主义革命不只是开创了Russia历史的新纪元,而且开创了世界历史的新纪元,影响到世界各国内部的变化,同样地而且还特别深刻地影响到中国内部的变化,但是这种变化是通过了各国内部和中国内部自己的规律性而起的。

Shíyuè Shèhuìzhǔyì Gémìng bù zhǐshì kāichuàngle Russia lìshǐ de xīnjìyuán, érqiě kāichuàngle shìjiè lìshǐ de xīnjìyuán, yǐngxiǎng dào shìjiè gèguó nèibù de biànhuà, tóngyàng de érqiě hái tèbié shēnkè de yǐngxiǎng dào Zhōngguó nèibù de biànhuà, dànshì zhè zhǒng biànhuà shì tōngguòle gèguó nèibù hé Zhōngguó nèibù zìjǐ de guīlǜxìng ér qǐ de.


These changes, however, were effected through the inner laws of development of these countries, China included.

两军相争,一胜一败,所以胜败,皆决于内因。

Liǎng ge jūnduì xiāngzhēng, yī shèng yī bài, suǒyǐ shèng-bài, dōu juédìng yú nèiyīn.


In battle, one army is victorious and the other is defeated, both the victory and the defeat are determined by internal causes. The one is victorious either because it is strong or because of its competent generalship, the other is vanquished either because it is weak or because of its incompetent generalship; it is through internal causes that external causes become operative.

胜者或因其强,或因其指挥无误,败者或因其弱,或因其指挥失宜,外因通过内因而引起作用。

Shènglìzhě huò yīnwèi qiáng, huò yīnwèi zhǐhuī wúwù, shībàizhě huò yīnwèi ruò, huò yīnwèi zhǐhuī shīyí, wàiyīn tōngguò nèiyīn ér yǐnqǐ zuòyòng.


In China in 1927, the defeat of the proletariat by the big bourgeoisie came about through the opportunism then to be found within the Chinese proletariat itself (inside the Chinese Communist Party).

1927年中国大资产阶级战败了无产阶级,是通过中国无产阶级内部的(中国共产党内部的)机会主义而起作用的。

1927 nián Zhōngguó dà zīchǎnjiējí zhànbàile wúchǎnjiējí, shì tōngguò Zhōngguó wúchǎnjiējí nèibù de (Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng nèibù de) jīhuì zhǔyì ér qǐ zuòyòng de.


When we liquidated this opportunism, the Chinese revolution resumed its advance.

当着我们清算了这种机会主义的时候,中国革命就重新发展了。

Dāngzhe wǒmen qīngsuànle zhè zhǒng jīhuì zhǔyì de shíhòu, zhōngguó gémìng jiù chóngxīn fāzhǎnle.


Later, the Chinese revolution again suffered severe setbacks at the hands of the enemy, because adventurism had risen within our Party.

后来,中国革命又受了敌人的严重的打击,是因为我们党内产生了冒险主义。

Hòulái, Zhōngguó gémìng yòu shòule dírén de yánzhòng de dǎjī, shì yīnwèi wǒmen Dǎng nèi chǎnshēngle màoxiǎnzhǔyì.


When we liquidated this adventurism, our cause advanced once again.

当着我们清算了这种冒险主义的时候,我们的事业又重新发展了。

Dāngzhe wǒmen qīngsuànle zhè zhǒng màoxiǎnzhǔyì de shíhòu, wǒmen de shìyè yòu chóngxīn fāzhǎnle.


Thus it can be seen that to lead the revolution to victory, a political party must depend on the correctness of its own political line and the solidity of its own organization.

由此看来,一个政党要引导革命到胜利,必须依靠自己政治路线的正确和组织上的巩固。

Yóucǐ kànlái, yīge zhèngdǎng yào yǐndǎo gémìng dào shènglì, bìxū yīkào zìjǐ zhèngzhì lùxiàn de zhèngquè hé zǔzhī shang de gǒnggù.


§1.7Edit


The dialectical world outlook emerged in ancient times both in China and in Europe.

辩证法的宇宙观,不论在中国,在欧洲,在古代就产生了。

Biànzhèngfǎ de Yǔzhòuguān, bùlùn zài Zhōngguó, zài Ōuzhōu, zài gǔdài jiù chǎnshēngle.


