# I Ching/Explanation Of I Ching Hexagrams And Lines

Notes: In the table below,

1. The column on the right gives the name of the Gua (hexagram) in Simplified Chinese. The name of each hexagram in Traditional Chinese can be found in the left column.
2. For each Gua, the left column gives the binary representation of the Gua. For example, the first Gua is "Qian", and it can be represented by "111111". When the table is sorted by this column, it will also be sorted by the binary representation of the Gua, and the I Ching hexagrams arranged by Shao Yong, in vertical sequence, appears. In other words, Shao Yong arranged the Gua from "000000" (as the first hexagram) to "111111" (as the last hexagram), in strict binary order, about a thousand years ago.
3. When the table is sorted by the right column, we can conveniently find a hexagram by its name as transliterated from Chinese. However, this name is not in Pinyin or Wade-Giles, and the tonal pronunciation can only be found in the left column. For example, if we look for "Jian" and "Qian" in the column on the right, we will find two entries for each of these terms. We can then proceed to obtain the pronunciation in the left column, one for each entry. The transliteration in the right column serves as a pointer to the accurate pronunciation and Chinese characters representing each of the 64 hexagrams.
4. The translation and transliteration of the Chinese characters representing the hexagrams can differ substantially between authors, depending on their understanding and interpretation, as well as whether they use Pinyin, Wade-Giles, or their own method of transliteration. For example, Qian (the first hexagram) is translated as "Initiating" by Alfred Huang, and translated as "The Creative" by James Legge. In addition, this hexagram is transliterated as "Qian" and "Ch'ien" by the two authors respectively, and in Pinyin it is represented as "qián". The hexagrams themselves are the only unchanging references between books by different authors.
5. The translation of some basic terms can be problematic, and sometimes Legge attempts a word-for-word translation. For example, the term "small man" means 小人, although it actually means a petty or mean-spirited person, of either gender. The term "superior man" means 君子, and indicates a person of virtue (in the Confucian sense of the term), regardless of gender. In other words, the terms "small" and "superior" refer to the moral and ethical stature and not the physical size of a person. Similarly, the terms "man" or "men" usually refer to person(s)/human(s) and are not indicative of gender.
(Binary Representation)
&
Name of Gua
(translated by Alfred Huang)
and its explanation (by King Wen)
Name of Gua
(transliterated from Chinese)
and explanation of the lines
(by the Duke of Kau)
(111111)

Initiating : 01 (乾 qián)
Vast is the 'great and originating power' indicated by Ch'ien! All things owe to it their beginning: it contains all the meanings belonging to the name heaven.

The clouds move and the rain is distributed; the various things appear in their developed forms.

The sages grandly understand the connection between the end and the beginning, and how the indications of the six lines in the hexagram are accomplished, each in its season. Accordingly they mount the carriage drawn by those six dragons at the proper times, and drive through the sky.

The method of Ch'ien is to change and transform, so that everything obtains its correct nature as appointed by the mind of Heaven; and thereafter the conditions of great harmony are preserved in union. The result is 'what is advantageous, and correct and firm.'

The sage appears aloft, high above all things, and the myriad states all enjoy repose.

Qian :乾

Heaven in its motion, gives the idea of strength. The superior man, in accordance with this, nerves himself to ceaseless activity.

1. The dragon lies hid in the deep; it is not the time for active doing; this appears from the strong and undivided line being in the lowest place.
2. The dragon appears in the field; the diffusion of virtuous influence has been wide.
3. Active and vigilant all the day; this refers to the treading of the proper path over and over again.
4. He seems to be leaping up, but is still in the deep; if he advances, there will be no error.
5. The dragon is on the wing in the sky; the great man rouses himself to work.
6. The dragon exceeds the proper limits; there will be occasion for repentance; a state of fullness, that is, should not be indulged in long.
7. The same undivided line is used in all the places of this hexagram, but the attribute of heaven should not always take the foremost place. (This is the seventh or hidden line of the Qian hexagram. Only two hexagrams, namely Qian and Kun, have this hidden line.)
(000000)

Responding : 02 (坤 kūn)
Complete is the great and originating capacity indicated by K'un! All things owe to it their birth; it receives obediently the influences of Heaven.

K'un, in its largeness, supports and contains all things. Its excellent capacity matches the unlimited power of Ch'ien.

Its comprehension is wide, and its brightness great. The various things obtain by it their full development.

The mare is a creature of earthly kind. Its power of moving on the earth is without limit; it is mild and docile, advantageous and firm: such is the course of the superior man.

If he take the initiative, he goes astray: he misses, that is, his proper course. If he follow, he is docile, and gets into his regular course. In the southwest he will get friends: he will be walking with those of his own class. In the northeast he will lose friends: but in the end there will be ground for congratulation.

The good fortune arising from resting in firmness corresponds to the unlimited capacity of the earth.

Kun :坤

The capacity and sustaining power of the earth is what is denoted by K'un. The superior man, in accordance with this, with his large virtue supports men and things.

1. He is treading on hoarfrost; the strong ice will come by and by: the cold air has begun to take form. Allow it to go on quietly according to its nature, and the hoarfrost will come to strong ice.
2. The movement indicated by the second line, divided is from the straight line to the square. Its operation, without repeated effort, in every way advantageous, shows the brilliant result of the way of earth.
3. He keeps his excellence under restraint, but firmly maintains it: at the proper time he will manifest it. He may have occasion to engage in the King's service: great is the glory of his wisdom.
4. A sack tied up; there will be no error: this shows how, through carefulness, no injury will be received.
5. The yellow lower garment; there will be great good fortune: this follows from that ornamental color's being in the right and central place.
6. The dragons fight in the wild: the onward course indicated by K'un is pursued to extremity.
7. The lines are all weak and divided: but those who are thus represented becoming perpetually correct and firm, there will thereby be a great consummation. (This is the seventh or hidden line of the Kun hexagram. Only two hexagrams, namely Qian and Kun, have this hidden line.)
(010001)

Beginning : 03 (屯 zhūn)
In Chun we have the strong Ch'ien and the weak K'un commencing their intercourse, and difficulties arising.

Movement in the midst of peril gives rise to great progress and success, through firm correctness.

By the action of the thunder and rain, which are symbols of Chên and K'an, all between Heaven and Earth is filled up. But the condition of the time is full of irregularity and obscurity.

Feudal princes should be established, but the feeling that rest and peace have been secured should not be indulged even then.

Zhun :屯

The trigram representing clouds and that representing thunder form Chun. The superior man, in accordance with this, adjusts his measures of government as in sorting the threads of the warp and woof.

1. Although there is a difficulty in advancing, the mind of the subject of the line is set on doing what is correct. While noble, he humbles himself to the mean, and grandly gains the people.
2. The difficulty to the subject of the second line, divided, arises from its place over the undivided line below it. The union and children after ten years shows things resuming their regular course.
3. One pursues the deer without the guidance of the forester: He does so in his eagerness to follow the game. The superior man gives up the chase knowing that if he go forward he will regret it: he would be reduced to extremity.
4. Going forward after such a search for a helper shows intelligence.
5. Difficulty is experienced by the subject of the fifth line in bestowing his rich favors; the extent to which they reach will not yet be conspicuous.
6. He weeps tears of blood in streams: how can the state thus emblemed continue long?
(100010)
```Childhood : 04 ䷃ (蒙 méng)
```

In Mêng we have the trigram for a mountain, and below it that of a rugged defile with a stream in it. The conditions of peril and arrest of progress suggested by these give the idea in Mêng.

Mêng indicates that there will be progress and success: for there is development at work in it, and its time of action is exactly what is right. 'I do not seek the youthful and inexperienced; he seeks me:' so does will respond to will.

When he shows the sincerity that marks the first recourse to divination, I instruct him: for possessing the qualities of the undivided line and being in the central place, the subject of the second line thus speaks.

A second and third application create annoyance, and I do not instruct so as to create annoyance, annoyance he means to the ignorant.

The method of dealing with the young and ignorant is to nourish the correct nature belonging to them; this accomplishes the service of the sage.

Meng :蒙

The trigram representing a mountain, and beneath it that for a spring issuing forth from Mêng. The superior man, in accordance with this, strives to be resolute in his conduct and nourishes his virtue.

1. It will be advantageous to use punishment: the object of being to bring under the influence of correcting law.
2. A son able to sustain the burden of his family: as appears from the reciprocation between this strong line and the weak fifth line.
3. A woman such as is here represented should not be taken in marriage: her conduct is not agreeable to what is right.
4. The regret arising from ignorance bound in chains is due to the special distance of the subject of this line from the solidity shown in lines 2 and 6.
5. The good fortune belonging to the simple lad without experience comes from his docility going on to humility.
6. Advantage will come from warding off injury; the subject of this line above and the ignorant below, all do and are done to in accordance with their nature.
(010111)
```Needing : 05 ䷄ (需 xū)
```

Hsu denotes waiting.

The figure shows peril in front; but notwithstanding the firmness and strength indicated by the inner trigram, its subject does not allow himself to be involved in the dangerous defile: it is right he should not be straightened or reduced to extremity.

When it is said that, with the sincerity declared in Hsu, there will be brilliant success, and with firmness there will be good fortune, this is shown by the position of the fifth line in the place assigned by Heaven, and its being the correct position for it, and in the centre.

It will be advantageous to go through the great stream; that is, going forward will be followed by meritorious achievement.

Xu :需

The trigram for clouds ascending over that for the sky forms Hsu. The superior man, in accordance with this, eats and drinks, feasts and enjoys himself as if there were nothing else to employ him.

1. He is waiting in the distant border: he makes no movement to encounter rashly the difficulties of the situation. It will be advantageous for him constantly to maintain the purpose thus shown, in which case there will be no error: he will not fail to pursue that regular course.
2. He is waiting on the sand: he occupies his position in the centre with a generous forbearance. Though he suffer the small injury of being spoken against, he will bring things to a good issue.
3. He is waiting in the mud: calamity is close at hand, and as it were in the outer trigram. He himself invites the approach of injury; if he be reverent and careful, he will not be worsted.
4. He is waiting in the place of blood: he accommodates himself to the circumstances of the time, and hearkens to its requirements.
5. The appliances of a feast, and the good fortune through being firm and correct, are indicated by the position in the central and correct place.
6. Guests come unurged to give their help, and if the subject of the line receive them respectfully, there will be good fortune in the end: though the occupant and the place are not suited to each other, there has been no great failure in what has been done.
(111010)
```Contention : 06 ䷅ (訟 sòng)
```

The upper portion of Sung is the trigram representing strength and the lower that representing peril. The coming together of strength and peril gives the idea in Sung.

Sung intimates how, though there is sincerity in one's contention, he will yet meet with opposition and obstruction; but if he cherish and apprehensive caution, there will be good fortune. A strong line has come and got the central place in the lower trigram.

If he must presecute the contention to the bitter end, there will be evil; contention is not a thing to be carried on to extremity.

It will be advantageous to meet with the great man; what he sets a value on is the due mean, and the correct place.

It will not be advantageous to cross the great stream; one attempting to do so would find himself in an abyss.

Song :讼

The trigram representing heaven and that representing water, moving away from each other, form Sung. The superior man, in accordance with this, in the transaction of affairs takes good counsel about his first steps.

