History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Biographies/Henry Sutton/Notes

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Henry SuttonEdit

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50 year anniversary of the establishment of Sutton's business

FIFTY YEARS AGO. A retrospective view of things established facts in no uncertain manner, and it is by looking backward, and studying what has happened, that one can satisfy oneself in respect to most things. We are certain of what has happened in the past, but cannot say what the future will bring forth. Such musings as these are engendered by reading the advertisement, appearing in another column — of what is possibly Ballarat's oldest business house — Suttons, the music sellers. The late R. H. Sutton, a cultured scholar and musician, attracted here, as were many other of England’s best sons, in the early fifties, found that Ballarat folk even then aspired to the arts, and required to be catered for musically. Mr Sutton undertook to supply the want, his experience in England and France particularly qualifying him for the task. Underlying Mr Sutton's ability as a musical man, there was a fine business quality, and these two characteristics are doubtless responsible for the writing today of this little bit of Ballarat's history. It is almost remarkable that a business such as music selling should have lived for over 50 years, through the vicissitudes and the ebb and flow of happenings in a goldfields town. That it should have done so reflects considerable credit upon the management of the house of Suttons. Many Ballarat folk have watched with interest the growth of the commercial concern, which today is looked upon by many as more of an institution than a mere trading house, and it has been an exceedingly pleasing feature that whilst the Messrs Sutton were establishing themselves in a very large way of business in Melbourne and at Bendigo and Geelong, their Ballarat house has continued to go ahead, and add to its fame and standing. The artistic musical influence of a business, conducted as Suttons has been, is of incalculable benefit to a community. This is fairly demonstrated by the fact that Messrs Sutton are able to show that they have in this district served as many as three generations with their requirements in regard to pianos, organs, and music. Speaking in the purely commercial aspect, it cannot be denied that it is by business integrity and careful uprightness in the conduct of their affairs, that such houses as Suttons and others here have created a worldwide reputation for the commercial stability of Ballarat. Citizens, we are sure will join us in congratulating Messrs Sutton upon having passed their 50 years of establishment.[1]

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Sutton's father Richard Henry Sutton successfully bids for a main road lot only a year after Henry's birth

MAIN-ROAD FRONTAGES. The sale room of the Government Auctioneer was crowded on Tuesday and Wednesday, as on Monday, with anxious bidders and excited lookers-on during the time of sale. Whenever a brisk bidding took place, the victor was either cheered or hissed, according to the view taken of his conduct in the business. The excitement was intense on Wednesday while the bidding for Lot 5 was going on; and when the lot had been run up from £35 to £500 by the man who had just before bought out his only competitor for No 4, there was an unmistakeable expression of disapprobation by the crowd; hisses, groans, and similar noises greeting the purchaser when he ascended the rostrum of the auctioneer, to ratify his investment. This lot sold at the rate of £16,000 per acre, a price hitherto unprecedented, we believe, in the sales of land in the interior. The valuation of £40 is also set upon a hovel of no real use to the purchaser, so that the actual cost of the land is enhanced by that amount beyond the £16,000 per acre. One or two lots were disputed and put up twice, and the occupant of lot 48 amused the company by bidding against himself, and thus paying £50 instead of the upset of £47. The purchaser of lot 49 was also greeted with a hurricane of cheers, accompanied by divers jocose remarks, but the reason of this special demonstration did not publicly transpire. We give below the result of the sales on Tuesday and Wednesday. Tuesday, 9th December, 1856. . . . Lot 48. Allot 17 of H, six perches. Upset price 38l. Valuation, 230l. R. H. Sutton — 40l.[2]


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Sutton's father makes a suggestion for fire damage minimisation after disastrous Ballarat fire

