Nuclear Fusion Physics and Technology/Example page

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Note: Electromagnetic fieldEdit

As summarized in previous chapters, electromagnetic field is mathematical abstraction of two projections \vec{E}(\vec{r}):\mathbb{R}^3 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^3 and \vec{B}(\vec{r}):\mathbb{R}^3 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^3, which meets Maxwell equations

rot \vec{H} = \vec{j} + \frac{\partial \vec{D}}{\partial t} \qquad rot \vec{E} + \frac{\partial \vec{B}}{\partial t} = 0
div \vec{B} = 0 \qquad \vec{D} = \rho

and may be represented by field lines defined as

\frac{d\vec{x}}{ds} = \alpha \vec{B}(\vec{r})

Definition: Open field lineEdit

Field line is open, when it is not closed in plasma.

Definition: Closed field lineEdit

Field line is closed, when it is closed in plasma.

Theorem: Magnetic field line equationEdit

Lets assume electromagnetic field \vec{E}(\vec{r}),\vec{B}(\vec{r}) with field lines. Then

\frac{dl_x}{B_x} = \frac{dl_y}{B_y} = \frac{dl_z}{B_z}

The theorem results from field line definition directly

\frac{d\vec{x}}{ds} = \alpha \vec{B}(\vec{r}) \qquad / . \frac{ds}{\vec{B}}
\frac{d\vec{x}}{\vec{B}} = \alpha . ds

which is a vector equation of three scalar equations

\frac{dl_x}{B_x} = \alpha . ds \qquad \frac{dl_y}{B_y} = \alpha . ds \qquad \frac{dl_z}{B_z} = \alpha . ds

and thus may be written

\frac{dl_x}{B_x} = \frac{dl_y}{B_y} = \frac{dl_z}{B_z} \qquad Q.E.D.