1. He does not perpetuate the matter about which the contention is: contention should not be prolonged. Although he may suffer the small injury of being spoken against, his argument is clear.
2. He is unequal to the contention; he retires and keeps concealed, stealthily withdrawing from it: for him from his lower place to contend with the stronger one above, would be to invite calamity, as if he brought it with his hand to himself.
3. He confines himself to the support assigned to him of old: thus following those above him, he will have good fortune.
4. He returns to the study of Heaven's ordinances, changes his wish to content, and rests in being firm and correct: he does not fail in doing what is right.
5. He contends: and with great fortune: this is shown by his holding the due mean and being in the correct place.
6. He receives the robe through his contention: but still he is not deserving of respect.
(000010)
```Multitude : 07 ䷆ (師 shī)
```

The name Shih describes the multitude of the host. The firmness and correctness which the hexagram indicates refer to more correctness of aim.

When the mover is able to use the multitude with such correctness, he may attain to the royal sway.

There is the symbol of strength in the centre of the trigram below, and it is responded to by its proper correlate above.

The action gives rise to perils, but it is in accordance with the best sentiments of men.

Its mover may by such action distress all the country, but the people will follow him: there will be good fortune, and what error should there be?

Shi :师

The trigram representing the earth and in the midst of it that representing water, form Shih. The superior man, in accordance with this, nourishes and educates the people, and collects from among them the multitudes of the host.

1. The host goes forth according to the rules for such a movement: if those rules be not observed, there will be evil.
2. He is in the midst of the host, and there will be good fortune: he has received the favor of the Heaven. The King has thrice conveyed to him the orders of his favor: the King cherishes the myriad regions in his heart.
3. The host with the possibility of its having many idle leaders: great will be its want of success.
4. The host is in retreat; but there is no error: there has been no failure in the regular course.
5. The oldest son lead the host: its movements are directed by him in accordance with his position in the centre. Younger me idly occupy their position: the employment of such men is improper.
6. The great ruler delivers his charges: thereby he rightly apportions merit. Small men should not be employed: they are sure to throw the states into confusion.
(010000)
```Union : 08 ䷇ (比 bǐ)
```

Pi indicates that there is good fortune: the name Pi denotes help; and we see in the figure inferiors docilely following their superior.

Let the principal party intended in it reexamine himself, as if by divination, whether his virtue be great, unintermitting, and firm; if it be so, there will be no error: all this follows from the position of the strong line in the centre of the upper trigram.

Those who have no rest will come to him: high and low will respond to its subject.

With those who are too late in coming it will be ill: for them the way of good fortune here indicated has been exhausted.

Bi :比

The trigram representing the earth, and over it that representing water, for Pi. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, established the various states and maintained an affectionate relation to their princes.

1. From the seeking union with its object shown in the first line, divided, there will be other advantages.
2. The movement towards union and attachment proceeds from the inward mind: the party concerned does not fail in what is proper to himself.
3. Union is sought with such as ought not to be associated with: but will not injury be the result?
4. Union is sought by the party intended here with one beyond himself, and in this case with a worthy object: he is following the ruler above him.
5. Good fortune belonging to the most illustrious instance of seeking union and attachment appears in the correct and central position of the fifth line, undivided. The King's neglecting the animals confronting him and then fleeing, and only taking those who present themselves as it were obediently, is seen in his allowing the escape of those in front of him. That the people of his towns do not warn one another to prevent such escape, shows how he, in his high eminence, has made them pursue the due course.
6. He seeks union and attachment without taking the first step to such an end: there is no possibility of a good issue.
(110111)
```Little Accumulation : 09 ䷈ (小畜 xiǎo chù)
```

In Hsiao Ch'u the weak line occupies its proper position, and the lines above and below respond to it. Hence come the name of Hsiao Ch'u, Small Restraint.

It presents the symbols of strength and flexibility. Strong lines are in the central places, and the will of their subjects will have free course. Thus it indicates that there will be progress and success.

Dense clouds but no rain indicate the movement of the strong lines still going forward. The Commencing at our western border indicates that the beneficial influence has not yet been widely displayed.

Xiao Xu :小畜

The trigram representing the sky, and that representing wind moving above it, form Hsiao Ch'u. The superior man, in accordance with this, adorns the outward manifestation of his virtue.

1. He returns and pursues his own path: it is right that there should be good fortune.
2. By the attraction of the subject of the former line, he returns to its own course, and is in the central place: neither will he err in what is due from him.
3. Husband and wife look on each other with averted eyes: the subject of line three is like a husband who cannot maintain correctly his relations with his wife.
4. He is possessed of sincerity; his ground for apprehension is dismissed: the subjects of the lines above agree in aim with him.
5. He is possessed of sincerity, and draws others to unite with him: he does not use only his own rich resources.
6. The rain has fallen and the onward progress is stayed: the power denoted in the figure has accumulated to the full. If the superior man prosecute his measures, there will be no evil: he will find himself obstructed.
(111011)
```Fulfillment : 10 ䷉ (履 lǚ)
```

In Lu we have the symbol of weakness treading on that of strength.

The lower trigram indicates pleasure and satisfaction, and responds to the upper indicating strength.

Hence it is said, he treads on the tail of a tiger, which does not bite him; there will be progress and success.

The fifth line is strong, in the centre, and in its correct place. Its subject occupies the God given position, and falls into no distress or failure; his action will be brilliant.

Lu :履

The trigram representing the sky above, and below it that representing the waters of a marsh, form Lu. The superior man in accordance with this discriminates between high and low, and gives settlement to the aims of the people.

1. He treads his accustomed path and goes forward: singly and exclusively he carries out his long-cherished wishes.
2. A quiet and solitary man, to whom, being firm and correct there will be good fortune: holding the due mean, he will not allow himself to be thrown into disorder.
3. A one-eyed man who thinks that he can see: he is not fit to see clearly. A lame man who thinks that he can tread well: one cannot walk along with him. The ill fortune of being bitten arises from the place not being the proper one for him. A mere bravo acting the part of a great ruler: this is owing to his aims being too violent.
4. He becomes full of apprehensive caution, and in the end there will be good fortune: his aim takes effect.
5. He treads resolutely; and though he be firm and correct, there is peril: this is due to his being in the position that is correct and appropriate to him.
6. There will be great good fortune, and that in the occupancy of the topmost line: this is great matter for congratulation.
(000111)
```Advance : 11 ䷊ (泰 tài)
```

The little come and the great gone in T'ai, and its indication that there will be good fortune with progress and success show to us heaven and earth in communication with each other, and all things in consequence having free course, and also the high and the low, superiors and inferiors, in communication with one another, and possessed by the same aim.

The inner trigram is made up of the strong and undivided lines, and the outer of the weak and divided; the inner is the symbol of strength, and the outer of docility; the inner represents the superior man and the outer the small man.

Thus the way of the superior man appears increasing, and that of the small man decreasing.

Tai :泰

The trigrams for heaven and earth in communication together form T'ai. The sage sovereign, in harmony with this, fashions and completes his regulations after the courses of heaven and earth, and assists the application of the adaptations furnished by them, in order to benefit the people.

1. The good fortune of advance, as suggested by the emblem of the grass pulled up, arises from the will of the party intended being set on what is external to himself.
2. He bears with the uncultivated, and proves himself acting in accordance with the due mean: for his intelligence is bright and his capacity is great.
3. There is no going away so that there shall not be a return refers to this as the point where the interaction of heaven and earth takes place.
4. He comes fluttering down, not relying on rich resources: both he and his neighbors are out of their real place where they are. They have not received warning, but come in the sincerity of their hearts: this is what they have desired in the core of their hearts.
5. By such a course there is happiness, and there will be great good fortune: the subject of the line employs the virtue proper to his central position to carry his wishes into effect.
6. The city wall returned back into the moat shows how the governmental orders have long been in disorder.
(111000)
```Hindrance : 12 ䷋ (否 pǐ)
```

The want of good understanding between the different classes of men in P'i and its indication as unfavorable to the firm and correct course of the superior man; with the intimation that the great are gone and the little come: all this springs from the fact that in it heaven and earth are not in communication with each other, and all things in consequence do not have free course; and that the high and the low (superiors and inferiors) are not in communication with one another, and there are no well-regulated states under the sky.

The inner trigram is made up of the weak and divided lines, and the outer of the strong and undivided: the inner is the symbol of weakness, and the outer of strength; the inner represents the small man, and the outer the superior man.

Thus the way of the small man appears increasing, and that of the superior man decreasing.

Pi :否

The trigrams of heaven and earth, not in intercommunication, form P'i. The superior man, in accordance with this, restrains the manifestation of his virtue, and avoids the calamities that threaten him. There is no opportunity of conferring on him the glory of emolument.

1. The good fortune through firm goodness, suggested by the pulling up of the grass, arises from the will of the parties intended being bent on serving the ruler.
2. The great man, comporting himself as the distress and obstruction require, will have success: he does not allow himself to be disordered by the herd of small men.
3. That his shame is folded in his breast is owing to the inappropriateness of his position.
4. He acts in accordance with the ordination of Heaven, and commits no error: the purpose of his mind can be carried into effect.
5. The good fortune of the great man arises from the correctness of his position.
6. The distress and obstruction having reached its end, it is overthrown and removed: how could it be prolonged?
(111101)
```Seeking Harmony : 13 ䷌ (同人 tóng rén)
```

In T'ung Jên the weak line has the place of influence, the central place, and responds to the corresponding line in Ch'ien (above); hence comes its name of T'ung Jên (or Union of Men).

T'ung Jên says: The language, T'ung Jên appears here as we find it in the remote districts of the country, indicating progress and success, and that it will be advantageous to cross the great stream, is moulded by its containing the strength symbolled in Ch'ien.

Then we have the trigram indicating elegance and intelligence, supported by that indicating strength; with the line in the central, and its correct, position, and responding to the corresponding line above: all representing the correct course of the superior man.

It is only the superior man who can comprehend and affect the minds of all under the sky.

Tong Ren :同人

The trigrams for heaven and fire form T'ung Jên. The superior man, in accordance with this, distinguishes things according to their kinds of classes.

1. The representative of the union of me is just issuing from his gate: who will blame him?
2. The representative of the union of men appears in relation with his kindred: that is the path to regret.
3. He hides his arms in the thick grass: because of the strength of his opponent. For three years he makes no demonstration: how can he do anything?
4. He is mounted on his city-wall; but yielding to the right, he does not proceed to make the attack he contemplated. Where it is said, There will be good fortune, that shows how he feels the strait he is in, and returns to the rule of law.
5. The first action of the representative of the union of men here described arises from his central position and straightforward character. The meeting secured by his great host intimates that the opponents of it have been overcome.
6. The representative of the union of men appears in the suburbs: his object has not yet been attained.
(101111)
```Great Harvest : 14 ䷍ (大有 dà yǒu)
```

In Ta Yu the weak line has the place of honor, is grandly central, and the strong lines above and below respond to it. Hence come its name of Ta Yu, having what is great.

The attributes of its component trigrams are strength and vigor with elegance and brightness. The ruling line in it responds to the ruling line in the symbol of heaven, and consequently its action is all at the proper times.

In this way it is said to indicate great progress and success.

Da You :大有

The trigram for heaven and that of fire above it form Ta Yu. The superior man, in accordance with this, represses what is evil and gives distinction to what is good, in sympathy with the excellent Heaven-conferred nature.