A VALUABLE SUGGESTION. (To The Editor of the Star.) Sir,— The disastrous fire which took place on Thursday night last, near the Plank-road, has caused me to think of a plan that would I believe, prevent many fires from being so serious in their consequences. My plan consists in breaking off the connection between the houses, &c. We will suppose there are fifteen or twenty buildings all joining together, which is the case in many parts of the Main-road, and most of the buildings are built of wood: how simple it would be to put a framework of wood underneath one of these buildings, with eight small wheels cut off the trunk of a tree about eighteen inches in diameter, to run on a kind of railroad, simply put on strong props well stayed to the full extent of their back ground. We will suppose there was one building so arranged in every six — don't you think it would prevent fires being so serious if there were here and there a single storey building done so? I say one story because these would be so much easier to push back, or, with a winch fixed at the back of the premises, pull it back to the full extent of the back ground. I think breaking off the connection is the main point for consideration with respect to fires. Perhaps you will recollect the great fire at the United States hotel; there was a right-of-way between Heminway and Jones' and the Charlie Napier, and it was that open space that prevented the Charlie Napier from taking fire. Now, by pushing back an ordinary sized store, it would very likely prevent the fire from extending further. I think the cost of this framework under a moderate sized store would not exceed £35. Sir, if you think the above remarks worthy of a space in your valuable paper, you will oblige by inserting it. Yours respectfully, R. H. SUTTON. Ballarat, 10th July, 1855 (sic, 1857)[3]

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Sutton's father provides the harmonium for clebration of Christian Association at Brown Hill

BROWN HILL.— Our correspondent writes: The third annual celebration of the Christian Association took place last Tuesday. The soiree was held in the new brick hall, which stands on a cross street between Melbourne road and Humffray street, a little above the Caledonian railway bridge. Its dimensions are 26 by 16 feet, 10 feet feet walls, lighted from the roof. The cost of building and furniture is £135, £100 of which has been raised, £80 by subscription, and £20 by the soiree. Thirty-seven lectures have been delivered by members of the association during the past year, on the following subjects:— Western Africa, Insects, Life of Viscount Nelson, Dreams, Life of St. Bridget, Revivals, St. Paul at Athens, Australian Aborigines, Miracles of Christ, Individual Effort, Latter-day Glory, Topography of Athens, Millennium, Egypt, Delusions, Bible, Nebuchadnezzar and his Times, Fallacies, Slavery, Scotch Reformation, Catholic Church, Sunday Schools, Christ's Mission, Meteors, Prophecy, Water, Sabbath School Teachers, Music, Inspiration of Prophecy, Prayer, Operation of the Divine Spirit on the Human Mind, the Harmony of Reason, Conscience and the Bible, the Lord's Day, Class Meeting, Books, Happiness. The number of members on the books is 44, and the ordinary weekly attendance 30. The library consists of 167 volumes. The entertainment was provided by Mesdames Lane, Morrie, Powell, Congdon, Jarvie, Cross, Nicholson, and the committee. It consisted of an abundant supply of different kinds of confectionery. Oranges were served twice during the meeting held afterwards in the Wesleyan Church, while the Brown Hill choir was assisted by Mr E. Richards, who played the harmonium with precision and taste. The instrument was manufactured by Mr Sutton, musical instrument maker, Main Road, for the choir, and cost £20. The meeting was presided over by Mr James Oddie, and addressed by R. Gillespie, Esq., Rev. J. G. Millard, and Messrs W. Raw, Jas Baker, W. Price, S. Keast, and W. M. K. Vale. Mr Oddie complimented the committee on their energy and success. Mr Gillespie took great interest in such institutions, pointed out some of the advantages to be derived from them, and cautioned the committee against innovations that might tend to sap the fundamental principles of christianity. Rev. J. G. Millard advised the members to cultivate correct and chaste diction. Mr James Baker, in a vigorous speech, pointed out the advantages that resulted from the exercise of thought. Mr W. Price addressed himself to the task of reconciling geologic and scientific truth with revealed religion. Mr S. Keast pointed out the path of usefulness. Mr W. M. K. Vale gave an address on the advantages of social intercourse. Mr W. Raw, in a humorous speech, associated such institutions with the future greatness of the colony in politics, oratory, science and usefulness. The usual votes of thanks to the ladies and choir concluded the meeting.[4]

