Mathematics is made of arguments (reasoned discourse that is, not crockery-throwing). This section is a reference to the most used techniques. A reader having trouble with, say, proof by contradiction, can turn here for an outline of that method.
But this section gives only a sketch. For more, these are classics: Methods of Logic by Quine, Induction and Analogy in Mathematics by Pólya, and Naive Set Theory by Halmos. Reader can also read the wikibook Mathematical Proof.