1. The first line, undivided, of Ta Yu shows no approach to what is injurious.
2. A large wagon with its load refers to the virtue accumulated in the subject of the line, so that he will suffer no loss in the conduct of affairs.
3. A feudal prince presents his offerings to the son of Heaven: a small man in such a position does himself harm.
4. He keeps his great resources under restraint: his wisdom discriminates clearly what he ought to do.
5. His sincerity is reciprocated by all the others: his sincerity serves to stir and call out what is in their minds. The good fortune springing from a display of proper majesty shows how they might otherwise feel too easy, and make no preparation to serve him.
6. The good fortune attached to the topmost line of Ta Yu arises from the help of Heaven.
(000100)
```Humbleness : 15 ䷎ (謙 qiān)
```

Ch'ien indicates progress and success. It is the way of heaven to send down its beneficial influences below, where they are brilliantly displayed. It is the way of earth, lying low, to send its influences upwards and there to act.

It is the way of Heaven to diminish the full and augment the humble. It is the way of earth to overthrow the full and replenish the humble. Spiritual Beings inflict calamity on the full and bless the humble.

It is the way of men to hate the full and love the humble. Humility in a position of honor makes that still more brilliant; and in a low position men will not seek to pass beyond it.

Thus it is that the superior man will have a good issue to his undertakings.

Qian :谦

The trigram for the earth and that of a mountain in the midst of it form Ch'ien. The superior man, in accordance with this, diminishes what is excessive in himself, and increases where there is any defect, bringing about an equality, according to the nature of the case, in his treatment of himself and others.

1. The superior man who adds humility to humility is one who nourishes his virtue in lowliness.
2. The good fortune consequent on being firm and correct, where the humility has made itself recognized, is owing to the possessor's having the virtue in the core of his heart.
3. The superior man of acknowledged merit, and yet humble: the myriads of the people will submit to him.
4. One, whose action would be in every way advantageous, stirs up his humility the more: but in doing so he does not act contrary to the proper rule.
5. He may advantageously use the force of arms: correcting, that is, those who do not submit.
6. His humility has made itself recognized: but all his aims have not yet been attained. He may employ the force of arms, but only in correcting his own towns and state.
(001000)
```Delight : 16 ䷏ (豫 yù)
```

In Yu we see the strong line responded to by all the others, and the will of him whom it represents being carried out; and also docile obedience employing movement for its purposes. From these things come Yu the Condition of harmony and satisfaction.

In this condition we have docile obedience employing movement for its purposes, and therefore it is so as between heaven and earth; how much more will it be so among men in the setting up of feudal princes and putting the hosts in motion.

Heaven and earth show that docile obedience in connection with movement and hence the sun and moon make no error in time, and the four seasons do not deviate from their order.

The sages show such docile obedience in connection with their movements, and hence their punishments and penalties are entirely just, and the people acknowledge it by their submission. Great indeed are the time and significance indicated in Yu.

Yu :豫

The trigrams for the earth and thunder issuing from it with its crashing noise for Yu. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, composed their music and did honor to virtue, presenting it especially and most grandly to God, when they associated with him at the service their highest ancestor and their father.

1. The subject of the first line proclaims his pleasure and satisfaction: there will be evil; his wishes have been satisfied to overflowing.
2. He see a thing without waiting till it has come to pass; with his firm correctness there will be good fortune: this is shown by the central and correct position of the line.
3. He looks up for favors, while he indulges the feeling of satisfaction; there will be occasion for repentance: this is intimated by the position not being the appropriate one.
4. From him the harmony and satisfaction come; great is the success which he obtains: his aims take effect on a grand scale.
5. The subject of the fifth line has a chronic complaint: this is shown by his being mounted on the strong line. He still lives on without dying: he is in the central position, and its memories of the past have not yet perished.
6. With darkened mind devoted to the harmony and satisfaction of the time, as shown in topmost line: how can one in such a condition continue long.
(011001)
```Following : 17 ䷐ (隨 suí)
```

In Sui, we see the strong trigram come and place itself under the weak; we see in the two the attributes of movement and pleasure: this gives the idea of Sui.

There will be great progress and success; and through firm correctness no error: all under heaven will be found following at such a time.

Great indeed are the time and significance indicated in Sui.

Sui :随

The trigram for the waters of a marsh and that for thunder hidden in the midst of it form Sui. The superior man in accordance with this, when it is getting towards dark, enters his house and rests.

1. He is changing the object of his pursuit: but if he follow what is correct, there will be good fortune. He goes beyond his own gate to find associates: he will not fail in the method he pursues.
2. He cleaves to the little boy: he cannot be with the two at the same time.
3. He cleaves to the man of age and experience: by the decision of his will, he abandons the youth below.
4. He is followed and obtains adherents: according to the idea of the hexagram, this is evil. He is sincere in his course: showing his intelligence, and leading to achievement.
5. He is sincere in fostering what is excellent: his position is correct and in the center.
6. The sincerity is firmly held and clung to, as shown in the topmost line: the idea of the hexagram has reached its extreme development.
(100110)
```Remedying : 18 ䷑ (蠱 gǔ)
```

In Ku we have the strong trigram above, and the weak one below; we have below pliancy, and above stopping: these give the idea of Ku, a troublous condition of affairs verging to ruin.

Ku indicates great progress and success: through the course shown in it, all under heaven there will be good order. There will be advantage in crossing the great stream: he who advances will encounter the business to be done.

He should weigh well, however, the events of three days before the turning point, and those to be done three days after it: the end of confusion is the beginning of order; such is the procedure of Heaven.

Gu :蛊

The trigram for a mountain, and below it that for wind, form Ku. The superior man, in accordance with this, addresses himself to help the people and nourish his own virtue.

1. He deals with the troubles caused by his father: he feels that he has entered into the work of his father.
2. He deals with the troubles caused by his mother: he holds to the course of the due mean.
3. He deals with the troubles caused by his father: in the end there will be no error.
4. He views indulgently the troubles caused by his father: if he go forward, he will not succeed.
5. He deals with the troubles caused by his father, and obtains praise: he is responded to by the subject of line two with all his virtue.
6. He does not serve either king or feudal lord: but his aim may be a model to others.
(000011)
```Approaching : 19 ䷒ (臨 lín)
```

In Lin we see the strong lines gradually increasing and advancing.

The lower trigram is the symbol of being pleased, and the upper of being compliant. The strong line is in the central position, and is properly responded to.

There is great progress and success, along with firm correctness: this is the way of Heaven.

In the eighth month there will be evil: the advancing power will decay after no long time.

Lin :临

The trigram for the waters of a marsh and that for the earth above it form Lin. The superior man, in accordance with this, has his proposes of instruction that are inexhaustible, and nourishes and supports the people without limit.

1. The good fortune through the firm correctness of the subject of the first line advancing in company with the subject of the second is due to his will being set on doing what is right.
2. The good fortune and every possible advantage attending the advance of the subject of the second line, in company with the subject of the first, arises from the fact that those to whom the advance is made are not yet obedient to the ordinances of Heaven.
3. He shows himself well pleased to advance: his position is not that appropriate to him. If he becomes anxious, however, about his action, his error will not be continued.
4. The freedom from error consequent on the advance in the highest mode is due to the various appropriateness of the position.
5. What befits the great ruler means the pursuing the course of the due mean.
6. The good fortune consequent on the advance of honesty and generosity is due to the will of the subject of the line being set on the subjects of the first two lines of the inner trigram.
(110000)
```Watching : 20 ䷓ (觀 guān)
```

The great manifestor occupies an upper place in the figure, which consists of the trigrams whose attributes are docility and flexibility. He is in the central position and his correct place, and thus exhibits his lessons to all under Heaven.

Kuan shows its subject like a worshipper who has washed his hands, but not yet presented his offerings; with sincerity and an appearance of dignity commanding reverent regard: all beneath look to him and are transformed.

When we contemplate the spirit-like way of Heaven, we see how the four seasons proceed without error. The sages, in accordance with this spirit-like way, laid down their instructions, and all under heaven yield submission to them.

Guan :观

The trigram representing the earth, and that for wind moving above it, form Kuan. The ancient Kings, in accordance with this examined the different regions of the kingdom, to see the ways of the people, and set forth their instructions.

1. The looking of a lad shown by the first line, divided, indicates the way of the inferior people.
2. The firm correctness of a woman, in peeping out from a door is also a thing to be ashamed of in a superior man.
3. He looks at the course of his own life, to advance or recede accordingly: he will not err in the path to be pursued.
4. He contemplates the glory of the kingdom: thence arises the wish to be a guest at court.
5. He contemplates his own life-course: he should for this purpose contemplate the condition of the people.
6. He contemplates his own character: he cannot even yet let his mind be at rest.
(101001)
```Eradicating : 21 ䷔ (噬嗑 shì kè)
```

The existence of something between the jaws gives rise to the name Shih Ho, union by means of biting through the intervening article.

The Union by means of biting through the intervening article indicates the successful progress denoted by the hexagram.

The strong and weak lines are equally divided in the figure. Movement is denoted by the lower trigram, and bright intelligence by the upper; thunder and lightning uniting in them, and having brilliant manifestation. The weak fifth line is in the center, and acts in its high position. Although it is not in its proper position, this is advantageous for the use of legal constraints.

Shi He :噬嗑

The trigrams representing thunder and lightning form Shih Ho. The ancient kings, in accordance with this framed their penalties with intelligence, and promulgated their laws.

1. His feet are in the stocks, and he is deprived of his toes: there is no walking to do evil.
2. He bites through the soft flesh, and goes on to bite off the nose: the subject of the line is mounted on the strong first line.
3. He meets with what is disagreeable and hurtful: his position is not the proper one for him.
4. It will be advantageous to him to realize that difficulty of his task and be firm, in which case there will be good fortune: his light has not yet been sufficiently displayed.
5. Let him be firm and correct, realizing the peril of his position, and there will be no error: he will possess every quality appropriate to his position and task.
6. He wears the cangue and is deprived of his ears: he hears, but will not understand.
(100101)
```Adorning : 22 ䷕ (賁 bì)
```

When it is said that Pi indicates there should be free course in what it denotes.

We see the weak line coming and ornamenting the strong lines of the lower trigram, and hence it is said that ornament should have free course. On the other hand, the strong line above ornaments the weak ones of the upper trigram, and hence it is said that there will be little advantage, if ornament be allowed to advance and take the lead. This is illustrated in the appearances that ornament the sky.

Elegance and intelligence denoted by the lower trigram regulated by the arrest denoted by the upper suggest the observances that adorn human society.

We look at the ornamental figures of the sky, and thereby ascertain the changes of the seasons. We look at the ornamental observances of society, and understand the processes of transformation are accomplished all under heaven.

Bi :贲

The trigram representing a mountain and that for fire under it form Pi. The superior man, in accordance with this, throws a brilliancy around his various processes of government, but does not dare in a similar way to decide cases of criminal litigation.

1. He can discard a carriage and walk on foot: righteousness requires that he should not ride.
2. He adorns his beard: he rouses himself to action only along with the subject of the line above.
3. The good fortune consequent on his ever maintaining firm correctness is due to this, that to the end no one will insult him.
4. The place occupied by the fourth line, divided, afford ground for doubt as to its subject; but as the subject of the third pursues not as a robber, but as intent on a matrimonial alliance, he will in the end have no grudge against him.
5. The good fortune failing to the fifth line, divided, affords occasion for joy.
6. The freedom from error attached to the subject of the topmost line, with no ornament but the simple white, shows how he has attained his aim.
(100000)
```Falling Away : 23 ䷖ (剝 bō)
```

Po denotes overthrowing or being overthrown.

