JLPT Guide/JLPT N5 Grammar

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Here is a list of the grammar points likely encountered on level N5 of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test. This list is taken from several years' old official test specifications. However, the test changes slightly from year to year, and occasionally some extra terms are included.

ですEdit

This means "is", "am" or "are" (depending on the situation), though the meaning in English is a lot broader than in Japanese. Some other words (「いる」 and 「ある」) also mean "is", depending on the situation.

  • Example: 私(わたし)はマイクですI am Mike.
  • Example: これはペンですThis is a pen.

Note:Pronounced as 'des-' instead of 'desu'

Edit

This means "too", "and" or "also".

  • Example: 彼(かれ)はサッカーが好き(すき)です。私(わたし)も サッカーが好き(すき)です。 He likes soccer. I like soccer, too.
  • Example: ケンはケーキ クッキーも食べ(たべ)ました。 Ken ate both cake and cookies.

Edit

This means "at" or "in", and is used when specifying where something happens.

  • Example: エミは学校(がっこう)数学(すうがく)を勉強(べんきょう)します。 Emi studies math at school.
  • Example: 私(わたし)は映画館(えいがかん)仮面ライダー(かめんらいだー)の映画(えいが)を見ました(みました)。 I watched Kamen Rider movie at theater.

に/へEdit

This means "to" and indicates such things as location of person or thing, location of short-term action, etc , and is used when describing a destination.

  • Example: リエ子はローマ行き(いき)ました。 Rieko went to Rome.
  • Example: 明日(あした)彼(かれ)は美術館(びじゅつかん)行く(いく)予定(よてい)です。 He plans to go to museum tomorrow.

Edit

This is a general use preposition. It can mean "in", "at", "to", "for", and other general prepositional phrases, depending on the context.

  • Example: この本(ほん)をあの人(ひと) 上げ(あげ)てください。 Please give the book to that person.
  • Example: 冬(ふゆ)、雪(ゆき)が降り(ふり)ます。 In winter, it snows.

Edit

This denotes the object of an action.

  • Example: あの猫(ねこ)は魚(さかな)食べ(たべ)た。 That cat ate the fish.

~ませんかEdit

This means "Won't you ~ ?" or "Shall we ~ ?". It's an invitation.

  • Example: ケーキを食べ(たべ)ませんかWon't you have some cake?
  • Example: 映画(えいが)をみませんかWon't you (shall we) watch a movie?

Edit

This denotes a topic.

  • Example: 彼女(かのじょ)嬉しい(うれしい)です。 She is happy.

~がありますEdit

This means "there is". It is used for non-living things (use 「がいます」 for living things).

  • Example: つくえの上(うえ)にボールがありますThere is a ball on the desk.
  • Example: はこの中(なか)にプレゼントがありますか。 Is there a present inside the box?

~がいますEdit

This means "there is" or "is" and is used for living things.

  • Example: あそこの木(き)の下(した)に、二人(ふたり)子供(こども)がいますThere are two children under the tree over there.
  • Example: 教室(きょうしつ)に田中(たなか)先生(せんせいい)がいますかIs Mr. Tanaka in the classroom?"

Edit

This is a particle used to link nouns in a complete list.

  • Example: そのサラダはレタスと にんじんと ラディッシュから 作り(つくり)ました。 The salad was made from lettuce, carrot, and radish.

~ましょうEdit

This is a polite volitional phrase, meaning "I'll" or "let's".

  • Example: 食べ(たべ)ましょうLet's eat!

~ましょうかEdit

This is a polite volitional phrase used for suggestions.

  • Example: 食べ(たべ)ましょうかHow about we eat?

~てくださいEdit

This is used to link verb copulas, ending in "て" or "で", to "ください", making it into a request.

  • Example: 日本語(にほんご)で話(はなし)て下さい(ください)Please speak in Japanese.
  • Example: 彼(かれ)に言っ(いっ)て下さい(ください)Please tell it to him.

~てもいいですEdit

This is used to link verb copulas to "もいいです" meaning "it's enough" or "it's good". It can be used as a request for permission.

  • Example: 料理(りょうり)してもいいですかMay I cook?
  • Example: 食べ(たべ)てもいいですYou may eat.

~てはいけませんEdit

This is used to link copulas to "はいけません", meaning "it's not good". It is used to scold or otherwise disapprove.

  • Example: サーラーの手書き(てがき)はよくありません(いけません)Sarah's handwriting is not great yet.

"はいけません", meaning "No you must not..." This is formed by using the te-form. て-form + はいけません...

