Lingwa de planeta/Nouns and adjectives
In this lesson you will learn:
- 11 verbs (muvi, flai, lopi, sidi, stan, somni, plei, lekti, skribi, remembi, fogeti)
- 11 nouns (jen, kinda, amiga, dom, flor, kitaba, taim; sabah, dey, aksham, nocha)
- 5 adjectives (hao, buhao, syao, gran, jamile)
- 6 adverb modifiers to adjectives (muy, idyen, aika, basta, tro, ga)
- 7 special verbs (bi / es / bin, ye, yok, hev, sta)
- 7 possessive pronouns (may, nuy, yur, suy, luy, elay, ley)
- 5 index words (se, to, sey, toy, tal)
- 1 preposition (de)
- 1 question word (kwel)
- 8 suffixes (-ina, -o, a / sa, ing, shil, bile, kin, gron)
- 8 particles (-ge, gin-, man-, da, den, -ney, gro-, -ki)
. . . for a total of 70 units of the dictionary
(+ 97 from lessons 1 and 2, for a total of 167 units)
Nouns - words that answer the question "What?" (Kwo?) or "Who?" (Hu?).
Nouns can be simple, or they can be derived compounds.
Examples of simple nouns:
- jen (people)
- kinda (child)
- flor (flower)
- kitaba (book)
- dom (house)
- amiga (friend)
- taim (time)
Importantly, the noun itself conveys no clue as to number or amount.
Thus, depending on context, the word flor, for example, may refer to either a "flower" or to "flowers". To uniquely clarify the intended meaning, you can put the word un (one) before the word:
|un flor||one flower (a flower)|
Another way to specify that a word is singular (one thing, one piece) is to add the particle - ge as a quantifier or denumerator after the word:
|flor-ge||[a single] flower, one piece|
An adjective like mucho ("a lot") can specify the sense of quantity, countability or plurality' (See also Lesson 5.)
|mucho flor||many flowers|
A number of word pairs distinguish gender in nouns denoting relationships among people:
- gina (woman) / man (man)
- gela (girl) / boy (boy)
- mata (mother) / patra (father)
- docha (daughter) / son (son)
- sista (sister) / brata (brother)
- tia (aunt) / onkla (uncle)
- oma (grandmother) / opa (grandfather)
- kindocha (granddaughter) / kinson (grandson)
If necessary, information on gender can be supplied in other cases:
- by the prefixes gin- and man-.
|gin-leker (female doctor)||man-leker (male doctor)|
|gin-kota (female cat)||man-kota (male cat)|
- or by replacing the ending a with -ina or -o.
|amigina (girlfriend)||amigo (boyfriend)|
Nouns do not have declensions or case forms in Lidepla. However, the information provided by case endings as to the role or function in the sentence can be provided by a noun's sentence position:
- The subject ("nominative case") is shown by placing the noun before the verb:
|me jan.||I know.|
|amiga samaji.||A friend understands.|
- The indirect object ("dative case") or direct object ("accusative case") is shown by being placed after a preposition or after a verb, respectively
|Yu samaji me||You understand me.|
|Me shwo om amiga||I'm talking about a friend.|
If necessary, to indicate the case value of a word when changing the order of words (for example, to emphasize the meaning of a word), you can use special particles da for the nominative and den for the indirect case:
|Me vidi amiga. Den amiga me vidi.||I see a friend. I see a friend.|
|Om hu yu shwo? - Den amiga om.||Who are you talking about? - About a friend.|
|Ob lu samaji ela? - Non, samaji da ela (hi) den lu.||Does he understand her? - No, she understands him.|
Such particles make possible the almost free order of words in a sentence. We note, however, that it is not worth abusing these particles.
Verbal Nouns edit
Nouns can be formed from verbs.
A common noun associated with an action, denoting a process or result, is formed by:
- replacement of the final "i" on "a" (if the verb ends in a consonant + i):
- addition of "a" (if the verb ends in a consonant + i, but is monosyllabic):
- addition of "sa" (if the verb does not end in i):
It is important to note that in all these cases the noun is associated with the verb, but carries some additional meaning. You can, however, also form a pure verbal noun, denoting precisely the action as such, using the suffix -ing:
|swimi (to swim)||swiming (swimming)|
|janmi (to be born)||janming (birth)
(janma - birth)
Adjectives answer the question kwel? "which one?" or "what is it like?"
