Lingwa de planeta/Compound sentence

In this lesson you are going to learn:

  • 4 pronouns (swa, mutu, it, oni)
  • 12 verbs (pregi, kwesti, jawabi, dai, pren, helpi, go, lai, safari, gani, dansi, rasmi)
  • 10 special verbs (mog, janmog, darfi, treba, mus, gai, majbur, nidi, yao, pri)
  • 8 prepositions (a, om, fo, por, kun, sin, in, fon)
  • 6 question words (hu, kwo, wo, wen, way, komo)
  • 6 indicative words (hir, dar, ahir, adar, dan, tak)
  • 6 useful words (yoshi, toshi, poy, snova, turan, tuy)
  • 3 conjunctions (sikom, obwol, yedoh)
  • 2 grammar words (ke, unkwe, hi, ku)

59 words altogether

(+34 from lesson 1 = 93 altogether)

Pronoun as an objectEdit

Pronouns in Lidepla don't change to indicate their grammatical role.

If a pronoun is put after the verb, it is an object (not a subject).

Me lubi yu. I love you.
Yu lubi me. You love me.

For "oneself" (myself, yourself etc.) the word "swa" is used.

For "one another" - the word "mutu".

Li lubi mutu. They love one another.
Ela bu samaji-te swa. She didn't understand herself.

An inanimate object can be replaced by the pronoun "it".

Me vidi it. I see it (a thing).

Translation exercise

English Lidepla
I see you.
You understand me.
She didn't understand you.
We love him.
They won't hear him.
She doesn't know herself.
You won't hear one another.
You don't hear yourself.
We understood each other.

Some prepositionsEdit

The preposition "a" corresponds to the English "to" to some extent.

Me ve shwo a yu. I will talk to you.
Ta dai-te it a me. They gave it (an object) to me.


The preposition "om" corresponds to the English "about" / "of".

Me ve dumi om yu. I will think of / about you.


Some other prepositions: fo (for), por (because of), kun (with), sin (without)

Me bu go sin yu. I don't go (am not going, won't go) without you.
Me jivi fo yu. I live for you.
Ta bu kredi por yu. They don't believe because of you.

Translation exercise

English Lidepla
for me
about you
because of us
for you
with you
without her
because of you

A gerund verb may also follow a preposition:

Me bu yao shwo sin samaji. I don't want to talk without understanding.

Question and indication wordsEdit

Question words:

  • hu - who
  • kwo - what
  • wo - where (place)
  • a wo - whereto, whither (direction)
  • fon wo - wherefrom, whence
  • wen - when
  • way - why
  • komo - how

A question word is usually put in the beginning of a phrase; the word order doesn't change.

Kwo yu vidi? What do you see?

Translation exercise

English Lidepla
Who understands?
Who knew?
What did you know?
What will he understand?
Where did you work?
Where will we work?
Where and wherefrom are you going?
Why don't you understand?
How are you talking? / How do you talk?


To answer the questions you can use indication words:

  • se - this (noun)
  • to - that (noun)
  • hir - here (place)
  • dar - there (place)
  • ahir - here (direction)
  • adar - there (direction)
  • dan - then
  • tak - so, this way
Me bu samaji se. I don't understand this.
Ta bu yao shwo om to. They don't want to talk about that.
Me jivi hir. I live here.
Nu jivi-te dar. We lived there.
Me ve go adar. I will go there.
Ta lai-te ahir. They came here.
Dan me samaji-te. Then I understood.
Me shwo tak. I talk so / this way.

Compound sentenceEdit

Question words can also begin a clause:

Me jan way yu bu gun. I know why you do not work.

Also, complex sentences can be formed, using the linking word ke (that):

Me jan ke yu lubi lu. I know that you love him.
Ela bu samaji-te ke lu bu lubi ela. She did not understand that he doesn't love her.

It is important not to confuse the words kwo and ke:

Me jan kwo yu lubi. I know what (that which) you love.
Me jan ke yu lubi me. I know that you love me.