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Sutton's father in a cast of thousands of shareholders in joint mining company Band of Hope

BAND OF HOPE COMPANY. (LIMITED) I, THE Undersigned, ANDREW JOHN FORBES, hereby make application to register the BAND OF HOPE COMPANY, (Limited), under the provisions of the Mining Partnerships Limited Liability Act, 1860, and I do solemnly and and sincerely declare that the following statement is to the best of my belief and knowledge true in every particular, namely — 1. The name and style of the Company is the "Band of Hope Company," (Limited.) 2. The place of operations is at Ballarat. 3. The nominal capital of the Company is Thirty-two Thousand Pounds, in Sixteen Hundred Shares, of Twenty Pounds each, with power to increase to Fifty Thousand Pounds by the issue of Nine Hundred additional Shares. 4. The amount already paid up is Twenty Thousand and Forty Pounds, Fifteen Shillings. The name of the Manager is ANDREW JOHN FORBES. 6. The office of the Company is at Number 3, Chamber of Commerce, Sturt street, Ballarat. 7. The names and several residences of the Shareholders, and the number of Shares held by each, at this date, are as follow:— . . . Richard Henry Sutton, Ballarat, three.[5]

Sutton's father develops an improvement to his harmonium and intends to patent it

Mr R. H. Sutton, of the Main road, music seller, has lately produced an improved harmonium with a pedal stop, for the registration of which he intends to make immediate application. The advantages of the instrument under notice chiefly consist in the power of producing forte and pianissimo at will, and with perfect facility. The stop occupies a position in the centre of the instrument, between the ordinary pedals used for supplying the instrument with wind. In this respect it possesses great advantages above the knee stop, which is often difficult of approach in consequence of the necessity of keeping up the bellows' action. The stops are forte, forte, bourdon, cor Anglais, vox Celeste, grand organ, vox Celeste (treble), flute, and clarionet — nine in all. The instrument is strictly of Ballarat manufacture, with the exception of the ivory keys and a portion of the metallic reeds, which were imported. The tone is excellent, and the class of instrument recommends itself to the notice of congregations who cannot afford to go to the expense of purchasing ordinary church organs. Mr Sutton's invention deserves extensive patronage, and will, no doubt, receive it.[6]

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Minor accident during the demolition of Sutton's father's former premises

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . An accident occurred on the Main road yesterday afternoon to a young man named Hugo Bruun, employed in the office of the Eastern Council, which which might have been attended with serious consequences. It appears he was walking along the pavement, and when opposite the wooden building recently occupied by Mr Sutton, music seller, and which is now being taken down, the window-frame fell out upon him, when one of the panes, coming in contact with his head, was broken, and a piece of the glass, owing to the position in which he was thrown, stuck in his side, inflicting a slight wound. More care should certainly be taken in the removal or repair of buildings in the public streets.[7]

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Sutton's father's new business premises nearing completion

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Mr Sutton's new premises near the same site are nearly for roofing in. They will not be, any more than those above mentioned, of a very ornate character in design, but will be an improvement upon many of the previous erections thereabout.[8]

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Sutton's father's new business premises about to open

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . We notice that the building in Main street, adjoining the Eglinton Hotel is now completed, and is about being opened by Mr Sutton, music-seller, who occupied the previous wooden tenement. The drawings of the building were supplied by Mr Jas. H. Spark, and Messrs Spark and Cowland have been the contractors. They have evidently completed their work substantially, and also with some regard, to outward appearance, and the building is a credit to that part of the town.[9]

Sutton's father's new business premises now open

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Two new additions to the shop architecture of the town have lately been opened, one in each borough. In Sturt street, Mr Shepperd has opened his new druggist's shop, and its style will remind passes by of many a similar one in the larger towns of the old country. In Main street, Mr Sutton, the music seller, has got into his new premises, which are a very welcome exchange from the old building on the same site. Both of the premises we have mentioned are two stories in height, and are built in permanent material.[10]

