# Mathematical Proof/Appendix/Symbols Used in this Book

This is a list of all the mathematical symbols used in this book.

*Closed*interval notation. Signifies the set of all numbers between a and b (a and b included)

- A logical "or" connector. A truth statement whose truth value is true if either of the two given statements is true and false if they are both false.

- A logical "and" connector. A truth statement whose truth value is true only if both of the two given statements is true and false otherwise.

- A logical "not" unary operator. A truth statement whose value is opposite of the given statement.

{ }

- Set delimiters. A set may be defined explicitly (e.g. ), or pseudo-explicitly by giving a pattern (e.g. . It may also be defined with a given rule (e.g. , the set of all
*x*such that*P(x)*is true).

- Set delimiters. A set may be defined explicitly (e.g. ), or pseudo-explicitly by giving a pattern (e.g. . It may also be defined with a given rule (e.g. , the set of all

- The "element of" binary operator. This shows element inclusion in a set. If
*x*is an element of*A*we write

- The "element of" binary operator. This shows element inclusion in a set. If

- The "set inclusion" or "subset" binary operator. If all the elements of
*A*are in*B*, then we say that*A*is a subset of*B*and write Note that in this book, when

- The "set inclusion" or "subset" binary operator. If all the elements of

- The union of two sets. A set containing all elements of two given sets.

- The intersection of two sets. A set containing all the elements that are in both of two given sets.