Note that there is no such thing as tense agreement in Lidepla: in the subordinate clause, the particles indicate the time of the action relative to the action in the main clause.

Me shwo ke me ve go adar. I say that I will go there.
Me shwo-te ke me ve go adar. I said that I would go there.

Translation exercise

English Lidepla
You know where I lived.
He sees how I hope.
I do not understand what you want (yao).
We said that they would travel (safari).
She doesn't believe that you will come (lai).
They don't know where I will go (go).
I don't understand what you're singing about (gani).
You don't know who she's dancing with (dansi).
I don't understand how you speak without thinking.

Another way to build a complex sentence: preposition + the particle ke:

Me shwo-te om ke ta lubi yu. I talked about how they love you.
Me bu yao go kun yu sin ke yu shwo ke yu lubi me. I don't want to go with you unless you say (without you saying) that you love me.

Generative meaningEdit

In English, there is a phrase “whatever”, which can occur after any interrogative word at the beginning of a subordinate clause: whoever, whatever, no matter how. In Lidepla, this turnover is expressed using a single word: unkwe, which can also be placed after any interrogative word (the verb is used in the main form):

Me ve lai a yu, kwo unkwe yu shwo. I will come to you, no matter what you say.
Me bu jawabi, hu unkwe kwesti om yu. I don't answer no matter who asks about you.

Sometimes it does not matter who is doing something. For such a case there is a pronoun oni, which can be translated as "one," "they", or even "people." In modern English, the word "one" is less often used; we sometimes say "you" in this situation.

Oni shwo ke ta bu lubi yu. They say that they don't love you.
Me lubi yu, kwo unkwe oni shwo. I love you, no matter what people might say.

Translation exercise

English Lidepla
wherever you live
whatever I think
whoever comes
no matter how you ask me

Special verbsEdit

Special verbs expressing an attitude towards an action are usually called "modals". And with their help, you can compose verb sequences:

  • mog – can
  • janmog – know how
  • darfi – have permission
  • treba – need
  • mus – must
  • gai – should
  • majbur – have to
  • yao – want
  • pri – like

Modals themselves can attach particles that specify tense. Semantic verbs after modals are in the main form.

Yu mus helpi me. You must help me.
Me bu mog-te helpi yu. I couldn't help you.

The subject before the modal may be omitted. In this case, the phrase takes on an impersonal meaning:

Treba gun. Need to work.

Translation exercise

English Lidepla
She will want to ask you.
We like to work.
I had to ask (pregi).
You do need to hope.
I know how to love.
Here you may not (one isn't permitted to) dance (dansi).
You should answer when someone asks you.
They (sing.) didn't come (lai) because I didn't want to see them.

Emphatic particles "hi" and "ku"Edit

In order to highlight or emphasize the meaning of the entire sentence (that is, primarily its predicate), as we already know, the particle ya is used. But in Lidepla there is also a particle of a more directed action: it highlights exactly the word after which it is located. This is the "hi" particle:

Me hi ga bu yao go. Me, I don't want to go at all.
Me yao go hi, bu lopi. I want to go, not run.

To emphasize a word in a question, the particle "ku" is used after the word.

Yu ku bu yao go? Is it you who doesn't want to go?

The particle "ku" is useful when one needs to make a general question to a short phrase.

Yu lai ku? Are you coming?


Translation exercise

English Lidepla
I do know, I don't need to believe.
Is that she who loves you?
That's you I'm talking about.

Useful words for storiesEdit

In a story you may need the word yoshi ("also"):

Me janmog gani. Yoshi me janmog rasmi. I can sing. I also can draw.

In a dialog the word toshi ("too") may be used:

Me janmog gani. - Me toshi. I can sing. - Me too.

Words used when talking about the order and time of some events:

  • poy (then, later)
  • snova (again)
  • turan (suddenly)
  • tuy (immediately, right now):
Ta dumi, poy snova shwo. They think, then talk again.
Turan li lai. Suddenly they came.
Treba jawabi tuy. One has to answer immediately.