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The thief of a flutina from Sutton's father's music store is sentenced to two months' imprisonment

POLICE. DISTRICT COURT. Thursday, 9th May. (Before the Police Magistrate.) Theft.— Carl Khlan, who had on the previous court day pleaded guilty to a charge of having stolen a flutina from Sutton's music shop, Main street, was brought up for sentence. There was nothing previously known against him, and he was sentenced to two months' imprisonment.[11]

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Sutton's father's inventiveness displayed in his musical instruments

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Mr R. H. Sutton, musical instrument manufacturer, Main street, Ballarat, has just completed two military side-drums, to be used by the drum and fife band of the Ballarat Volunteer Rangers, and are constructed upon, an entirely new plan, suggested by Mr John Nesbit, master of the band. The ordinary French military side-drum, heretofore deemed the perfection of construction in this instrument of percussion, by Mr Nesbit’s suggestion attains double the ordinary sounding power. The means whereby this is acquired consists in the application of a set of snares, placed on the inside of the "batter-head" (so as to keep the outside free for the action of the sticks), in addition to the snares on the outside of the "snare-head." There is thus double vibration and double sound produced by the pressure of windage. Those who are acquainted with the construction of such drums will at once discern the simplicity and importance of this invention. Mr Sutton’s share in the credit is, as a matter of course, also a large one. He at once saw the importance of Mr Nesbit’s suggestion, and produced the whole of the work upon his premises. The wood-work required for the hoops has been made of imported English ash, bent in a steam-chest made for the purpose, as also for the "flesh-hoops," ordinarily made of poplar — much too yielding a wood. The brass forming the shell has also been fashioned on the premises, as also the brace rods, &c, turned in brass. These rods, &c., are in English drums made of iron, but it is manifest that by the change in their material they are better enabled to resist the action of the weather.[12]

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Sutton (age 18) wins several prizes (and a scholarship) for drawings at the Ballarat West School of Design (also his brother Alfred Sutton)