  • Example: ここに車(くるま)を停め(とめ)てはいけませんYou must not park the car here.

~からEdit

Phrase meaning "from".

  • Example: この電車はサンホセからサンフランシスコにいきます。 This train goes from San Jose to San Francisco.

~ているEdit

いる, when used after the て form of a verb, indicates that an action is ongoing (progressive tense, marked in English by "ing",) or in a certain state.

  • Example: 私(わたし)は読ん(よん)でいますI am reading.
  • Example: ドアが 開い(ひらい)ていますThe door is open.
  • Example: 僕(ぼく)は結婚(けっこん)していますI am married.
  • Example: 子供(こども)たちは走っていますThe children are running.

~にいくEdit

It means to go somewhere or to go do something. If meaning to go do something, the にいく is used after a stem (a verb in its ます form without the ます, for example: the stem of 書き(かき)ます is 書き).

  • Example: 私(わたし)は泳ぎ(およぎ)に行くI go swimming.
  • Example: 彼(かれ)は勉強(べんきょう)に行ったHe went to study.
  • Example: 彼女(かのじょ)は東京(とうきょう)に行くShe's going to Tokyo.

ないでくださいEdit

This means "please don't do", used in place of a ない form of a verb.

  • Example: この林檎(りんご)を食べ(たべ)ないでくださいPlease don't eat this apple.
  • Example: その本(ほん)を読ま(よま)ないでくださいPlease don't read that book.

~のがすきですEdit

It means to like doing something.

  • Example: 私(わたし)はアニメを見る(みる)のが好き(すき)です。 I like watching anime.
  • Example: 彼女(かのじょ)は歌う(うたう)のが好き(すき)ですShe likes singing.

~のがじょうずですEdit

It means to be good at something.

  • Example: 彼女(かのじょ)は歌う(うたう)のが上手(じょうず)ですShe's good at singing.
  • Example: 貴方(あなた)は泳ぐ(およぐ)のが上手(じょうず)ですか。 Are you good at swimming?

~のがへたですEdit

It means to be bad at something.

  • Example: 私は踊る(おどる)のが下手(へた)ですI'm bad at dancing.
  • Example: 彼(かれ)は 勉強する(べんきょうする)のが下手(へた)ですHe's bad at studying.

まだ~ていませんEdit

It means that someone hasn't done something yet.

  • Example: 私(私)はまだ決め(きめ)ていません。 I haven't decided yet.
  • Example: 彼(かれ)はまだ帰っ(かえっ)ていません。 He hasn't returned yet.

~のほうが~よりEdit

It means that something is more (interesting/expensive/etc.) than something else.

  • Example: この本(ほん)の方(ほう)が あの新聞(しんぶん)より高い(たかい)。This book is more expensive than that newspaper.
  • Example: 図書館(としょかん)の方(ほう)が 学校(がっこう)より静か(しずか)。Library is quieter than school.

~のなかで~がいちばん~Edit

It means the best from something or the most (new/old/expensive/likeable/etc.).

  • Example: あの図書館(としょかん)の中(なか)でこの本(ほん)がいちばんThis book is the best book in that library.
  • Example: このお菓子(おかし)の中(なか)でクッキーがいちばん好き(すき)です。From these sweets I like cookies the most.

つもりですEdit

This means a plan or an intent of doing something.

  • Example: 私(わたし)は映画(えいが)を 見(み)に行く(いく)つもりですI'm going to go see a movie.
  • Example: 貴方(あなた)は何(なに)を勉強(べんきょう)するつもりですか? What are you going to study?

~く/ ~になるEdit

It means to become (smart/tall/etc.). If used with -na adjectives it's adj+になる, for -i adjectives it's adj+くなる.

  • Example: あの女性(じょせい)はきれいになったThat woman became beautiful.
  • Example: この自転車(じてんしゃ)は古(ふる)くなったThis bicycle became old.

V stem + たいですEdit

Creates the polite 'want to do' form of a verb

  • Example: 僕(ぼく)はケーキを食べ(たべ)たいです。 I want to eat some cake.

~たり …~たりするEdit

It makes a list of activities or attributes. It means something like "this and that/sometimes this and sometimes that/in some parts this in other parts that". With nouns or -na adjectives it becomes "~だったり …~だったりする".