Useful conjunctions:

  • sikom (since, as, for)
  • obwol (though)
  • yedoh (however, nevertheless)
Sikom yu bu shwo-te, me bu jan. As you didn't talk (say), I don't know.
Yu bu jawabi, obwol me kwesti. You don't answer, though I ask / am asking.
Me bu kwesti, yedoh ta shwo. I don't ask, they are talking however.


Translation exercise

English Lidepla
I too believe them.
I don't work. Also I don't love you.
I need to understand right now.
I can't understand, though there's need to work.
They (sing.) can come suddenly.
She doesn't want to hope; however, he loves her.
We don't want to see them again.
I believe, since I don't want to live without you.
Later I will answer you.

New verbsEdit

pregi to ask (for) me bu pregi-te yu, ta bu ve pregi om se, li pregi
kwesti to ask (about) nu ve kwesti ta, ob yu kwesti me? ta kwesti-te om yu
jawabi to answer ob yu jawabi-te a ta? me ve jawabi, li bu yao jawabi
dai to give nu ve dai it a yu, li bu dai-te, yu dai
pren to take me pren it, ela bu pren-te, ob yu ve pren?
helpi to help yu helpi-te (a) me om to, nu bu ve helpi, li helpi

(the preposition may be omited as there are no more objects)

go to go nu go adar, li bu ve go kun yu, yu go-te
lai to come ob yu ve lai? me bu lai-te, nu lai fo vidi yu
safari to travel yu bu ve safari, nu safari-te, me yao safari kun yu
gani to sing me pri gani, yu bu gani-te, ela ve gani fo yu
dansi to dance nu dansi-te kun mutu, ob yu dansi? li bu ve dansi hir
rasmi to draw (a painting) nu bu rasmi-te, me ve rasmi yu, kwo yu rasmi?

Translation exerciseEdit

I did not know. But you said. Now I know. (Me ... . Bat yu ... . Nau me ...)


I like to travel. (Me ... .)


I want to go to China. (Me ... go a Jungwo.)


Will you come with me? I am begging you. (Ob yu ... kun me? Me ... .)


What do we need to take with us? (Kwo nu ... kun swa?)


We can take whatever you want. (Nu ... kwo unkwe yu ... .)


What do you want to see there? (Kwo yu ... dar?)


You don't know what to say? (Ob yu ... kwo ...?)


You can ask me, I will answer you. (Yu ..., me ... a yu.)


Are you happy? I am also happy. (Ob yu ...? Me toshi ... .)


You can sing, then dance, then sing again for joy. (Oni ..., poy ..., poy snova ... por joisa.)


Why do you suddenly say that you do not understand why travel? (Way yu turan ... ke yu ... fo kwo ...?)


Will you ask me about it? (Ob yu ... om to?)


But I can't answer you because I don't understand what you want to hear. (Bat me ... sikom me ... kwo yu ... .)


Although I understood you. (Obwol me ... yu.)


And I hope I understand. (E me ... ke me ... .)


What are you thinking about? When will you help me? (Om kwo yu ...? Wen yu ...?)


You should work, however you sing and dance. (Yu ..., yedoh yu ... .)


I'll have to tell them about you. (Me ... ... ta ...yu.)


Although I love you. I loved and will love. (Obwol me ... . Me ... e ... .)


TextEdit

Read the text. Try to retell it. Try to make your own story with all the words you know.

Me kwesti ta: "Hu komandi hir?"

Ta bu jawabi.

Me snova kwesti: "Way yu bu jawabi? Ob yu bu mog shwo?"

Ta shwo: "Me mog. Bat me bu jan kwo shwo. Bikos me bu jan hu komandi. Nu oli lubi mutu."

(afte Jani Rodari)

komandi - to command

Etiquette: Where are you from? Where do you live?Edit

Before asking a question, it may be appropriate to apologize for interrupting someone: Skusi.