We see in the figure the weak lines threatening to change the last strong line into one of themselves.

That it will not be advantageous to make a movement in any direction whatever appears from the fact that the small men are now growing and increasing.

The superior man acts according to the exigency of the time, and stops all forward movement, looking at the significance of the process of decrease and increase, of fullness and the decadence, as seen in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Bo :剥

The trigrams representing the earth, and above it that for a mountain which adheres to the earth, for Po. Superiors, in accordance with this seek to strengthen those below them, to secure the peace and stability of their own position.

1. He overthrows the couch by injuring its legs: thus he commences his work of ruin with what is lowest in the superior man.
2. He destroys the couch by injuring its frame: the superior man has as yet no associates.
3. That there will be no error on the part of this one among the overthrowers arises from the difference between him and the others above and below.
4. He has overthrown the couch, and proceeds to injure the skin of him who lies on it: calamity is very near at hand.
5. He obtains for them the favor that lights on the inmates of the palace: in the end there will be no grudge against him.
6. The superior man finds himself in a carriage: he is carried along by the people. The small men by their course overthrow their own dwellings: they can never again be of use to them.
(000001)
```Turning Back : 24 ䷗ (復 fù)
```

Fu indicates the free course and progress of what it denotes: it is the coming back of what is intended by the undivided line.

Its subject's actions show movement directed by accordance with natural order.

Hence he finds no one to distress him in his exits and entrances, and friends come to him, and no error is committed.

He will return and repeat his proper course; in seven days comes his return: such is the movement of the heavenly revolution.

There will be advantage in whatever direction movement is made: the strong lines are growing and increasing.

Do we not see in Fu the mind of heaven and earth.

Fu :复

The trigram representing the earth and that for thunder in the midst of it form Fu. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, on the day of the winter solstice, shut the gates of the passes from one state to another, so that the traveling merchants could not then pursue their journeys, nor the princes go on with the inspection of their states.

1. Returning from an error of no great extent is the prelude to the cultivation of the person.
2. The good fortune attendant on the admirable return of the subject of the second line is due to his condescension to the virtuous subject of the line below.
3. Notwithstanding the perilous position of him who has made many returns, there will be no error through his aiming after righteousness.
4. He moves right in the center among those represented by the other divided lines, and yet returns alone: his object is to pursue the proper path.
5. The noble return, giving no ground for repentance, is due to the subject of the line striving to perfect himself in accordance with his central position.
6. The evil consequent on being all astray on the subject of returning is because the course pursued is contrary to the proper course for a ruler.
(111001)
```Without Falsehood : 25 ䷘ (無妄 wú wàng)
```

In Wu Wang we have the strong first line come from the outer trigram, and become in the inner trigram lord of the whole figure; we have the attributes of motive power and strength; we have the strong line of the fifth place in the central position, and responded to by the weak second: there will be great progress proceeding from correctness; such is the appointment of Heaven.

If its subject and his action be not correct, he will fall into errors, and it will not be advantageous for him to move in any direction: Whither can he who thinks he is free from all insincerity, and yet is as here described proceed?

Can anything be done advantageously by him whom the will and appointment of Heaven do not help?

Wu Wang :无妄

The thunder rolls all under the sky, and to everything there is given its nature, free from all insincerity. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, made their regulations in complete accordance with the seasons, thereby nourishing all things.

1. When he who is free from insincerity makes any movement, he will get what he desires.
2. He reaps without having ploughed: the thought of riches to be got had not risen in his mind.
3. The passer-by gets the ox: this proves a calamity to the people of the neighborhood.
4. If he can remain firm and correct there will be no error: he firmly holds fast his correctness.
5. Medicine in the case of one who is free from insincerity: it should not be tried at all.
6. The action in this case of one who is free from insincerity will occasion the calamity arising from action when the time for it is exhausted.
(100111)
```Great Accumulation : 26 ䷙ (大畜 dà chù)
```

In the trigrams composing Ta Ch'u we have the attributes of the greatest strength and substantial solidity, which emit a brilliant light; and indicate a daily renewal of his virtue by the subject of it.

The strong line is in the highest place, and suggests the value set on talents and virtue; there is power in the upper trigram and to keep the strongest in restraint: all this shows the great correctness required in the hexagram.

The good fortune attached to the subject's not seeking to enjoy his revenues in his own family shows how talents and virtue are nourished.

It will be advantageous to cross the great stream: the fifth line, representing the ruler, is responded to by the second, the central line of Ch'ien, representing Heaven.

Da Xu :大畜

The trigram representing a mountain, and in the midst of it that representing heaven, form Ta Ch'u. The superior man, in accordance with this, stores largely in his memory the words and deeds of former men, to subserve the accumulation of his virtue.

1. He is in a position of peril; it will be advantageous for him to stop his advance: he should not rashly expose himself to calamity.
2. He is as a carriage from which the strap under it has been removed: being in the central position, he will incur no blame.
3. There will be advantage in whatever direction he may advance: the subject of the topmost line is of the same mind with him.
4. The great good fortune indicated by the fourth line, divided, shows that there is occasion for joy.
5. The good fortune indicated by the fifth line, divided, shows that there is occasion for congratulation.
6. In command of the firmament of heaven: the way is grandly open for movement.
(100001)
```Nourishing : 27 ䷚ (頤 yí)
```

I indicates that with firm correctness there will be good fortune: when the nourishing is correct, there will be good fortune.

We must look at what we are seeking to nourish: we must look at those whom we wish to nourish.

We must by the exercise of our thoughts seek the proper aliment: we must look to our own nourishing of ourselves.

Heaven and earth nourish all things.

The sages nourish men of talents and virtue, by them to reach to the myriads of the people.

Great is the work intended by this nourishing in its time.

Yi :颐

The trigram representing a mountain and under it that for thunder form I. The superior man, in accordance with this enjoins watchfulness over our words, and the temperate regulation of our eating and drinking.

1. You look at me till your lower jaw hangs down: the subject of the line is thus shown unfit to be thought noble.
2. The evil of advance by the subject of the second line, divided, is owing to his leaving in his movements his proper associates.
3. For ten years let him not take any action: his course is greatly opposed to what is right.
4. The good fortune attached to looking downwards for the power to nourish, shows how brilliant will be the diffusion of that power from the subject of the line's superior position.
5. The good fortune from abiding in firmness is due to the docility of the subject of the line in following the subject of the line above.
6. The good fortune, notwithstanding the peril of his position, of him from whom comes the nourishing, affords great cause for congratulation.
(011110)
```Great Exceeding : 28 ䷛ (大過 dà guò)
```

Ta Kuo shows the great one (undivided lines) in excess.

In the beam that is weak we see weakness both in the lowest and the topmost lines.

The strong lines are in excess, but two of them are in the central positions.

The action of the hexagram is represented by the symbols flexibility and satisfaction.

Hence it is said, there will be advantage in moving in any direction whatever; yea, there will be success.

Da Guo :大过

The trigram representing trees hidden beneath that for the waters of a marsh for Ta Kuo. The superior man, in accordance with this, stands up alone and has no fear, and keeps retired from the world without regret.

1. He places mats of the white mao grass under things set on the ground: he feels his weakness and his being in the lowest place, and uses extraordinary care.
2. An old husband and a young wife: such association is extraordinary.
3. The evil connected with the beam that is weak arises from this, that no help can be given to the condition thus represented.
4. The good fortune connected with the beam curving upwards arises from this, that it does not bend towards what is below.
5. A decayed willow produces flowers: but how can this secure its long continuance? And old wife and a young husband: this also is a thing to be ashamed of.
6. Evil follows wading with extraordinary boldness through the stream: but the act affords no ground for blame.
(010010)
```Darkness : 29 ䷜ (坎 kǎn)
```

K'an repeated shows us one defile succeeding another.

This is the nature of water; it flows on, without accumulating its volume so as to overflow; it pursues its way through a dangerous defile, without losing its true nature.

That the mind is penetrating is indicated by the strong line in the center. That action in accordance with this will be of high value tells us that advance will be followed by achievement.

The dangerous height of heaven cannot be ascended; the difficult places of the earth are mountains, rivers, hills, and mounds.

Kings and princes arrange, by means of such strengths, to maintain their territories. Great indeed is the use of what is here taught about seasons of peril.

Kan :坎

The representation of water flowing on continuously forms the repeated K'an. The superior man, in accordance with this, maintains constantly the virtue of his heart and the integrity of his conduct, and practices the business of instruction.

1. In the double defile, he enters a cavern within it: he has missed his proper way, and there will be evil.
2. He will get a little of the deliverance that he seeks: he will not yet escape from his environed position.
3. Whether he comes or goes, he is confronted by a defile; he will never in such circumstances achieve any success.
4. Nothing but a bottle of spirits and a subsidiary basket of rice: these describe the meeting at this point of those who are represented by the strong and weak lines.
5. The water in the defile is not full so as to flow away: the virtue indicated by the central situation is not yet sufficiently great.
6. The sixth line, divided, shows its subject missing his proper course: there will be evil for three years.
(101101)
```Brightness : 30 ䷝ (離 lí)
```

Li means being attached to.

The sun and moon have their place in the sky.

All the grains, grass, and trees have their place on the earth.

The double brightness of the two trigrams adheres to what is correct, and the result is the transforming and perfecting all under the sky.

The weak second line occupies the middle and correct position, and gives the indication of a free and successful course; and, moreover, nourishing docility like that of the cow will lead to good fortune.

Li :离

The trigram for brightness, repeated, forms Li. The great man, in accordance with this, cultivates more and more his brilliant virtue, and diffuses its brightness over the four quarters of the land.

1. The reverent attention directed to his confused steps is the way by which error is avoided.
2. The great good fortune from the subject of the second line occupying his place in yellow is owing to his holding the course of the due mean.
3. A position like that of the declining sun: how can it continue long?
4. How abrupt is the manner of his coming. None can bear with this.
5. The good fortune attached to the fifth line, divided, is due to its occupying the place of a king or a prince.
6. The king employs him in his punitive expeditions: the object is to bring the regions to a correct state.
(011100)
```Mutual Influence : 31 ䷞ (咸 xián)
```

Hsien is here used in the sense of Kên, meaning mutually influencing.

The weak trigram above, and the strong one below; their two influences moving and responding to each other, and thereby forming a union; the repression of the one and the satisfaction of the other; with their relative position, where the male is placed below the female: all these things convey the notion of a free and successful course on the fulfillment of the conditions, while the advantage will depend on being firm and correct, as in marrying a young lady, and there will be good fortune.

Heaven and earth exert their influences, and there ensue the transformation and production of all things.

The sages influence the minds of men, and the result is harmony and peace all under the sky.

If we look at the method and issues of those influences, the true character of heaven and earth and of all things can be seen.

Xian :咸

The trigram representing a mountain and above it that for the waters of a marsh for Hsien. The superior man, in accordance with this, keeps his mind free from pre-occupation, and open to receive the influences of others.