  • Example: 昨日(きのう)私(わたし)は本(ほん)を読ん(よん)だりお菓子(おかし)を食べ(たべ)たりしたYesterday I was reading a book and eating sweets.
  • Example: あの映画(えいが)は面白(おもしろ)かったりつまらなかったりするThat movie is interesting in some parts and boring in other parts.
  • Example: 彼女(かのじょ)は親切(しんせつ)だったりきれいだったりするShe's nice and beautiful.

~たことがあるEdit

It indicates that something has (or hasn't ever) happened in the past.

  • Example: 私(わたし)は東京(とうきょう)へ行ったことがあるI've been to Tokyo.
  • Example: 私(わたし)はそれを聞い(きい)たことがないI've never heard of this.

Edit

This is a particle used to link nouns in an incomplete list.

  • Example: 猫(ねこ)犬(いぬ)猿(さる)が動物園(どうぶつえん)にいます。 There are cats and dogs and monkeys (among other things) at the zoo.

~んですEdit

It accents the sentence's content or softens a request or an order. It may be also said as "~のです". With -na adjectives and nouns it becomes "~なのです".

  • Example: 私(わたし)は今(いま)忙しい(いそがしい)んですI'm busy right now.
  • Example: 私(わたし)は今(いま)そうじ中(ちゅう)なのですI'm cleaning right now.
  • Example: テニスはするんですかDo you play tennis? (at all, not right now)

~すぎるEdit

It means "too much" or "too (big/small/expensive/etc.)".

  • Example: 山田(やまだ)さんは食べ(たべ)すぎるMr. Yamada eats too much.
  • Example: 私(わたし)は食べ物(たべもの)を買い(かい)すぎたI bought too much food.
  • Example: このシャツは大き(おおき)すぎるThis shirt is too big.

~ほうがいいEdit

It means "it's better" or "it would be better", it may be also used to say that something should (or shouldn't) be done.

  • Example: 貴方(あなた)はこの本(ほん)を買っ(かっ)たほうがいいYou should buy this book.
  • Example: 私(わたし)はあのケーキを食べ(たべ)ないほうがいいI shouldn't eat that cake.

のでEdit

It means "because" or "so". The cause is more impartial (like because a building is red or tall) than with "から" or "だから" where it's more subjective (like because you think an apple tastes good). With nouns and -na adjectives it becomes "なので".

  • Example: この本(ほん)は高い(たかい)ので買わ(かっわ)ない。I'm not buying this book, because it's expensive.
  • Example: あの映画(えいが)を見た(みた)ので他(ほか)の映画(えいが)を見(み)よう。I've seen this movie so let's watch a different one.
  • Example: 彼女(かのじょ)は病気(びょうき)なので来(こ)ない。She isn't coming because she's sick.

~なくちゃいけないEdit

It means that something has to be done (lit: it's bad not to do it).

  • Example: 貴方(あなた)は宿題(しゅくだい)を終わら(おわら)なくちゃいけないYou have to finish your homework. (It's not good for you to not finish your homework.)

でしょうEdit

It means something like "isn't it/aren't you/aren't I/etc." or "right?". It's used when the speaker isn't sure about something or in rhetorical questions.

  • Example: 貴方(あなた)は七(しち)時(じ)まえに帰る(かえる)でしょ? You'll come back before 7 o'clock, right?
  • Example: これは本(ほん)でしょ?' 'It's a book, isn't it?
  • Example: あのビルは普通(ふつう)じゃないでしょ? That building isn't normal, is it?
  • Example: 彼(かれ)は泳げ(およげ)ないでしょ? He can't swim, can he?
  • Example: ドレスは黒(くろ)くて青い(あおい)でしょThe dress is black and blue, isn't it?

~まえにEdit

It means "before doing (something)" or "ago" (like 3 days ago).

  • Example: 食べる(たべる)前(まえ)に手(て)を洗っ(あらっ)て下さい(ください)。Please wash your hands before eating.
  • Example: 私(わたし)は一(いち)時間(じかん)前(まえ)に帰っ(かえっ)た。I came back an hour ago.
  • Example: 私(わたし)はプールで入る(はいる)前(まえ)に30分(ふん)も待ち(まち)ました。 I waited 30 minutes before entering the pool.

~てからEdit

It means to do something after doing something else.

  • Example: 考え(かんがえ)てから言って(いって)ください。 Please speak after thinking. or Think then speak please.
  • Example: 私は手を洗ってから食事(しょくじ)をした。 I had a meal after washing my hands.
  • Example: 私は宿題(しゅくだい)をしてからねました。 I went to sleep after doing homework.

NotesEdit

The list of grammar terms was compiled by Jonathan Waller, [1].