Examples of adjectives:
- hao (good)
- buhao (bad)
- gran (big)
- syao (small)
- jamile (beautiful)
in the combination ao, a is under stress,
the letter j reads like a light semi-soft fused "dzh", just like English j)
Together with adjectives, to clarify the meaning, the words are used:
- muy (very)
- idyen (a little)
- aika (rather)
- basta (enough)
- tro (too much)
- ga (entirely)
"quite" can be translated either as aika or as ga.
|ga syao||completely small|
|basta gran||big enough|
|muy jamile||very beautiful|
|aika hao||rather good|
Adjectives can be formed from verbs.
An adjective with the meaning "inclined to do something" is formed from the verb by adding the suffix shil (the position of stress does not change):
Adjectives with the meaning "which can .." are formed using the suffix bile (the word gets extra stress on the suffix):
|fond of traveling|
|fond of asking questions|
Verb bi / es / bin edit
In Lidepla, verbs do not change their form - except for the single verb "to be": the exception verb bi has the form es in the present tense and bin in the past. The future form is expresed as ve bi.
The linking verb bi/es/bin is usually preceded by a noun and followed by an adjective.
The verb bi/es/bin is never omitted.
|Kinda es ga syao.||The kid is quite small.|
|Ob flor bin muy jamile?||Was the flower very pretty?|
|Ob kitaba es basta hao?||Is the book good enough?|
In special questions with the verb bi (es, bin), inversion is possible and usually occurs, that is, the verb is placed immediately after the interrogative word:
|Wo es yu?||Where are you?|
In a complex sentence with a question word, as a rule, there is no inversion:
|Me jan wo yu es.||I know where you are.|
|The book is big enough.|
|The child is too small.|
|Where's the flower?|
|The flower was rather beautiful.|
|What will the house be like?|
|The house will be very good.|
If the subject is expressed by the word se ("this") or the pronouns ta or it, it can be omitted, both in the question and in the answer to it (if the meaning is clear from the context):
|Kwo es se? Kwo es?||What's this? What is it?|
|Se es kinda. Es kinda.||This is a child. It's a child.|
|Kwel es ta? Kwel es?||Which one are they? Which one?|
|Ta es ga syao. Es ga syao.||They are quite small. It's quite small.|
Adjective as an attribute edit
Of course, nouns, like personal pronouns, can act as the subject or object of the verb.
|Ob kinda jan-te?||Did the child know?|
|Me vidi un flor.||I see one flower.|
In this role, nouns can be accompanied by adjectives.
The adjective is usually placed before the word being described.
|Syao kinda bu ve samaji yu.||A small child will not understand you.|
|Me pri jamile flor.||I like beautiful flowers (in general).|
- sey (this)
- toy (that)
- tal (such)
|Sey flor es jamile.||This flower is beautiful.|
|Toy kitaba es syao.||That book is small.|
|Me bu pri tal jen.||I don't like such people.|
|This kid is small, but quite understanding.|
|That person was very good.|
|I don't like this house: it's too small.|
|You don't need to talk to such a person: they will not be a good friend to you.|
|That house is big enough for us to live in.|
|This child is too fond of asking questions.|
Verbs of availability ye, yok, hev edit
Sometimes you need to say "is" not in the sense of quality, but in the sense of the presence or absence of something: "there is".
In this case, instead of the verb bi, the words ye (there is, there are) and yok (there is no, is absent) are used:
|Ob ye kitaba?||Is there a book?|
|Ya, kitaba ye.||Yes, there's a book.|
|Non, kitaba yok.||No, there's no book.|
In order to report that something belongs to someone, use the verb hev - to have.
|Me hev un jamile flor.||I have a beautiful flower.|
|There is a small house there.|
|There are no flowers here.|
|We will have a child.|
|They had such a book.|
Possessive adjectives and pronouns edit
To ask the question "whose?" and answer it, the defining particle -ney is used:
|Hu-ney kitaba es?||Whose is the book?|
|Es kinda-ney kitaba.||It's the child's book.|
Possible compound adjectives:
|sey-kinda-ney kitaba||this child's book|
The same meaning can be expressed using the preposition de:
|Es kitaba de sey kinda.||It's the book of that child.|
Using the same particle -ney, one can, in principle, form possessive pronouns: me-ney, yu-ney, ta-ney, etc. But possessive pronouns are used very often in speech, so there are also short forms for them: may (mine), yur (your, yours), nuy (our), ley (their pl.), suy (his, her, their sing.), luy (his) , elay (her).