1. He moves his great toe: his mind is set on what is beyond himself.
2. Though there would be evil; yet, if he abide quiet in his place, there will be good fortune: through compliance with the circumstances of his condition and place there will be no injury.
3. He moves his thighs: he still does not want to rest in his place. His will is set on following others: what he holds in his grasp is low.
4. Firm correctness will lead to good fortune, and prevent all occasion for repentance: there has not yet been any harm from a selfish wish to influence. He is unsettled in his movements: his power to influence is not yet either brilliant or great.
5. He tries to move the flesh along the spine above the heart: his aim is trivial.
6. He moves his jaws and tongue: he only talks with loquacious mouth.
(001110)
```Long Lasting : 32 ䷟ (恆 héng)
```

Hêng denotes long continuance. The strong trigram is above, and the weak one below; they are the symbols of thunder and wind, which are in mutual communication; they have the qualities of docility and motive force; their strong and weak lines all respond, each to the other: these things are all found in Hêng.

When it is said that Hêng indicates successful progress and no error in what it denotes; but the advantage will come from being firm and correct, this indicates that there must be long continuance in its way of operation. The way of heaven and earth is to be long continued in their operation without stopping.

When it is said that movement in any direction whatever will be advantageous, this implies that when the moving power is spent, it will begin again.

The sun and moon, realizing in themselves the course of Heaven, can perpetuate their shining. The four seasons, by their changing and transforming, can perpetuate their production of things.

The sages persevere long in their course, and all under the sky are transformed and perfect. When we look at what they continue doing long, the natural tendencies of heaven, earth, and all things can be seen.

Heng :恒

The trigram representing thunder and that for wind form Hêng. The superior man, in accordance with this, stands firm, and does not change his method of operation.

1. The evil attached to the deep desire for long continuance in the subject of the first line arises from the deep seeking for it at the commencement of things.
2. All occasion for repentance on the part of the subject of the second line, undivided, disappears: he can abide long in the due mean.
3. He does not continuously maintain his virtue: nowhere will he be borne with.
4. Going for long to what is not his proper place, how can he get game?
5. Such firm correctness in a wife will be fortunate: it is hers to the end of life to follow with an unchanged mind. The husband must decide what is right, and lay down the rule accordingly: for him to follow like a wife is evil.
6. The subject of the topmost line is exciting himself to long continuance: far will he be from achieving merit.
(111100)
```Retreat : 33 ䷠ (遯 dùn)
```

Tun indicates successful progress: that is, in the very retiring which Thun denotes there is such progress. The strong line is in the ruling place, the fifth, and is properly responded to by the second line. The action takes place according to the requirement of the time.

To a small extent it will still be advantageous to be firm and correct: the small men are gradually encroaching and advancing. Great indeed is the significance of what is required to be done in the time that necessitates retiring.

Dun :遯

The trigram representing the sky and below it that for a mountain form Tun. The superior man, in accordance with this, keeps small men at a distance, not by showing that he hates them, but by his own dignified gravity.

1. There is the perilousness of the position shown by the retiring tail: but if no movement be made, what disaster can there be?
2. He holds it as by a thong from the hide of a yellow ox: his purpose is firm.
3. The peril connected with the case of one retiring, though bound, is due to the consequent distress and exhaustion. If he were to deal as in nourishing a servant or concubine, it would be fortunate for him: but a great affair cannot be dealt with in this way.
4. A superior man retires notwithstanding his likings; a small man cannot attain to this.
5. He retires in an admirable way, and with firm correctness there will be good fortune: this is due to the rectitude of his purpose.
6. He retires in a noble way, and his doing so will be advantageous in every respect: he who does so has no doubts about his course.
(001111)
```Great Strength : 34 ䷡ (大壯 dà zhuàng)
```

In Ta Chuang we see that which is great becoming strong. We have the trigram denoting strength directing that which denotes movement, and hence the whole is expressive of vigor.

Ta Chuang indicates that it will be advantageous to firm and correct: that which is great should be correct. Given correctness and greatness in their highest degree, and the character and tendencies of heaven and earth can be seen.

Da Zhuang :大壮

The trigram representing heaven and above it that for thunder form Ta Chuang. The superior man, in accordance with this, does not take a step which is not according to propriety.

1. He manifests his vigor in his toes: this will certainly lead to exhaustion.
2. The second line, undivided, shows that with firm correctness there will be good fortune: this is due to its being in the center, and its subject exemplifying the due mean.
3. The small man uses all his strength; in the case of the superior man it is his rule not to do so.
4. The fence is opened and the horns are not entangled: the subject of the line still advances.
5. He loses his ram and hardly perceives it: he is not in his appropriate place.
6. He is unable either to retreat or to advance: this is owing to his want of care. If he realize the difficulty of his position, there will be good fortune: his error will not be prolonged.
(101000)
```Proceeding Forward : 35 ䷢ (晉 jìn)
```

In Chin we have the bright sun appearing above the earth; the symbol of docile submission cleaving to that of the Great brightness; and the weak line advanced and moving above: all these things give us the idea of a prince who secures the tranquillity of the people, presented on that account with numerous horses by the king, and three times in a day received at interviews.

Jing :晋

The trigram representing the earth and that for the bright sun coming forth above it for Chin. The superior man, according to this gives himself to make more brilliant his bright virtue.

1. He appears wishing to advance, but at the same time being kept back: all alone he pursues the correct course. Let him maintain a large and generous mind, and there will be no error: he has not yet received an official charge.
2. He will receive this great blessing: for he is in the central place and the correct position for him.
3. All around trust him: their common aim is to move upwards and act.
4. He advances like a mormot. However firm and correct he may be, his position is one of peril: his place is not that appropriate for him.
5. Let him not concern himself whether he fails or succeeds: his movement in advance will afford ground for congratulation.
6. He uses his horns only to punish the rebellious people of his city: his course of procedure is not yet brilliant.
(000101)
```Brilliance Injured : 36 ䷣ (明夷 míng yí)
```

The symbol of the Earth and that of Brightness entering into the midst of it give the idea of Ming I, Brightness wounded or obscured.

The inner trigram denotes being accomplished and bright; the outer, being pliant and submissive. The case of king Wan was that of one who with these qualities was yet involved in great difficulties.

It will be advantageous to realize the difficulty of the position, and maintain firm correctness: that is , the individual concerned should obscure his brightness. The case of the count of Ki was that of one who, amidst the difficulties of his house was able thus to maintain his aim and mind correct.

Ming Yi :明夷

The trigram representing the earth and that for the bright sun entering within it form Ming I. The superior man, in accordance with this, conducts his management of men; he shows his intelligence by keeping it obscured.

1. The superior man is revolving his going away: in such a case he feels it right not to eat.
2. The good fortune of the subject of the second line, divided, is due to the proper fashion of his acting according to his circumstances.
3. With the aim represented by hunting in the south a great achievement is accomplished.
4. He has just entered into the left side of the belly of the dark land: he is still able to carry out the idea in his inner mind.
5. With the firm correctness of the count of Ki, his brightness could not be quite extinguished.
6. He had at first ascended to the top of the sky: he might have enlightened the four quarters of the kingdom. His future shall be to go into the earth: he has failed to fulfill the model of a ruler.
(110101)
```Household : 37 ䷤ (家人 jiā rén)
```

In Chia Jên the wife has her correct place in the inner trigram, and the man his correct place in the outer. That man and woman occupy their correct places is the great righteousness shown in the relation and positions of heaven and earth.

In Chia Jên we have the idea of an authoritative ruler; than, namely, represented by the parental authority.

Let the father be indeed father, and the son son; let the elder brother be indeed elder brother, and the younger brother younger brother; let the husband be indeed husband, and the wife wife: then will the family be in its normal state. Bring the family to that state, and all under heaven will be established.

Jia Ren :家人

The trigram representing fire, and that for wind coming forth from it, form Chia Jên. The superior man, in accordance with this, orders his words according to the truth of things, and his conduct so that it is uniformly consistent.

1. He establishes restrictive regulations in his household: he does so, before any change has taken place in their wills.
2. The good fortune attached to the second line, divided, is due to the docility of its subject operating with humility.
3. When the members of the household are treated with stern severity, there has been no great failure in the regulation of the family. When wife and children are smirking and chattering, the proper economy of the family has been lost.
4. The family is enriched, and there is great good fortune: this is due to the docility belonging to the subject of the line, and its being in its correct place.
5. The influence of the king extends to his family: the intercourse between them is that of mutual love.
6. The good fortune connected with the display of majesty describes the result of the recovery of the true character.
(101011)
```Diversity : 38 ䷥ (睽 kuí)
```

In K'uei we have the symbol of Fire, which, when moved, tends upwards, and that of a Marsh, whose waters, when moved, tend downwards. We have also the symbols of two sisters living together, but whose wills do not move in the same direction.

We see how the inner trigram expressive of harmonious satisfaction is attached to the outer expressive of bright intelligence; we see the weak line advanced and acting above, and how it occupies the central place, and is responded to by the strong line below. These indications show that in small matters there will still be good fortune.

Heaven and earth are separate and apart, but the work which they do is the same. Male and female are separate and apart, but with a common will they seek the same object.

There is diversity between the myriad classes of beings, but there is an analogy between their several operations.

Great indeed are the phenomena and the results of this condition of disunion and separation.

Kui :睽

The trigram representing fire above, and that for the waters of a marsh below, form K'uei. The superior man, in accordance with this, where there is a general agreement, yet admits diversity.

1. He meets with bad men and communicates with them: he does so, to avoid the evil of their condemnation.
2. He happens to meet with his lord in a bye-passage: but he has not deviated for this meeting from the proper course.
3. We see his carriage dragged back: this is indicated by the inappropriateness of the position of the line. There is no good beginning, but there will be a good end: this arises from his meeting with the strong subject of the topmost line.
4. They blend their sincere desires together, and there will be no error: their common aim is carried into effect.
5. With his hereditary minister he unites closely and easily as if he were biting through a piece of skin: his going forward will afford ground for congratulation.
6. The good fortune symbolized by meeting with genial rain springs from the passing of all doubts.
(010100)
```Hardship : 39 ䷦ (蹇 jiǎn)
```

Chien denotes difficulty. There is the trigram expressive of perilousness in front.

When one, seeing the peril, can arrest his steps in accordance with the significance of the lower trigram, is he not wise.

The language of Chien, that advantage and in the central place. That there will be no advantage in the northeast, intimates that the way of dealing with the Kien state is exhausted.

That it will be advantageous to see the great man, intimates that advance will lead to achievement. That the places of the different lines after the first are those appropriate to them indicates firm correctness and good fortune, with which the regions of the kingdom are brought to their normal state.

Great indeed is the work to be done in the time of Chien.

Jian :蹇

The trigram representing a mountain, and above it that for water, from Chien. The superior man in accordance with this, turns round and examines himself, and cultivates his virtue.

1. Advancing will conduct to greater difficulties, while remaining stationary will afford ground for praise: the proper course is to wait.
2. The minister of the king struggles with difficulty on difficulty: in the end no blame will be attached to him.
3. He advances, but only to greater difficulty; he remains stationary, and return to his former associates: they, represented in the inner trigram, rejoice in him.
4. To advance will only be to encounter greater difficulties; he remains stationary, and unites with the subject of the line above that is in its proper place and has the solidity due to it in that position.
5. He struggles with the greatest difficulties, while friends are coming to help him: he is in the central position, and possesses the requisite virtue.
6. To advance will only increase the difficulties, while his remaining stationary will be productive of great merit: his aim is to assist the subject of the line inside of him.