Ancient dialectics, however, had a somewhat spontaneous and naive character; in the social and historical conditions then prevailing, it was not yet able to form a theoretical system, hence it could not fully explain the world and was supplanted by metaphysics.

但是古代的辩证法带着自发的朴素的性质,根据当时的社会历史条件,还不可能有完备的理论,因而不能完全解释宇宙,后来就被形而上学所代替。

Dànshì gǔdài de biànzhèngfǎ dàizhe zìfā de púsù de xìngzhì, gēnjù dāngshí de shèhuì lìshǐ tiáojiàn, hái bù kěnéng yǒu wánbèi de lǐlùn, yīn'ér bùnéng wánquán jiěshì Yǔzhòu, hòulái jiù bèi xíng'érshàngxué suǒ dàitì.


The famous German philosopher Hegel, who lived in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, made most important contributions to dialectics, but his dialectics was idealist.

生活在18世纪末和19世纪初期的德国著名哲学家 Hegel,对于辩证法曾经给了很重要的贡献,但是他的辩证法却是唯心的辩证法。

Shēnghuó zài 18 shìjì-mò hé 19 shìjì chūqī de Déguó zhùmíng zhéxuéjiā Hegel, duìyú biànzhèngfǎ céngjīng gěile hěn zhòngyào de gòngxiàn, dànshì tā de biànzhèngfǎ quèshì wéixīn de biànzhèngfǎ.


It was not until Marx and Engels, the great protagonists of the proletarian movement, had synthesized the positive achievements in the history of human knowledge and, in particular, critically absorbed the rational elements of Hegelian dialectics and created the great theory of dialectical and historical materialism that an unprecedented revolution occurred in the history of human knowledge.

直到无产阶级运动的伟大的活动家Marx和Engels综合了人类认识史的积极的成果,特别是批判地吸取了Hegel的辩证法的合理的部分,创造了辩证唯物论和历史唯物论这个伟大的理论,才在人类认识史上起了一个空前的大革命。

Zhídào wúchǎnjiējí yùndòng de wěidà de huódòngjiā Marx hé Engels zònghéle rénlèi rènshí-shǐ de jījí de chéngguǒ, tèbié shì pīpàn de xīqǔle Hegel de biànzhèngfǎ de hélǐ de bùfèn, chuàngzàole biànzhèng wéiwùlùn hé lìshǐ wéiwùlùn zhège wěidà de lǐlùn, cái zài rénlèi rènshí-shǐ shang qǐle yīge kōngqián de dà gémìng.


This theory was further developed by Lenin and Stalin.

后来,经过Lenin和Stalin,又发展了这个伟大的理论。

Hòulái, jīngguò Lenin hé Stalin, yòu fāzhǎnle zhège wěidà de lǐlùn.


As soon as it spread to China, it wrought tremendous changes in the world of Chinese thought.

这个理论一经传到中国来,就在中国思想界引起了极大的变化。

Zhège lǐlùn yījīng chuán dào Zhōngguó lái, jiù zài Zhōngguó sīxiǎng-jiè yǐnqǐle jídà de biànhuà.


§1.8Edit


This dialectical world outlook teaches us primarily how to observe and analyse the movement of opposites in different things and, on the basis of such analysis, to indicate the methods for resolving contradictions.

这个辩证法的宇宙观,主要地就是教导人们要善于去观察和分析各种事物的矛盾的运动,并根据这种分析,指出解决矛盾的方法。

Zhège biànzhèngfǎ de Yǔzhòuguān, zhǔyào de jiùshì jiàodǎo rénmen yào shànyú qù guānchá hé fēnxī gèzhǒng shìwù de máodùn de yùndòng, bìng gēnjù zhè zhǒng fēnxī, zhǐchū jiějué máodùn de fāngfǎ.


It is therefore most important for us to understand the law of contradiction in things in a concrete way.

因此,具体地了解事物矛盾这一个法则,对于我们是非常重要的。

Yīncǐ, jùtǐ de liǎojiě shìwù máodùn zhè yīge fǎzé, duìyú wǒmen shì fēicháng zhòngyào de.


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Pinyin/On Contradiction