Open and Distance Education

Open and Distance Education is a term that evolved from the concept of distance learning and open education. Distance Learning or Distance Education is a form of education that allows learners and teachers to interact with learning materials and with one another without having to be in the same geographical location. Before the popularity of the internet, Distance Education was accomplished using modules that are delivered to the learners’ location and are sent back to the Distance Education provider for marking. As technologies evolved, radio and television were also used. The internet revolutionized the way distance education is being facilitated by popularizing online learning. This is also called distributed education. Open education on the other hand refers to education provided by institutions that lessened, if not removed, barriers for learners to enter. Examples of these barriers are entrance exams or grade requirements. Hence, open and distance education exhibits the characteristics of both open education and distributed education.

Open and Distance Education Cover
Open and Distance Education Cover

Table of Contents




This book is organized and edited by Professor Insung Jung and students from the International Christian University


Chapter 1. Eiman Yassing & Tekonnang Timee

Chapter 2. Qiu Wang & Ousmane Traore

Chapter 3. Toaiauea Toabwa & Ai Suzuki

Chapter 4. Phan Minh Nhat & Llewellyn Nelson

Chapter 5. Roberto Figueroa & Maia Duggan

Chapter 6. Naoko Takahashi & Tomasi Lakeba

© Roberto B. Figueroa Jr., et. al., 2018

This wikibook is available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License and Creative Commons Attribution License 2.5