Ido for All/Lesson 03

Lesson 03 - Triesma LecionoEdit

QuestionsEdit

So far, we have been making simple statements in Ido, such as: Me vidas la kato or Me tushas la hundo. Now, we will see how to make questions.

The English language uses two basic models for questions:

  1. Some verbs can be used as questions by changing the word order, for example: "I must" becomes "Must I?" "He is" becomes "Is he?" and "They can" becomes "Can they?".
  2. Some other verbs require "do" or "does" at the beginning of the sentence to make it into a question: "He sings" becomes "Does he sing?", and "You come" becomes "Do you come?"

In Ido, question-making is much simpler. First, the words are kept in exactly the same order as for a statement, but to make it clear that a question is being asked, the word "Ka" (or "Kad") is placed at the beginning of the sentence.

"Ka/Kad" has no equivalent in English:

Vu havas kato (You've got a cat) becomes: Ka vu havas kato? (Do you have a cat? Have you got a cat?)

Me manjas ovo (I am eating an egg) becomes: Ka me manjas ovo? (Am I eating an egg?)

Note as with "ed/e", if the following word begins with a vowel, then it is usual, though not obligatory, to use "kad" instead:

Ilu mustas (He must) -> Kad ilu mustas? (Must he?)

Or, you may use "kad" always, regardless of the following word. Note, if there is a question-word like who, where, etc., "ka/kad" is not used:

Ube vu habitas? - Where do you live?

Kad vu komprenis? - Did you understand?

VortaroEdit

a - to no - no
ad - to (before word beginning with vowel) ol/olu - it
arboro - tree parko - park
bona - good policisto - policeman
blanka - white ponto - bridge
bruna - brown rivero - river
ibe - there portas - carries/wears
iras - goes ucelo - bird
jupo - skirt venas - comes
mala - bad yes - yes
nigra - black

ExempliEdit

I am, Am I? - Me es, Ka me es?

He is, Is he? - Ilu es, Kad ilu es?

You have, Have you? - Vu havas, Ka vu havas?

Am I good? No. - Ka me esas/es bona? No.

Are you beautiful? Yes. - Ka vu esas/es bela? Yes.

Is Mary wearing a beautiful skirt? - Ka Mary portas bela jupo?

Yes, she is wearing a beautiful white skirt. - Yes, elu portas bela blanka jupo.

Is the policeman in the park? - Ka la policisto esas/es en la parko?

Is he in the park? - Kad ilu esas/es en la parko?

No, he is not here today. - No, ilu ne esas/es hike hodie.

Have you got a black dog? - Ka vu havas nigra hundo?

No, I have a brown dog. - No, me havas bruna hundo.

He is drinking. Is he drinking? - Ilu drinkas. Kad ilu drinkas?

Have you a cat? - Ka vu havas kato?

Yes, I have a white cat. - Yes, me havas blanka kato.

Is she coming? - Kad elu venas?

No, she is going to the bridge. - No, elu iras a la ponto.

Is the bird drinking? - Ka la ucelo drinkas?

Is the bird on the bridge? - Ka la ucelo esas/es sur la ponto?

No, it is not there. - No, olu ne esas/es ibe.

She is eating. Is she eating? - Elu manjas. Kad elu manjas?

Is she eating a fish? - Kad elu manjas fisho?

Is the fish in the water? - Ka la fisho esas/es en la aquo?

Yes, it is in the water, and the dog as well. - Yes, olu esas/es en la aquo, e la hundo anke.

PluralsEdit

In English, to show that we are talking about more than one thing, we usually add an "s", e.g. "cat" becomes "cats", "pig" becomes "pigs", etc. In Ido, forming the plural is also very simple. The -O ending of the noun is changed to an -I, so that "kato" (cat) becomes "kati" (cats), "hundo" (dog) becomes "hundi" (dogs) and so on, without exception.

The adjective does not change for a plural noun; but when used without a noun, it becomes a noun itself, and then takes the plural form, if necessary:

blanka hundi - white dogs, nigra kavali - black horses

La blanki e la nigri - The whites and the blacks.

The Definite Article:- "le" for the PluralEdit

The definite article "le" is used when there is no other sign that the reference is intended to be plural:

le yes e le no - the ayes and the nays

blanka hundi - white dogs, nigra kavali - black horses

Le blanka e le nigra - The whites and the blacks.

ExempliEdit

a cat, cats - kato, kati

a table, tables - tablo, tabli

I see the cat. - Me vidas la kato.

You see the cats. - Vu vidas la kati.

The cats are on the tables. - La kati esas/es sur la tabli.

The cat is sleeping behind the flowers. - La kato dormas dop la flori.

The books are black. - La libri esas/es nigra.

Does he like apples? - Kad ilu prizas pomi?

The parks are beautiful. - La parki esas/es bela.

Mary likes white skirts. - Mary prizas blanka jupi.

Have you got a beautiful skirt? - Ka vu havas bela jupo?

The fish are in the water. - La fishi esas/es en la aquo.