BALLARAT WEST SCHOOL OF DESIGN. The third annual distribution of prizes in this school took place on Wednesday evening, in the hall of the Mechanics’ Institute, which was crowded with pictures and visitors. All round the walls and on two tables in the middle of the hall the exhibits of the pupils were exposed, and the excellence of the works of the more advanced classes demonstrated the great progress made by the school. His Honor Judge Bindon presided on the occasion, and with him on the platform the teachers, the hon. and several other gentlemen. At intervals during the evening the proceedings were varied by musical contributions by Miss Marshall and Mr S. Lamble. The learned chairman was received with a hearty greeting. In opening the proceedings he expressed himself as sensible of the honor put upon him in being requested to be present and to present the prizes on that occasion. He was the more sensible of the honor because of the renown of Ballarat for its mineral wealth, its agricultural resources, the intelligence of its farmers, as shown by the papers read at the Farmers’ Club, and because of the iron works which had made the city famous. Since his last visit the Attorney-General had brought in a new Education Act, which had been ably and courteously argued by that gentleman, and had since become the law of the land, and had raised public instruction in Victoria to a higher level than ever before. In the British Cabinet two members represented public instruction, and now we had one in our Cabinet, and the subject had become one of public interest, and of Cabinet debate almost daily; but a great deal more was yet to be done, and industrial instruction should be pressed forward more than ever. There were now nineteen schools of design in Victoria, and over 1400 pupils attending, so that the exertions made had been crowned, he thought, with great success, most of which was due to the committees, teachers, and pupils, none of whom had shown more zeal or intelligence than had those of Ballarat. The art of design was not only useful but pleasant, and he would urge that as there was a place in nature for every plant, so there was a place in industry for every man and woman and child, and the convincing grounds were the industrial schools. Schools of design were but a part of that scheme, and he could not see why we should not have night schools for arithmetic and the sciences, nor why the people of Victoria should not have the same facilities for education as in England. In England there were 529 science schools receiving State aid, and 25,350 scholars were in attendance; in Scotland, 4624 scholars; and in Ireland, 212 schools of science, with 8327 scholars. He had on his table for inspection maps showing where these schools were dotted all over England and Scotland. But Switzerland was the country to show the triumph of industrial instruction. It had beaten England in the ribbon trade, in spite of all its local drawbacks, and that was due to industrial training. Zurich alone, with a third of our population, had a university and a technological college, with 150 civil engineers and 169 mechanical engineers matriculated. The English Consul attributed all this to the industrial schools and the democratic politics of the country. And why should we not then have the same results here? To France eighty working tradesmen, representing fifty trades, had been sent from England to report on the late Exhibition in Paris, and they reported that the foreign workmen beat the English ones because they had more art and industrial training. Another jury of twelve was also sent, and they made a similar report as to results and as to the cause. In America last year, five gentlemen in Boston subscribed £53,000 to the technological institution there; and if American capitalists thus treated science, the people there, in their reception of Professor Tyndall, showed that they also knew how to appreciate science. His lectures were sold everywhere, and no regal personage could have had a better reception. He received £2000 or £3000 profits from his lectures there, and he had devoted all to the cause of science. But some people here said our Minister of Education should stop at the three R’s, and never was there a greater mistake, for such an education was comparatively