Ido for All/Lesson 02

Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page

Lesson 02 - Duesma LecionoEdit

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are words which modify nouns and describe the appearance or quality of something: big, small, bad, beautiful, red. Ido adjectives are easily recognised by their -A ending, as shown in the vocabulary below.

Vortaro (Vocabulary)Edit

dormas - sleeps anciena - old (contrary to new)
drinkajo - drink olda - old (of living beings)
floro - flower bela - beautiful
kavalo - horse blua - blue
manjajo - food granda - big/large
muro - wall mikra - little/small
por - for reda - red
plado - plate yuna - young
taso - cup anke - also
kompras - buys hike - here
lernas [LERR-nas] - learns mea - my
habitas - lives vua - your
parolas - talks/speaks adhike - "to" here
pozas - puts adsur - onto/upon

ExempliEdit

You are learning Ido. - Vu lernas Ido.

You speak Ido. - Vu parolas Ido.

I am learning Ido. - Me lernas Ido.

I speak Ido. - Me parolas Ido.

I have a beautiful house. - Me havas bela domo.

My house is big. - Mea domo esas/es granda.

The house is big. - La domo esas/es granda.

I live here. - Me habitas hike.

I sleep in the garden. - Me dormas en la gardeno.

My dog is old. - Mea hundo esas/es olda.

My dog also lives here. - Mea hundo anke habitas hike.

The dog sleeps in my small garden. - La hundo dormas en mea mikra gardeno.

The little cat looks at the big dog. - La mikra kato regardas la granda hundo.

You live in a beautiful house. - Vu habitas en bela domo.

You sleep on the beautiful table. - Vu dormas sur la bela tablo.

The cat sleeps under the beautiful flower. - La kato dormas sub la bela floro.

The horse is old. - La kavalo esas/es olda.

The little horse is young. - La mikra kavalo esas/es yuna.

The young horse likes the drink. - La yuna kavalo prizas la drinkajo.

You are buying food for the horse. - Vu kompras manjajo por la kavalo.

I buy food here. - Me kompras manjajo hike.

I am putting your plate here. - Me pozas vua plado adhike.

The plate is red. - La plado esas/es reda.

I am putting food on the plate. - Me pozas manjajo adsur la plado.

The old mouse eats the food. - La olda muso manjas la manjajo.

A drink is in the small cup. - Drinkajo esas/es en la mikra taso.

The blue cup is on the table. - La blua taso esas/es sur la tablo.

You see the mouse in the cup. - Vu vidas la muso en la taso.

Your milk is also in the cup. - Vua lakto esas /es anke en la taso.

I am putting the book on the wall. - Me pozas la libro adsur la muro.

The NegativeEdit

The negative in Ido is formed by using "ne". It means "not".

In English we say "I am not, I must not, I have not (I haven't)". But in Ido the negation "ne" is usually in front of the verb:

Me ne es, Me ne havas, but,

Me ne mustas - I don't have to...

Me NE mustas irar adible. - I do not have to go there.

Me NE mustas facar to. - I don't have to do it (no responsibility to do it).

Me mustas NE facar to. - I must not do it (total responsibility to NOT do it, stronger sense than "I don't have to do it.").

Most verbs in English add "does" or "do" to help form the negative:

I "do" not have (I don't have). Peter "does" not read (doesn't read).

Ido forms negatives without using an equivalent to "do" or "does". Ido uses the same simple "ne" pattern for all negatives:

Me ne havas (I do not have), Peter ne lektas (Peter does not read).

DerivationEdit

Ido creates many new words (called "derivations") from a smaller group of "root" words (called "radicals") by adding new beginnings and endings to the roots to specify the meaning. We will have many, many examples of this process. Our first example shows how to make nouns from adjectives. The process is simple: change the adjective ending -A to the noun ending -O, and you have a noun with the same sense of the adjective:

bona - good -> bono - good one/good man.

yuna - young -> yuno - young one/young boy or girl.

acesora - accessory -> acesoro - an accessory.

You can also go the other way, to create adjectives from nouns: oro - gold -> ora - golden, made of gold.