The policemen are not fat. - La policisti ne esas/es grosa.

The policemen are chasing the teenagers. - La policisti chasas la yuni.

The mice are chasing the cat. - La musi chasas la kato.

The birds are in the trees. - La uceli esas/es en la arbori.

The birds are on the bridges. - La uceli esas/es sur la ponti.

Are the children in the trees? - Ka la yuni esas/es en la arbori?

The horses are drinking the water. - La kavali drinkas la aquo.

The flowers are in the cup on the table. - La flori esas/es en la taso sur la tablo.

VortaroEdit

danko - thank you kuko - cake
deziras - desires/wants me pregas - please
durstas - is/are thirsty taso de kafeo - cup of coffee
hungras - is/are hungry yen - here is
glaso - glass pekunio - money
glaso de lakto - glass of milk semblas ke - it seems that
kafeo [ka-FE-o] - coffee esas/es - is/am/are
kafeerio [ka-fe-E-ryo] - cafe ma - but

KonversadoEdit

En la kafeerio.

P: Bon jorno, Mary! Quale vu standas?

M: Bon jorno, Peter! Me standas bone, danko. E vu?

P: Tre bone, danko. Ka vu durstas?

M: Yes, me durstas. Ube la kafeerio esas?

P: Yen la kafeerio! Ka vu deziras taso de kafeo?

M: No, danko. Me deziras glaso de lakto, me pregas.

P: Ka vu hungras?

M: Yes, me hungras.

P: Ka vu deziras kuko?

M: Yes, me pregas. Me prizas kuki.

P: Hm...Mary... Semblas ke me ne havas mea pekunii... Ka vu havas.....pekunio?

Answer these general questions -> ExamplesEdit

1) Quale vu nomesas? -> Me nomesas Bebson Hochfeld. 2) Quale vu standas? -> Me standas tre bone. 3) Ka vu ofte drinkas lakto? -> Yes, me tre ofte drinkas lakto. 4) Ka vu havas bela domo? -> Yes, me havas bela, mikra domo. 5) Ka vu havas gardeno? -> Yes, me havas mikra gardeno. 6) Ka vu havas kato? -> No, me ne havas un. 7) Ka vu prizas kati? -> No, me ne prizas kati. 8) Ka vu havas granda hundo? -> No, me nek (neither) prizas hundo. 9) Ka vu esas/es en la parko? -> Yes, me esas/es en la parko. 10) Ka vu hungras? -> Yes, me esas/es grosa e sempre hungras. 11) Ka vu prizas kafeo? -> Yes, me tre prizas kafeo. 12) Ka vu durstas? -> No, me ne durstas ma me hungras. 13) Ka vu deziras kuko? -> Yes, me multe deziras kuko. 14) Ka vu esas/es bona? -> Yes, me esas/es tre bona segun me (as far as I know). 15) Ka vu prizas blanka musi? -> No, no, me ne prizas musi.

ColorsEdit

blanka - white purpura - purple
blua - blue oranjea - orange
bruna - brown reda - red
flava - yellow rozea - pink
griza - grey verda - green
nigra - black violea - violet

The ImperativeEdit

The imperative is the form of the verb used for giving orders and commands. So far we have met the present tense ending -AS, as in "drinkas", "manjas", etc. To make the above words into commands is easy. You merely exchange the -AS ending with -EZ. This gives for example: drinkez! (Drink!), manjez! (Eat!), venez! (Come!).

VortaroEdit

apertez - open! sideskez - sit down!
donez - give! staceskez - stand up!
irez - go! tushez - touch!
klozez - close! krayono - pencil
pozez- put! adsur - onto/upon
levez - pick up!

ExempliEdit

Stand up! - Staceskez! Sit down! - Sideskez! Open the box! - Apertez la buxo! Eat the apple! - Manjez la pomo! Open the book! - Apertez la libro! Open the door! - Apertez la pordo! Close the book! - Klozez la libro! Close the window! - Klozez la fenestro! Touch the chair! - Tushez la stulo! Touch the window! - Tushez la fenestro! Drink your coffee! - Drinkez vua kafeo! Pick the book up! - Levez la libro! Pick the chair up! - Levez la stulo! Pick up the pencil! - Levez la krayono! Give the book to me! - Donez la libro a me! Put the cup on the table! - Pozez la taso adsur la tablo! Put the plate on the chair! - Pozez la plado adsur la stulo! Put the pencil on the table! - Pozez la krayono adsur la tablo! Put the pencil on the chair! - Pozez la krayono adsur la stulo!

AnimalsEdit

Note that the following can be either male or female. Distinction is made in the following lesson.

anado - duck krokodilo - crocodile
bovo - cow or bull leopardo - leopard
cervo - deer leono - lion
elefanto - elephant muso - mouse
gorilo - gorilla mutono - sheep
hano - chicken, hen or rooster  porko - pig
hundo - dog tigro - tiger
kamelo - camel simio [SI-myo] - monkey
kato - cat urso - bear
kapro - goat volfo - wolf
kavalo - horse