useless to the working-man. As Professor Huxley said, it was like giving a child knife, fork, and spoon, and nothing to eat with them. He hoped, then, that Ministers and Parliament would take note of that view of the subject. Sir W. Whitworth, a mechanic himself, had given £100,000 to technological instruction, and Josias Mason had also by deed of gift showed how he won his industrial way in face of the want of industrial teaching, and so he gave a fortune to found a scientific college. If we had to contend against the world, as we had, we must get the means, industrial knowledge, and he was glad to know that Ballarat had done its share. He had before him three awards by the Sydney judges to Ballarat exhibits, on which the Sydney Press had passed the highest encomiums. We had also founded a School of Mines, which owed something to Mr Michie, then our member, and now we had one of the completest laboratories in Victoria, and all the school showed the great care and intelligent economy of the managers of that institution. He hoped, therefore, that we should not rest, but go on, and still greater rewards would be the result of our exertions in the School of Design, and in all other branches of technological instruction. Mr. C. D. Figgis, hon. secretary, read the following report:— "Mr Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,— It is a source of much satisfaction to the committee in conducting the progress of this School of Design during the past year, that an increasing interest has been manifested on the part of the pupils generally to attain excellence in each of the departments of study, and the attendance of the classes has been most encouraging. Mr Percy Oakden has kindly undertaken the superintendence of the architectural and mechanical class from the commencement of the year, and Messrs C. D. Figgis and W. B. Tappin have conducted a water-color class in connection with the school since September last. The members attending the various classes have averaged for the year as follows:— Outline drawing, 53; shaded drawing, 24; architectural and mechanical drawing, 7; Saturday extra classes, 37; water-color class, 3; total, 124. Although these results numerically show but little advancement upon those of the previous year, it is gratifying to be enabled to report that during a period of trying local depression, which has proved a severe test to most of our institutions, the School of Design has more than maintained its position, while the pupils have made steady advancement in knowledge and proficiency. It may be mentioned that a lady who has been employed by some of the best English artists has expressed her willingness to undertake the oversight of a class for modelling in wax, an overture which has been regarded favorably by the committee. The committee have the pleasure of acknowledging the handsome liberality of Messrs James Campbell, S. L. Learmonth, Andrew Anderson, and the committee of the Mechanics’ Institute, who have contributed to the prize fund for the year, and whose excellent example it is hoped will be followed by others who take an interest in our success. A further liberal offer has been made by Wm. Newman, Esq., of a ten pounds life membership of the Mechanics’ Institute — provided that nine other gentlemen can be induced to make a similar contribution — to be competed for by the pupils during the coming year. The following gentlemen have devoted their valuable time in examining the merits of the exhibits and awarding the prizes, viz., Messrs Gibson, Fox, Niven, and Abbott. They desire to report that the general character of the exhibition is most creditable to the students, and that a marked improvement is visible in outline drawing generally, and in shaded drawings from the round. They express their regret, however, at the lack of competition in outline figure drawings from the round, mechanical and architectural drawings, and drawings in water-color. The prizes awarded are as follows:— Shaded ornamental drawing from the round.— Best drawing, Miss Clara Toy (£3 in membership of the Mechanics’ Institute). Shaded flower drawing from nature.— Best drawing, Miss Louisa Broadbent (£1 in membership of the Mechanics' Institute). Shaded figure drawing from the flat.