When meeting, you may ask the question: Wo yu jivi? (Where do you live?).

In response, you’ll need the preposition in. The meaning is just as in English:

Me jivi in Sankt-Peterburg. I live in St. Petersburg.

You might also ask: Fon wo yu lai? (Where do you come from?)

In response, you’ll need the preposition fon (from).

Names of countries in the Lidepla language sound as close as possible to the way they are pronounced in the native language of these countries:

  • Rusia - Russia (Россия, Rossiya)
  • Ingland - England
  • Frans - France
  • Doichland - Germany (Deutschland')
  • Espania - Spain (España)
  • Nipon - Japan (日本, Nippon)
  • Jungwo - China (中国, Zhōngguó)
Me lai fon Rusia. I come from Russia.

Language in focus: ChineseEdit

Despite its popularity, the English language is only in third place by number of native speakers (about 300 million). The number of Chinese speakers is more than two times larger (over 800 million)!

The Chinese language is very ancient: scientists have found inscriptions carved on the bones of animals sacrificed as early as the 11th century BCE.

A feature of the single Chinese writing system is that the characters do not transmit the sounds and meanings of words. Several dialects were formed on the basis of this system, which have each evolved independently within different regions of China. Over time, more widely spoken dialects formed in the north, and these served as the basis for forming an official language for the Chinese empire, in which all significant documents were written, as well as the language of ordinary people, which was used only in oral communication.

The lexical structure of the language has undergone at least two significant transformations — in the 1st century BCE, when the arrival of Buddhism enriched the language with many religious and philosophical concepts; and from the beginning of the 20th century, when the language absorbed many concepts of Western civilization.

An excerpt from "The Little Prince" in Chinese (very approximate transcription recorded with the sounds of Lidepla but without marking the tones):

啊!我的小王子 ...... A! wo de syao wan zi
就这样,一点一滴地,我逐渐懂得了你那忧郁的小生命。 ziou je yan, idyen-idi-de, wo ju zien dun de le ni na you yu de syao shen min
长久以来,你惟一的乐趣只是欣赏落日。 ch'han ziou I lai, ni wei i de le tsiu ji shi sin shan luo r/shi
这是我在第四天早晨知道的,当你说出: je shi wo zai di si tien zao chen ji dao de dang ni shuo ch'hu
“我喜欢看夕阳。” wo si huan kan si yan

(reminder:

  • the Lidepla letter ‘z’ is read as a lightweight affricate "dz", as in the English word "adze."
  • the Lidepla letter ‘j’ is read as a lightweight affricate "dzh", as in the English word "June."

Chinese words are made up of syllables, each of which has its own value, and which are quite different from the sounds of familiar European languages. In addition, Chinese has not only the sounds themselves but also distinctive tones which specify how to pronounce a syllable — whether the vocal utterance is to be raised in pitch for that syllable, to be lowered or to remain at the same pitch.

Among the most frequent words of Lidepla, many words are borrowed from Chinese.

  • Reserved keywords and adverbs: bu (not), ba (marks imperative), gwo (some time ago, at one time, earlier in life), zai (current activity), zuy (most), fen (to form a fraction), shi (ten), idyen (a little), haishi (still), shao (a little), turan (suddenly).
  • Nouns: jen (man), bao (bag), mao (wool), dao (path), yuan (employee), guan (a public institution), bey (back), duza (abdomen), tuza (hare), chiza (spoon), feng (wind).
  • Verbs: zwo (do), shwo (talk), lwo (fall), yao (want to), kan (watch), gun (work), chi (eat), zin (included), chu (go), zun (to do something), mangi (to be busy with something), tungi (hurt), kaulu (consider, take into account).
  • Adjectives: hao (good), lao (old), gao (high), syao (small), byen (convenient), hwan (yellow), suan (sour), guy (expensive), kway (fast), lenge (cold), lan (lazy).


Exercise keys

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