ExempliEdit

I am - Me esas/es. I am not - Me ne esas/es.

I have - Me havas. I haven't - Me ne havas.

I see - Me vidas. I don't see - Me ne vidas.

I like - Me prizas. I don't like - Me ne prizas.

I walk - Me promenas. I am not walking - Me ne promenas.

I am not old. - Me ne esas/es olda.

I don't see you. - Me ne vidas vu.

You don't see me. - Vu ne vidas me.

I don't like the house. - Me ne prizas la domo.

I am not eating the food. - Me ne manjasla manjajo.

The dog doesn't speak Ido. - La hundo ne parolas Ido.

You do not live in London. - Vu ne habitas en London.

The dog is not learning Ido. - La hundo ne lernas Ido.

Maria doesn't live in Paris. - Maria ne habitas en Paris.

You are not looking at Maria. - Vu ne regardas Maria.

You are not reading the book. - Vu ne lektas la libro.

The plate is not in the house. - La plado ne esas/es en la domo.

The dog isn't looking at the horse. - La hundo ne regardas la kavalo.

The cat is not sleeping in the box. - La kato ne dormas en la buxo.

The boy/girl is not drinking the milk. - La yuno ne drinkas la lakto.

VortaroEdit

bruna - brown grosa - fat
chasas - chases hodie - today
do - so/therefore ilu - he/him
dop - behind magra - thin/lean
ek - out of nun - now
elu - she/her ofte - often
felica - happy sama - same
feroca - fierce strado - street
fisho - fish tre - very
foresto - forest trista - sad
gazoneyo - lawn adsur - onto/upon

ExempliEdit

Felix is a thin old cat. - Felix esas/es magra olda kato.

He lives behind your house in the forest. - Ilu habitas dop vua domo en la foresto.

He often walks in my large garden. - Ilu ofte promenas en mea granda gardeno.

He often sleeps on my lawn. - Ilu ofte dormas sur mea gazoneyo.

Today Felix is chasing a fat brown mouse. - Hodie Felix chasas grosa bruna muso.

Today Felix hasn't got any food. - Hodie Felix ne havas manjajo.

He is very sad. - Ilu esas/es tre trista.

So I put a fish for him on a plate in the garden. - Do me pozas fish por ilu adsur plado en la gardeno.

Now Felix is very happy. - Nun Felix esas/es tre felica.

Maria sees Felix. - Maria vidas Felix.

She doesn't like Felix and chases him out of my garden. - Elu ne prizas Felix e chasas ilu ek mea gardeno.

Felix is on the street. - Felix esas/es sur la strado.

Rex is a fierce dog. - Rex esas/es feroca hundo.

Rex sees Felix and chases him. - Rex vidas Felix e chasas ilu.

KonversadoEdit

There are some grammatical points in this conversation that you haven't seen up to now. They will be explained in later lessons. You can understand and use these conversational phrases without knowing the grammatical fine points just yet.

Good morning! - Bona matino!

Good day! - Bona jorno!

What is your name? - Quale vu nomesas?

My name is Peter. - Me nomesas Peter.

How are you? - Quale vu standas?

Very well. - Tre bone.

Thank you! - Me dankas!

Are you tired? - Ka vu esas fatigita?

Not at all! - Tote ne!

Yes, a little. - Yes, kelkete.

No, sir. - No, sioro.

If you please. - Me pregas.

I am hungry. - Me hungras.

Are you thirsty? - Ka vu durstas?

Give me a glass. - Donez a me glaso.

A cup of tea. - Taso de teo.

Do you want...? - Ka vu deziras...?

I don't mind. - Me ne objecionas.

It does not matter. - Ne importas.

Adjectives - Short FormsEdit

You may drop the final "a" of adjectives for euphony: Bona -> Bon.

KonversadoEdit

Here is another conversation between Peter and Mary.

P: Bon jorno! Quale vu standas?

M: Tre bone, danko. E vu?

P: Me standas bone, danko. Me nomesas Peter. Quale vu nomesas?

M: Me nomesas Mary.

P: Til rivido, Mary!

M: Til rivido, Peter!

Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page