— First prize, Mr W. H. Rushton (one volume of the 'Art Journal'); second, Miss Clara Toy (one volume of the 'Pilgrim’s Progress’). Shaded ornamental drawing from the flat.— First prize, Mr H. Sutton (four volumes of "Cassell's Technical Educator"); second, Miss E. Ballingall, ("The Bird," illustrated). Shaded landscape drawing from the flat.— First prize, Miss E. Ballingall (one hundred of the best drawings of G. E. Thomas); second, Mr Liddlelaw (one vol. of 'Milton'). Shaded figure drawing from the round.— Best drawing, Mr H. Sutton (one year's free scholarship in the School of Design). Shaded figure drawing from the flat.— Extra prize, Miss H. Kildahl (one year’s free scholarship in School of Design). Outline figure drawing from the flat.— Best drawing, Mr A. Sutton (£2 in membership of the Mechanics' Institute). Outline drawing from the flat.— Best drawing, Thos. Rider (£2 in membership of the Mechanics’ Institute). Outline figure drawing from the round.— Only prize, Mr A. Sutton (one vol. of the 'Art Journal’). Outline ornamental drawing from the flat— First prize, Mr Thos. Rider ('Joseph and his brethren'); second, Mr W. Binder ('The Ocean'). Outline flower drawing.— First prize, Miss M. J. Young ('Pictorial Scenes from Pilgrim's Progress'); second, Miss Bacchus ('Mountains'). Outline object drawing from the round.— First prize, Miss Ruth Baker ('Art Journal'); second, Miss Bacchus ('Portraits of Shakespeare'). Outline.— Best drawing, Mr Binder (one year's free scholarship in School of Design). Best outline drawing from the elementary class, Mr Wm. Stubbs (one year’s free scholarship in School of Design). Elementary Class.— Best outline drawing from the Flat, Mr J. H. Curwen (£1, in membership of the Mechanics lnstitute); Best answers to questions in practical geometry and mechanical exercises, Mr C. Ballhausen. Mechanical Drawing.— First prize, C. Ballhausen; second, William Magee. Best answers to questions in practical geometry and architecture.— Gordon Hughan. Best architectural drawing.— Wm. Magee (one year’s free scholarship in School of Design). Water-color drawing.— First prize, Mrs Binder (two vols. of the 'Fine Arts Quarterly Review'); second, Mrs Burns (one hundred of’ the best drawings of G. H. Thomas). The examiners, in addition to the above prizes, have awarded the following certificates of merit, viz.:— Shaded ornamental drawing from the round.— Miss L. Broadbent. Shaded figure drawing from the round.— First, Mr. Liddlelaw; second, Miss H. Kildahl, Shaded ornamental drawing from the flat.— First, Miss C. Toy; second, Mr A. Cumming. Shaded figure drawing from the flat.— First, Mr H. Sutton; second, Miss E. Ballingall; third, Mr Liddlelaw; fourth, Miss Potter. Shaded landscape drawing from the flat.— 1st, Miss L. Broadbent; 2nd, Miss C. Miller; 3rd, Miss Niven. Shaded flower drawing from the round.— 1st, Miss A. Tappin; 2nd, Miss Gellately. Shaded flower drawing from the flat.— 1st, Miss Martin; 2nd, Miss Dusautoy. Outline figure drawing from the flat.-— Miss R. Baker. Outline ornamental drawing from the flat.— 1st, Mr A. Sutton; 2nd, Miss R. Baker; 3rd, Miss M. J. Shewring; 4th, Mr E. Toy. Outline flower drawing.— 1st, Mr A. Sutton; 2nd, Mr Thos. Rider; 3rd, Miss M. J. Shewring. Outline object drawing from round.— 1st, Mr A. Sutton; 2nd, Mr Thomas Rider. Water-color drawing.— Mr Potter." Dr Jakins moved the adoption of the report, and, as an old technological pupil in England, bore testimony to the value of the references made by the learned chairman in that relation. Mr H. R. Caselli seconded the motion, which was carried unanimously. The distribution of prizes and certificates then took place, the chairman calling out each prize-taker’s name, amid the applause of the audience. After the ordinary distribution was over the chairman announced that he had been entrusted with the pleasing duty of presenting, on behalf of the committee of the late Sydney Exhibition, the awards made there to the exhibitors from the Ballarat School of Design. He then presented to Miss Louisa Broadbent a certificate for drawings from the round, to Mr S. Lamble a certificate for shaded ornamental drawing, and to Mr L. Adamson a bronze medal for his outline illustrations of the "Pilgrim’s Progress." This closed the distribution, and votes, of thanks to the judges, and teachers, and to chair concluded the proceedings.[13]