The reflexive pronoun swa can be used to form the possessive pronoun swa-ney (one's own).
|my child's book|
|our child's friend|
Particles gro- and -ki edit
The following are widely used in Lidepla language:
- augmentative particle prefix gro-
- diminutive particle suffix -ki
These particles can be used with all parts of speech:
|gro-pri||like it very much, love it very much|
|gro-jen||big person (in different senses)|
|somni-ki||doze off, nap|
To form the diminutive of a noun or name, you can replace the final vowel with "i". A long name can be shortened to one syllable (this method is not always applicable):
|doga (dog)||dogi (doggy (pet form))|
The language also has derivational suffixes -kin and -gron, which serve to form nouns with some new quality:
|kitaba (book)||kitabagron (huge tome)|
|dom (house)||domkin (greenhouse (for example))|
|be in dire need|
New verbs edit
|muvi||move||me muvi it, yu bu muvi-te, nu ve muvi|
|flai||fly||li bu flai-te, me bu ve flai, ta janmog flai|
|lopi||run||ela lopi-te, ob lu ve lopi? me bu lopi|
|sidi||sit||nu sidi-te, me ve sidi, ob yu sidi?|
|stan||stand||me stan, yu stan-te, li ve stan|
|somni||sleep||nu bu somni-te, ob yu somni? ta ve somni|
|plei||play||nu plei-te, me bu plei, li ve plei|
|lekti||read||ta lekti-te, li ve lekti, nu lekti|
|skribi||write||me skribi, ob yu ve skribi? nu bu skribi-te|
|remembi||remember||me bu remembi, nu ve remembi, yu bu remembi-te om me|
|fogeti||forget||ela fogeti, ob yu bu fogeti-te? me bu ve fogeti|
Translation exercise edit
|I have a friend.
|They are an excellent person.
|They are very hardworking and understanding.
|They have a small child.
|My friend wants to be with the child, wants to see how their child lives.
|But they can't, because they have to work.
|They don't have time to play with their child.
|When they arrive, the child is asleep.
|My friend hopes that when the child is big, they will be able to read books to them and talk about them with them.
|My friend's child can't understand why their father can't play with them.
|The child cannot sit without playing. They want to run, sing, dance.
|Also my friend has a father. He is very old.
|They don't remember what their name is.
|They do not see and therefore (because of this) cannot read and write.
|They need to sleep.
Read the text. Check the meaning of unknown words.
Try to retell this text and/or make up your own.
Me bu jan-te fon wo ta lai. Wen ta vidi may avion, ta kwesti:
- Kwo es sey kosa?
- Bu es kosa. Es avion. It flai.
- Also yu toshi lai fon skay? Es drole! Fon kwel planeta?
Also ta lai fon skay. Me kwesti:
- Fon wo yu lai? Wo es yur dom? A wo yu yao pren may yan?
(afte Antuan de Sent Exuperi)
- avion - airplane
- kosa - thing
- skay - sky
- drole - funny, amusing
- planeta - planet
- yan - sheep
Etiquette: “Good afternoon!”, “How are you?” edit
When greeting at different times of the day, you can use the following expressions:
- Hao sabah! - Good morning!
- Hao dey! - Good afternoon!
- Hao aksham! - Good evening!
- Hao nocha! - Good night!
(By themselves, the words sabah, dey, aksham, nocha denote morning, afternoon, evening and night, respectively.)