It will be advantageous to meet the great man: by his course he follows that noble lord of the figure.

(001010)
```Relief : 40 ䷧ (解 xiè)
```

In Hsieh we have the trigram expressive of peril going on to that expressive of movement.

By movement there is an escape from the peril: this is the meaning of Hsieh.

In the state indicated byHsieh, advantage will be found in the southwest: the movement thus intimated will win all.

That there will be good fortune in coming back to the old conditions shows that such action is that of the due medium.

That if some operations be necessary, there will be good fortune in the early conducting of them shows that such operations will be successful.

When heaven and earth are freed from the grasp of winter, we have thunder and rain. When these come, the buds of the plants and trees that produce the various fruits begin to burst. Great indeed are the phenomena in the time intimated by Hsieh.

Jie :解

The trigram representing thunder and that for rain, with these phenomena in a state of manifestation, form Hsieh. The superior man, in accordance with this, forgives errors, and deals gently with crimes.

1. The strong (fourth) line and the weak line here are in correlation: we judge rightly in saying that its subject will commit no error.
2. The good fortune springing from the firm correctness of the second line, undivided, is due to its subject holding the due mean.
3. For a porter with his burden to be riding in a carriage is a thing to be ashamed of. It is he himself that tempts the robbers to come: on whom besides can we lay the blame.
4. Remove your toes: the places of this line and of the third and first are all inappropriate to them.
5. When the superior man executes his function of removing whatever is injurious to the idea of the hexagram, small men will of themselves retire.
6. A prince with his bow shoots a falcon: thus he removes the promoters of rebellion.
(100011)
```Decreasing : 41 ䷨ (損 sǔn)
```

In Sun we see the lower trigram diminished, and the upper added to. But the method of action implied in this operates also above or, mounts upwards also and operates.

If there be sincerity in this method of diminution, there will be great good fortune; freedom from error; firmness and correctness that can be maintained; and advantage in every movement that shall be made. In what shall this sincerity in the exercise of Sun be employed?

Even in sacrifice, two baskets of grain, though there be nothing else, may be presented: for these two baskets there ought to be the fitting time.

There is a time when the strong should be diminished, and the weak should be strengthened.

Diminution and increase, overflowing and emptiness: these take place in harmony with the conditions of the time.

Sun :损

The trigram representing a mountain and beneath it that for the waters of a marsh from Sun. The superior man, in accordance with this, restrains his wrath and represses his desires.

1. He suspends his own affairs and hurries away to help the subject of the fourth line: the subject of that upper line mingles his wishes with his.
2. It will be advantageous for the subject of the second line, undivided, to maintain his firm correctness: his central position gives its character to his aim.
3. One man, walking, finds his friend: when three are together, doubts rise among them.
4. He diminishes the ailment under which he labors: this is matter for joy.
5. The great good fortune attached to the fifth line, divided, is due to the blessing from above.
6. He gives increase to others without taking from what is his own: he obtains his wish on a grand scale.
(110001)
```Increasing : 42 ䷩ (益 yì)
```

In I we see the upper trigram diminished, and the lower added to. The satisfaction of the people in consequence of this is without limit. What descends from above reaches to all below, so great and brilliant is the course of its operation.

That there will be advantage in every movement which shall be undertaken appears from the central and correct positions of the second and fifth lines, and the general blessing the dispensing of which they imply.

I is made up of the trigrams expressive of movement and docility, through which there is daily advancement to an unlimited extent. We have also in it heaven dispensing and earth producing, leading to an increase without restriction of place.

Everything in the method of this increase proceeds according to the requirements of the time.

Yi :益

The trigram representing wind and that for thunder form I. The superior man, inaccordance with this, when he sees what is good, moves towards it; and when he see his errors, he turns from them.

1. If the movement be greatly fortunate, no blame will be imputed to him: though it is not for one in so low a position to have to do with great affairs.
2. Parties add to his stores: they come from beyond his immediate circle to do so.
3. Increase is given by means of what is evil and difficult: as he has in himself the qualities called forth.
4. His advice to his prince is followed: his only object in it being the increase of the general good.
5. The ruler with sincere heart seeks to benefit all below: there need be no question about the result. All below with sincere heart acknowledge his goodness: he gets what he desires on a great scale.
6. To his increase none will contribute: this expresses but half the result. Many will seek to assail him: they will come from beyond his immediate circle to do so.
(011111)
```Eliminating : 43 ䷪ (夬 guài)
```

Kuai is the symbol of displacing or removing. We see in the figure the strong line displacing the weak. We have in it the attributes of strength and complacency. There is displacement, but harmony continues.

The exhibition of the criminal's guilt in the royal courtyard is suggested by the one weak line mounted on the five strong lines.

There is an earnest and sincere appeal for sympathy and support, and a consciousness of the peril involved in the undertaking: it is the realization of this danger, which makes the method of compassing the object brilliant.

He should make an announcement in his own city, and show that it will not be well to have recourse at once to arms: if he have recourse to arms, what he prefers will soon be exhausted.

There will be advantage in whatever he shall go forward to: when the growth of the strong lines has been completed, there will be an end of the displacement.

Guai :夬

The trigram representing heaven and that for the waters of a marsh mounting above it form Kuai. The superior man, in accordance with this, bestows emolument on those below him, and dislikes allowing his gifts to accumulate undispensed.

1. Without being able to succeed, he goes forward: this is an error.
2. Though hostile measures be taken against him, he need not be anxious: he pursues the course of the due mean.
3. The superior man looks bent on cutting off the culprit: there will be in the end no error.
4. He walks slowly and with difficulty: he is not in the place appropriate to him. He hears these words, but does not believe them: he hears, but does not understand.
5. If his action be in harmony with his central position, there will be no error: but his standing in the due mean is not yet clearly displayed.
6. There is the misery of having none on whom to call: the end will be that he cannot continue any longer.
(111110)
```Encountering : 44 ䷫ (姤 gòu)
```

Kou has the significance of unexpectedly coming on. We see in it the weak line coming unexpectedly on the strong ones.

It will not be good to marry such a female: one so symbolized should not be long associated with.

Heaven and earth meeting together as here represented, all the variety of natural things become fully displayed.

When a strong line finds itself in the central and correct position, good government will greatly prevail all under the sky.

Great indeed is the significance of what has to be done at the time indicated by Kou.

Gou :姤

The trigram representing wind and that for the sky above it form Kou. The sovereign, in accordance with this, delivers his charges, and promulgates his announcements throughout the four quarters.

1. Tied and fastened to a metal drag: this describes the arrest of the weak line in its advancing course.
2. He has a wallet of fish: it is right for him not to allow the subject of the first line to get to the guests.
3. He walks with difficulty: but his steps have not yet been drawn into the course of the first line.
4. The evil indicated by there being no fish in the wallet is owing to the subject of the line keeping himself aloof from the people.
5. The subject of the fifth line, undivided, keeps his brilliant qualities concealed: as is indicated by his central and correct position. The good issue descends as from Heaven: his aim does not neglect the ordinances of Heaven.
6. He receives other on his horns: he is exhausted at his greatest height, and there will be cause for regret.
(011000)
```Bringing Together : 45 ䷬ (萃 cuì)
```

Ts'ui indicates the condition of union, or being collected.

We have in it the symbol of docile obedience going on to what is expressed by that of satisfaction.

There is the strong line in the central place, and rightly responded to.

Hence comes the idea of union.

Cui :萃

The trigram representing the earth and that for the waters of a marsh raised above it form Ts'ui. The superior man, in accordance with this, has his weapons of war put in good repair, to be prepared against unforeseen contingencies.

1. In consequence disorder is brought into the sphere of his union: his mind and aim are thrown into confusion.
2. He is led forward; there will be good fortune, and freedom from error: the virtue proper to his central place has not undergone any change.
3. If he go forward, he will not err: in the subject of the topmost line there is humility and condescension.
4. If he be grandly fortunate, he will receive no blame: this condition is necessary, because his position is not the one proper to him.
5. There is the union of all under him in the place of dignity: but his mind and aim have not yet been brilliantly displayed. He sighs and weeps: he does not yet rest in his topmost position.
6. He sighs and weeps: he does not yet rest in his topmost position.
(000110)
```Growing Upward : 46 ䷭ (升 shēng)
```

We find the weak line, as it finds the opportunity, ascending upwards.

We have the attribute of flexibility and that of obedience; we have the strong line below and its proper correlate above: these things indicate that there will be great progress and success.

Seeking by the qualities implied in Shêng to meet with the great man, its subject need have no anxiety: there will be ground for congratulation. Advance to the south will be fortunate: his aim will be carried out.

Sheng :升

The trigram representing wood and that for the earth with the wood growing in the midst of it form Shêng. The superior man, in accordance with this, pays careful attention to his virtue, and accumulates the small developments of it until it is high and great.

1. He is welcomed in his advance upwards, and there will be great good fortune: the subjects of the upper trigram are of the same mind with him.
2. The sincerity of the subject of the second line, undivided, affords occasion for joy.
3. He advances upwards as into an empty city: he has no doubt or hesitation.
4. The king employs him to prevent his offerings on mount Khi: such a service of spiritual beings is according to their mind.
5. He is firmly correct, and will therefor enjoy good fortune. He ascends the stairs with all due ceremony: he grandly succeeds in his aim.
6. He blindly advances upwards, and is in the highest place: but there is decay in store for him, and he will not preserve his riches.
(011010)
```Exhausting : 47 ䷮ (困 kùn)
```

In K'un we see the strong lines covered and obscured by the weak.
We have in it the attribute of perilousness going on to that of satisfaction. Who is it but the superior man that, though straightened, still does not fail in making progress to his proper end.

For the firm and correct, the really great man, there will be good fortune: this is shown by the central positions of the strong lines.

If he make speeches, his words cannot be made good: to be fond of arguing or pleading is the way to be reduced to extremity.

Kun :困

The trigram representing a marsh, and below it that for a defile, which has drained the other dry so that there is no water in it, form K'un. The superior man, in accordance with this will sacrifice his life in order to carry out his purpose.

1. He enters a dark valley: so benighted is he, and without clear vision.
2. He is straightened amidst his wine and viands: but his position is central, and there will be ground for congratulation.
3. He lays hold of thorns: this is suggested by the position of the line above the strong line. He enters his palace, and does not see his wife: this is inauspicious.
4. He proceeds very slowly to help the subject of the first line: his aim is directed to help that lower line. Although he is not in his appropriate place, he and that other will in the end be together.
5. His nose and feet are cut off: his aim has not yet been gained. He is leisurely, however, in his movements, and is satisfied: his position is central and his virtue is correct. It will be well for him to be as sincere as in sacrificing: so shall he receive blessing.
6. He is straightened as if bound with creepers: his spirit and action are unsuitable. He says, 'If I move, I shall repent of it'. And he does repent of former errors, which leads to good fortune: so he now goes on.
(010110)
```Replenishing : 48 ䷯ (井 jǐng)
```

We have the symbol of wood in the water and the raising of the water; which gives us the idea of a well. A well supplies nourishment and is not itself exhausted.
The site of a town may be changed, while the fashion of its wells undergoes no change: this is indicated by the central position of the strong lines in the second and fifth places.

The drawing is nearly accomplished, but the rope has not yet reached the water of the well: its service has not yet been accomplished. The bucket is broken: it is this that occasions evil.

Jing :井

The trigram representing wood and above it that for water form Ching. The superior man, in accordance with this, comforts the people, and stimulates them to mutual helpfulness.

1. A well so muddy that men will not drink of it: this is indicated by the low position of the line. An old well to which the birds do not come: it has been forsaken in the course of time.
2. A well from which by a hole the water escapes, and flows away to the shrimps: the subject of this second line has none cooperating with him above.
3. The well has been cleared out, but is not used: even passers-by would be sorry for this. A prayer is made that the king were intelligent: for then blessing would be received.
4. A well the lining of which is well laid. There will be no error: the well has been put in good repair.
5. The waters from the cold spring are freely drunk: this is indicated by the central and correct position of the line.
6. The great good fortune at the topmost place indicates the grand accomplishment of the idea of the hexagram.
(011101)
```Abolishing The Old : 49 ䷰ (革 gé)
```

In Ko we see water and fire extinguishing each other; we see also two daughters dwelling together, but with their minds directed to different objects: on account of these things it is called the hexagram of change.

It is believed in only after it has been accomplished: when the change has been made, faith is accorded to it.

We have cultivated intelligence as the basis of pleased satisfaction, suggesting great progress and success, coming from what is correct.
When change thus takes place in the proper way, occasion for repentance disappears.

Heaven and earth undergo their changes, and the four seasons complete their functions. Thang changed the appointment of the line of Hsia to the throne, and Wu that of the line of Shang, in accordance with the will of Heaven, and in response to the wishes of men. Great indeed is what takes place in a time of change.

Ge :革

The trigram representing the waters of a marsh and that for fire in the midst of them form Ko. The superior man, in accordance with this, regulates his astronomical calculations, and makes clear the seasons and times.

1. He is bound with the skin of a yellow ox: he should in his circumstances be taking action.
2. He makes his changes when some time has passed: what he does will be matter of admiration.
3. The change contemplated has been three times fully discussed: to what else should attention now be directed.
4. The good fortune consequent on changing existing ordinances is due to the faith reposed in his aims.
5. The great man produces his changes as the tiger does when he changes his stripes: their beauty becomes more brilliant.
6. The superior man produces his changes as the leopard does when he changes his spots: their beauty becomes more elegant. Small men change their faces: they show themselves prepared to follow their ruler.
(101110)
```Establishing The New : 50 ䷱ (鼎 dǐng)
```

In Ting we have symbolically the figure of a cauldron.
We see the symbol of wood entering into that of fire, which suggests the idea of a cooking.

The sages cooked their offerings in order to present them to God, and made great feasts to nourish their wise and able ministers.

We have the symbol of flexible obedience, and that which denotes ears quick of hearing and eyes clear-sighted.

We have also the weak line advanced and acting above, in the central place, and responded to by the strong line below. All these things give the idea of great progress and success.

Ding :鼎

The trigram representing wood and above it that for fire form Ting. The superior man, in accordance with this, keeps his every position correct, and maintains secure the appointment of Heaven.

1. The caldron (cauldron) is overturned, and its feet turned upwards: but this is not all contrary to what is right. There will be advantage in getting rid of what was bad: thereby the subject of the line will follow the more noble subject of the fourth line.
2. There is the caldron with the things to be cooked in it: let the subject of the line be careful where he goes. My enemy dislikes me: but there will in the end be no fault to which he can point.
3. There is the caldron with the places for its ears changed: its subject has failed in what was required of him in his situation.
4. The contents designed for the ruler's use are overturned and split: how can the subject of the line be trusted.
5. The caldron has yellow ears: the central position of the line is taken as a proof of the solid virtue of its subject.
6. The rings of jade are at the very top: the strong and the weak meet in their due proportions.
(001001)
```Taking Action : 51 ䷲ (震 zhèn)
```

Chên gives the intimation of ease and development.
When the time of movement which it indicates comes, its subject will be found looking out with apprehension: that feeling of dread leads to happiness. An yet smiling and talking cheerfully: the issue of his dread is that he adopts proper laws for his course.

The movement like a crash of thunder terrifies all within a hundred li: it startles the distant and frightens the near.

He will be like the sincere worshipper, who is not startled into letting go his ladle and cup of sacrificial spirits: he makes his appearance, and maintains his ancestral temple and the altars of the spirits of the land and grain, as presiding at all sacrifices.

Zhen :震

The trigram representing thunder, being repeated, forms Chên. The superior man, in accordance with this is fearful and apprehensive, cultivates his virtue, and examines his faults.

1. When the time of movement comes, he will be found looking out with apprehension: that feeling of dread leads to happiness. He yet smiles and talks cheerfully: the issue of his dread is that he adopts proper laws for his course.
2. When the movement approaches, he is in a position of peril: a weak line is mounted on a strong one.
3. He is distraught amid the startling movements going on: the third line is in a position unsuitable to it.
4. Amid the startling movements, he sinks supinely in the mud: the light in him has not yet been brilliantly developed.
5. He goes and comes amid the startling movements, and always in peril: full of risk are his doings. What he has to do has to be done in his central position: far will he be from incurring any loss.
6. Amid the startling movements he is in breathless dismay: he has not found out the course of the due mean. Though evil threatens, he will not fall into error: he is afraid of being warned by his neighbors.
(100100)
```Keeping Still : 52 ䷳ (艮 gèn)
```

Kên denotes stopping or resting: resting when it is the time to rest, and acting when it is the time to act.

When one's movements and restings all take place at the proper time for them, his way of proceeding is brilliant and intelligent.

Resting in one's resting-point is resting in one's proper place. The upper and lower lines of the hexagram exactly correspond to each other, but are without any interaction; hence it is said that the subject of the hexagram has no consciousness of self; that when he walks in his courtyard, he does not see any of the persons in it; and that there will be no error.

Gen :艮

The two trigrams representing a mountain, one over the other, form Kên. The superior man, in accordance with this, does not go in his thoughts beyond the duties of the position in which he is.

1. He keeps his toes at rest: he does not fail in what is correct according to the idea of the figure.
2. He cannot help him whom he follows: he whom he follows will not retreat to listen to him.
3. He keeps the loins at rest: the danger from his doing so produces a glowing heat in the heart.
4. He keeps the trunk of his body at rest: he keeps himself free from agitation.
5. He keeps his cheek bones at rest: in harmony with his central position he acts correctly.
6. There is good fortune through his devotedly maintaining his restfulness: to the end he shows himself generous and good
(110100)
```Developing Gradually : 53 ䷴ (漸 jiàn)
```

The advance indicated by Chien is like the marrying of a young lady which is attended by good fortune.

The lines as they advance get into their correct places: this indicates the achievements of a successful progress.

Among the places of the hexagram we see the strong undivided line in the centre.

In the attributes of restfulness and flexible penetration we have the assurance of an onward movement that is inexhaustible.

Jian :渐

The trigram representing a mountain and above it that for a tree form Chien. The superior man, in accordance with this, attains to and maintains his extraordinary virtue, and makes the manners of the people good.

1. The danger of a small officer as represented in the first line is owing to no fault of his in the matter of what is right.
2. They eat and drink joyfully and at ease: but not without having earned their food.
3. A husband goes and does not return: he separates himself from his comrades. A wife is pregnant, but will not nourish her child: she has failed in her proper course. It might be advantageous in resisting plunderers: by acting as here indicated men would preserve one another.
4. They may light on the flat branches: there is docility in the line going on to flexible penetration.
5. In the end the natural issue cannot be prevented. There will be good fortune: the subject of the line will get what he desires.
6. Their feathers can be used as ornaments. There will be good fortune: the object and character of the subject of the line cannot be disturbed.
(001011)
```Marrying Maiden : 54 ䷵ (歸妹 guī mèi)
```

By Kuei Mei, the marrying away of a younger sister, the great and righteous relation between heaven and earth is suggested to us.

If heaven and earth were to have no intercommunication, things would not grow and flourish as they do. The marriage of a younger sister is the end of her maidenhood and the beginning of her motherhood.

We have in the hexagram the desire of pleasure and, on the ground of that, movement following. The marrying away is of a younger sister.

Any action will be evil: the places of the lines are not those appropriate to them. It will be in no wise advantageous: the weak third and fifth line are mounted on strong lines.

Gui Mei :归妹

The trigram representing the waters of a marsh and over it that for thunder form Kuei Mei. The superior man, in accordance with this, having regard to the far-distant end, knows the mischief that may be done at the beginning.

1. The younger sister is married off in a position ancillary to that of the real wife: it is the constant practice for such a case. Lame on one leg, she is able to tramp along: she can render helpful service.
2. There will be advantage in maintaining the firm correctness of a solitary widow: the subject of the line has not changed from the constancy proper to a wife.
3. The younger sister who was to be married off is an a mean position: this is shown by the improprieties indicated in the line.
4. The purpose in protracting the time is that after waiting the thing may be done all the better.
5. The sleeves of the younger sister of king Ti-yi, when she was married away, were not equal to those of her half-sister, who accompanied her: such was her noble character, indicated by the central position of the line
6. What is said in the sixth line, divided, about there being nothing in the basket shows that the subject of it is carrying an empty basket.
(001101)
```Abundance : 55 ䷶ (豐 fēng)
```

Fêng has the signification of being great.

It is made up of the trigrams representing intelligence and movement directed by that intelligence. It is thus that it has that signification.

The king has reached the condition denoted by Fêng: he has still to make it greater.

There is no occasion to be anxious. Let him be as the sun at noon: It is for him to cause his light to shine on all under the sky.

When the sun has reached the meridian height, it begins to decline.

When the moon has become full, it begins to wane.

The interaction of heaven and earth is now vigorous and abundant, now dull and scanty, growing and diminishing according to the seasons.

How much more must it be so with the operations of men.

How much more also with the spiritual agency.

Feng :丰

The trigrams representing thunder and lightning combine to form Fêng. The superior man, in accordance with this, decides cases of litigation, and apportions punishments with exactness.

1. Though they both be of the same character, there will be no error: if the subject of this line seek to overpass that similarity, there will be calamity.
2. Let him cherish his feeling of sincere devotion, that is shall appear being put forth: it is by sincerity that the mind is affected.
3. There is an additional screen of a large and thick banner: great things should not be attempted in such circumstances. He breaks his right arm: in the end he will not be fit to be employed.
4. He is surrounded by a screen large and thick: the position of the line is inappropriate. At midday he sees the constellation of the Bushel: there is darkness and no light. He meets with the subject of the line, undivided like himself. There will be good fortune: action may be taken.
5. The good fortune indicated by the fifth line, divided, is the congratulation that is sure to arise.
6. He has made his house large: he soars in his pride to the heavens. He looks at his door, which is still, with no one about it: he only keeps himself withdrawn from all others.
(101100)
```Travelling : 56 ䷷ (旅 lǚ)
```

Lu indicates that there may be some small attainment and progress: the weak line occupies the central place in the outer trigram, and is obedient to the strong lines on either side of it.

We have also the attributes of quiet resting closely attached to intelligence in the component trigrams.

Hence it is said, there may be some small attainment and progress. If the stranger or traveler be firm and correct as he ought to be, there will be good fortune.