To ask "How are you?" you need the verb sta ("to be in some state"):
|Komo yu sta?||How are you?|
|Me sta hao.||I'm well.|
|Me sta muy hao.||I'm very well.|
|Me bu sta hao.||I'm not well.|
|Me sta buhao.||I'm not fine.|
Languages in focus: Spanish and Portuguese edit
By number of native speakers, the Spanish language is the second largest after Chinese (about 400 million).
Spanish belongs to the Romance languages group and, therefore, derived from Vulgar Latin, the language that was spoken among ordinary Romans, and which began to spread into the territory of modern Spain at the end of the 3rd century BCE, after Spain became a Roman dominion.
At that time the Iberian Peninsula was home to a large number of distinct tribes, the most numerous of which were the Iberians and the Celts. Along the shore of the Mediterranean there were some Greek colonies. In addition, by the 5th century, Germanic tribes had begun settling within the peninsula. As a consequence, a great number of words in modern Spanish have a direct link with Celtic, Greek, Phoenician and Visigoth analogues.
From the 8th to the 15th centuries, Moors from North Africa dominated the territory of the Iberian Peninsula. Interaction of Arab and Christian cultures was not simple and straightforward. Be that as it may, the influence of Arabic into Spanish was significant and undeniable.
In the Middle Ages, Spain was in a fragmented state, and different regions spoke different dialects. But the land of Castile gradually became most powerful and influential, and the Castilian dialect became the basis of modern Spanish. Nevertheless, differences in pronunciation and vocabulary remain clearly visible in the different provinces of Spain to this day.
Excerpt from The Little Prince
(Accent mark placed before the stressed syllables, The diphthongs ue and ua are pronounced together, with an emphasis on the second sound):
|¡Ah, principito!||aa prinsi′pito|
|Así, poco a poco, comprendí tu pequeña vida melancólica.||a′si ′poko a ′poko kompren′di tu pe′kenya 'vida melan′kolika|
|Durante mucho tiempo tu única distracción fue la suavidad de las puestas de sol.||du′rante mucho ′tyempo tu ′unika dis′trakf/sion fue la suavi′dad de las pu′estas de sol|
|Me enteré de este nuevo detalle, en la mañana del cuarto día, cuando me dijiste:||me ente′re de ′este ′nuevo de′taye en la ma′nyana del ku′arto ′dia ′kuando me di′histe|
|Me encantan las puestas de sol.||me en′kantan las ′puestas de sol|
Portuguese is closely related to Spanish, and is also one of the world’s very widely spoken languages.
Excerpt from The Little Prince in Portuguese:
|Ah, Principezinho!||aa prinsipezinyu|
|Assim, aos poucos, fui ficando a conhecer a tua melancólica vidinha!||assim aus poukus fui fikandu a konyeser a tua melankolika vijinya|
|Durante muito tempo, a tua única distracção foi a beleza dos crepúsculos.||duranchi muintu tempu, a tua unika jistrasaun foi a beleza dus krepuskulus|
|Fiquei a sabê-lo na manhã do quarto dia, quando me disseste:||fikei a sabelu na manyan du kwartu dia, kwandu mi jiseschi|
|Gosto muito dos pores do Sol.||gostu muintu dous poris ji sou.|
Spanish and Portuguese, being both in the Romance family of languages, contain a great number of words of Latin origin, many of which have become international. Such words make up a large part of the vocabulary of Lidepla.
The most frequent words borrowed from Spanish:
- Function words: a (to), kada (each), kwanto (how much), es (is), ela (she), mil (thousand), mucho (a lot), komo (a), sol (only), sin (no), i (and), muy (very), basta (enough), ambi (both), segun (according to).
- Nouns: kosa (a thing, something), flor (flower), tasa (cup), kamina (road), tren (train), avion (airplane), amiga (friend), vos (voice), munda (the world), oton (autumn), mes (month), isla (island), mar (sea).
- Verbs: skribi (to write), fumi (to smoke), inviti (to invite), visiti (to visit), resolvi (to solve a task), regi (to rule, reign), kresi (to grow), konsenti (to agree), doni (to give).
- Adjectives: gran (big), blan (white), lente (slow), otre (other), alegre (cheerful), agude (acute), vere (real), tarde (late), kare (expensive), libre (free), sane (healthy).