Great is the time and great is the right course to be taken as intimated in Lu.

Lu :旅

The trigram representing a mountain and above it that for fire form Lu. The superior man, in accordance with this, exerts his wisdom and caution in the use of punishments and not allowing litigations to continue.

1. The stranger is mean and meanly occupied: his aim is become of the lowest character, and calamity will ensue.
2. He is provided with good and trusty servants: he will in the end have nothing of which to complain.
3. The stranger burns his lodging house: and he himself also suffers hurt thereby. When, as a stranger, he treats those below him as the line indicates, the right relation between him and them is lost.
4. The stranger is in a resting place: but he has not got his proper position. He has the means of livelihood, and the axe: but his mind is not at ease.
5. In the end he will obtain praise and a high charge: he has reached a high place.
6. Considering that the stranger is here at the very height of distinction, with the spirit that possesses him, it is right he should be emblemed by a bird burning its nest.
(110110)
```Proceeding Humbly : 57 ䷸ (巽 xùn)
```

The double Sun shows how, in accordance with it, governmental orders are reiterated.

We see that the strong fifth line has penetrated into the central and correct place, and the will of its subject is being carried into effect; we also see the weak first and fourth lines both obedient to the strong line above them.

It is hence said, there will be some little attainment and progress. There will be advantage in movement onward in whatever direction.

It will be advantageous also to see the great man.

Xun :巽

Two trigrams representing wind, following each other, form Sun. The superior man in accordance with this, reiterates his orders, and secures the practice of his affairs.

1. Now he advances, now he recedes: his mind is perplexed. It would be advantageous for him to have the firmness of a brave soldier: his mind would in that case be well governed.
2. The good fortune springing from what borders on confusion is due to the position of the line in the centre.
3. The regret arising from the violent and repeated efforts to penetrate shows the exhaustion of the will.
4. He takes game in his hunting, enough for the threefold use of it: he achieves merit.
5. The good fortune of the subject of the fifth line, undivided, is owing to its correct position and its being in the centre.
6. The representative of penetration is beneath a couch: though occupying the topmost place, his powers are exhausted. He has lost the axe with which he executed his decisions: though he try to be correct, there will be evil.
(011011)
```Joyful : 58 ䷹ (兌 duì)
```

Tui has the meaning of pleased satisfaction. We have the strong lines in the center, and the weak lines on the outer edge of the two trigrams, indicating that in pleasure what is most advantageous is the maintenance of firm correctness.

Through this there will be found an accordance with the will of heaven, and a correspondence with the feelings of men.

When such pleasure goes before the people, and leads them on, they forget their toils; when it animates them in encountering difficulties, they forget the risk of death.

How great is the power of this pleased satisfaction, stimulating in such a way the people.

Dui :兑

Two symbols representing the waters of a marsh, one over the other, form Tui. The superior man, in accordance with this, encourages the conversation of friends and the stimulus of their common practice.

1. The good fortune attached to the pleasure of inward harmony arises from there being nothing in the conduct of the subject of the line to awaken doubt.
2. The good fortune attached to the pleasure arising from inward sincerity is due to the confidence felt in the object of the subject of the line.
3. The evil predicated of one's bringing around himself whatever can give pleasure is shown by the inappropriateness of the place of the line.
4. The joy in connection with the subject of the fourth line, undivided, is due to the happiness which he will produce.
5. He trusts in one who would injure him: his place is that which is correct and appropriate.
6. The topmost line, divided, shows the pleasure of its subject in leading and attracting others: his virtue is not yet brilliant.
(110010)
```Dispersing : 59 ䷺ (渙 huàn)
```

Huan intimates that there will be progress and success: we seethe strong line in the second place of the lower trigram, and not suffering any extinction there; and also the weak line occupying its place in the outer trigram, and uniting its action with that of the line above.

The king goes to his ancestral temple: the king's mind is without any deflection.

It will be advantageous to cross the great stream: the subject of the hexagram rides in a vessel of wood over water, and will do so with success.

Huan :涣

The trigrams representing water and that for wind moving above the water form Huan. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, presented offerings to God and established the ancestral temple.

1. The good fortune attached to the first line, divided, is due to the natural course pursued by its subject.
2. Amidst the prevailing dispersion, he hurries to his contrivance for security: he gets what he desires.
3. He has no regard to his own person: his aim is directed to what is external to himself.
4. He scatters the different parties in the state, and there is great good fortune: brilliant and great are his virtue and service.
5. The accumulations of the royal granaries are dispersed, and there is no error: this is due to the correctness of the position.
6. His bloody wounds are gone: he is far removed from the danger of injury.
(010011)
```Restricting : 60 ䷻ (節 jié)
```

Chieh intimates progress and attainment: the strong and weak lines are equally divided, and the strong lines occupy the central places.

If the regulations which Chieh prescribes be severe and difficult, they cannot be permanent: its course of action will in that case come to an end.

We have the feeling of pleasure and satisfaction directing the course amidst peril.

We have all regulations controlled by authority in its proper place.

We have free action proceeding from the central and correct position.

Heaven and earth observe their regular terms, and we have the four seasons complete.

If rulers frame their measures according to the due regulations, the resources of the state suffer no injury, and the people receive no hurt.

Jie :节

The trigram representing a lake, and above it that for water, form Chieh. The superior man, in accordance with this, constructs his methods of numbering and measurement, and discusses points of virtue and conduct.

1. He does not quit the courtyard outside his door: he knows when he has free course and when he is obstructed.
2. He does not quit the courtyard inside his gate. There will be evil: he loses the time for action to an extreme degree.
3. In the lamentation for not observing the proper regulations, who should there be to blame?
4. The progress and success of the quiet and natural attention to all regulations is due to the deference which accepts the ways of the ruler above.
5. The good fortune arising from the regulations enacted sweetly and acceptably is due to the line occupying the place of authority and being in the center.
6. The regulations are severe and difficult. Even with firm correctness there will be evil: the course indicated by the hexagram is come to an end.
(110011)
```Innermost Sincerity : 61 ䷼ (中孚 zhōng fú)
```

In Chung Fu we have the two weak lines in the innermost part of the figure, and strong lines occupying the central places in the trigrams. We have the attributes of pleased satisfaction and flexible penetration.

Sincerity this symbolled will transform a country.

Pigs and fish are moved, and there will be good fortune: sincerity reaches to and affects even pigs and fishes.

There will be advantage in crossing the great stream: we see in the figure one riding on the emblem of wood, which forms an empty boat.

In the exercise of the virtue denoted by Chung Fu, it is said that there will be advantage in being firm and correct: in that virtue indeed we have the response of man to Heaven.

Zhong Fu :中孚

The trigram representing the waters of a marsh and that for wind above it form Chung Fu. The superior man, in accordance with this, deliberates about cases of litigation and delays the infliction of death.

1. The first line, undivided, shows its subject resting in himself. There will be good fortune: no change has yet come over his purpose.
2. Her young ones respond to her: from the common wish of the inmost heart.
3. Now he beats his drum, and now he leaves off: the position of the line is the appropriate one for it.
4. A horse the fellow of which disappears: he breaks from his former companions, and mounts upwards.
5. He is perfectly sincere, and links others to him in closest union: the place of the line is the correct and appropriate one.
6. Chanticleer tries to mount to heaven: but how can such an effort continue long?
(001100)
```Little Exceeding : 62 ䷽ (小過 xiǎo guò)
```

In Hsiao Kuo we see the small lines exceeding the others, and giving the intimation of progress and attainment.
Such exceeding, in order to its being advantageous, must be associated with firmness and correctness: that is, it must take place only according to the requirements of the time.

The weak lines are in the central places, and hence it is said that what the name denotes may be done in small affairs, and there will be good fortune.

Of the strong lines one is not in its proper place, and the other is not central, hence it is said that what the name denotes should not be done in great affairs.

In the hexagram we have the symbol of a bird on the wing, and of the notes that come down from such a bird, for which it is better to descend than to ascend, thereby leading to great good fortune: to ascend is contrary to what is reasonable in the case, while to descend is natural and right.

Xiao Guo :小过

The trigram representing a hill and that for thunder above it form Hsiao Kuo. The superior man, in accordance with this, in his conduct exceeds in humility, in mourning exceeds in sorrow, and in his expenditure exceeds in economy.

1. There is a bird flying and ascending till the result is evil: nothing can be done to avoid this issue.
2. He does not attempt to reach his ruler: a minister should not overpass the distance between his ruler and himself.
3. Some in consequence find opportunity to assail and injure him. There will be evil: how great will it be.
4. He meets the exigency of his situation, without exceeding the proper course: he does so, the position being inappropriate for a strong line. If he go forward, there will be peril, and he must be cautious: the result would be that his course would not be long pursued.
5. There are dense clouds, but no rain: the line is in too high a place.
6. He does not meet the exigency of his situation, and exceeds his proper course: the position indicates the habit of domineering.
(010101)
```Already Fulfilled : 63 ䷾ (既濟 jì jì)
```

Chi Chi intimates progress and success: in small matters, that is, there will be that progress and success.

There will be advantage in being firm and correct: the strong and weak lines are correctly arranged, each in its appropriate place.

There has been good fortune in the beginning: the weak second line is in the center.

In the end there is a cessation of effort, and disorder arises: the course that led to rule and order is now exhausted.

Ji Ji :既济

The trigram representing fire and that for water above it for Ki Chi. The superior man, in accordance with this, thinks of evil that may come, and beforehand guards against it.

1. He drags back his wheel: as we may rightly judge, there will be no mistake.
2. In seven days he will find it: for the course pursued is that indicated by the central position of the line.
3. He was three years in subduing it: enough to make him weary.
4. He is on his guard all the day: he is in doubt about something.
5. The slaughtering of an ox by the neighbor in the east is not equal to the small sacrifice of the neighbor in the west: because the time in the latter case is more important and fit. His sincerity receives the blessing: good fortune comes on a great scale.
6. His head is immersed; the position is perilous: how could such a state continue long.
(101010)
```Not Yet Fulfilled : 64 ䷿ (未濟 wèi jì)
```

Wei Chi intimates progress and success in the circumstances which it implies: the weak fifth line is in the center.

The young fox has nearly crossed the stream: but he has not yet escaped from the midst of the danger and calamity.

Its tail gets immersed.

There will be no advantage in any way: there is not at the end a continuance of the purpose at the beginning.

Although the places of the different lines are not those appropriate to them, yet a strong line and a weak line always respond to each other.

Wei Ji :未济

The trigram representing water and that for fire above it form Wei Chi. The superior man, in accordance with this, carefully discriminates among the qualities of things and the different positions they naturally occupy.

1. His tail gets immersed: this is the very height of ignorance.
2. The second line, undivided, shows good fortune arising from being firm and correct: it is in the central place, and the action of its subject thereby becomes correct.
3. The state of things is not yet remedied. Advancing will lead to evil: the place of the line is not that appropriate for it.
4. By firm correctness there is good fortune, and cause for repentance disappears: the aim of the subject of the line is carried into effect.
5. We see the brightness of a superior man: the diffusion of that brightness tends to good fortune.
6. He drinks and gets his head immersed: he does not know how to submit to the proper regulations.

Ref: Yi Ching translated by James Legge (1815 –1897). Both the explanation of the Gua by King Wen and the explanation of the lines by the Duke of Kau were translated by James Legge.