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Sutton again prominent prize winner in the annual awards night of the Ballarat West School of Design, speeches give great context for his educational environment

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIZES AT BALLARAT WEST SCHOOL OF DESIGN. The annual distribution of prizes in connection with the Ballarat West School of Design took place last night in the large room of the City Hall. Long before the announced hour of commencing, the room was crowded to repletion, and many were compelled to leave in consequence of there not being even standing room available. The walls of the room were beautifully adorned with the works of the pupils, many of which were of no uncommon merit. The chair was taken by Mr H. R. Caselli. The secretary read apologies from Judge Bindon, the secretary of the Technological Commission, and Mr Barnard, the registrar of the School of Mines; and mentioned that Major Smith and Mr Joseph Jones had verbally apologised for their absence. The Chairman said it afforded him pleasure, and he felt it an honor, to be present. For a long time efforts to arrange for a school of design had failed; but about four years ago a successful commencement had been made, and the school had prospered since that time. There was useful as well as ornamental drawing taught in the school, and the good that the school was doing was evidenced by the progress that had been made by the pupils. He was sure that the merits of many of the works were so nearly alike that the judges had experienced great difficulty in arriving at their decisions. The secretary then read the annual report and prize list as follows:— "The committee of this School of Design have much pleasure in stating that during the past year the institution has steadily progressed in numbers, and grown in popular estimation. The number attending last year averaged 124, during the past year they have reached an average of 170. This is the more satisfactory as the general depression which existed, and was referred to in the report of last year, has unfortunately continued, and would naturally tend to affect this and all similar institutions. The pupils have likewise made most satisfactory progress, and shown diligence and great interest in their work. The committee feel that is mainly due to the admirable system pursued, and to the zeal and industry of the masters. The school had from its commencement been carried on under the auspices of the Mechanics' Institute, but in July last it was made a integral part thereof, with the most satisfactory results. A subcommittee was appointed to manage this branch or the institute, and Mr Oldham was elected to serve thereon to represent the teachers. In July Mr C. D. Figgis resigned the honorary secretaryship, his resignation being received with much regret, and Mr Turnbull was appointed in his stead. In December Mr Percy Oakden left for Melbourne, much to the regret of his scholars, and Mr C. D. Figgis kindly took his place in charge of the mechanical and architectural classes. The numbers borne on the roll have been about 205; at present attending outline drawing, 70; shading, 30; mechanical and architectural, 12; Saturday extra classes, 52. Total, 164. The committee cannot refrain from acknowledging with thanks the following liberal donations:— Hon. Philip Russell, of Carugham, £5; and the hon. Mr Cumming, £3 3s. The prize of £2 2s for the best design from pupils of the school for the gold vase offered by the Mechanics' Institute has been awarded to Mr H. Sutton, although his design was not used, one by Mr Sayers having been selected. The Mechanics' Institute have decided on annually presenting to the pupil who shows the greatest excellence in all subjects a bronze medal. Messrs Bagge, Gibson, Sayers, and Abbott kindly consented to act as judges. The judges have much pleasure in reporting a marked improvement in the drawings exhibited by the students, and the number of them shows the increasing interest taken in the school. They, however, much regret the absence of any examples in perspective drawing. They also experienced considerable difficulty in awarding, the prizes, as the same student could only take a prize in one class; but they have endeavored to compensate for this by giving special certificates.— CHAS. W. GIBSON, JAMES SAYER." The following prizes have been awarded:— Bronze medal, for general excellence in all subjects, H. Sutton. Drawing from Nature and Designs.— 1st prize, Miss Bacchus; 2nd prize Miss Clark; certificate, Fotheringham. Drawing from the Round.— 1st prize, boy's figure, crayon, Miss Clara Toy; 2nd prize, scroll, crayon, J. Ditchburn; 1st certificate of merit, scroll, crayon, Miss E. Kildahl; 2nd certificate of merit, scroll, crayon, Alfred Cumming; special certificate, H. Sutton. Figure Drawing from the Flat.— 1st prize, H. Sutton, human figure, crayon; 2nd prize, A. Sutton, boy's head, crayon. Certificates of merit — 1st, Miss C. Martin, female head, crayon; 2nd, A. Dyke, outline head, pencil; 3rd, L. Clegg, satyr's head; 4th, Miss Polkenhorn, crayon. Special certificate — A. Sutton. Landscape.— 1st prize, Lake of Thun, crayon, E. T. Rider; 2nd prize, study of leaves, Miss A. Collins. Certificates of merit — 1st certificate, landscape, crayon, Miss Lucy Clarke; 2nd certificate, study of leaves, Miss Annie Tappin; 3rd certificate, study of leaves; Miss M. McKenzie; special certificate, J. Ditchburn. Ornamental Flat.— 1st prize, scroll, crayon, Fotheringham; 2nd prize, scroll, crayon, Miss Isabella McCrae. Certificates of merit — 1st certificate, shield, &c., crayon, Miss L. Dusautoy; 2nd certificate of merit, ornaments, J. E. Holmes; special certificates, E. T. Rider, A. Cumming. Outline.— 1st prize, pencil, E. Axford; 2nd prize, pencil, W. Binder; 3rd prize, Miss Martin; 4th prize, Miss C. Herman; 1st certificate of merit, pencil, J. Morris; 2nd certificate of merit, pencil, Miss S. Wright; 3rd certificate of merit, pencil, John Miller; 4th certificate of merit, pencil, Miss E. Binstead; special, Miss Marion Bean. Elementary object Drawing.— 1st prize, J. P. Morris, box crayon; 2nd, J. Binder, cruet stand, pencil. Certificates of merit — 1st, Miss R. Baker, a jug; 2nd, John Morris. Special — Miss Young, sketch of Woollen Factory, pencil. Under fifteen years of age — 1st prize, F. Sutton, nice years old, head, pencil; 2nd prize, Miss E. Martin, vase, pencil. Special certificate — Miss E.Cameron. Elementary.— 1st prize, outline, pencil, James Tullock; 2nd prize, do do, A. Towl. Certificates of merit — 1st certificate, outline, pencil, S. E. Wills; 2nd certificate, do do, F. Burrington; 3rd certificate, do do, Ellen Cameron, special, S. Bayley, E. Bayley, Alfred Martin. Mechanical Drawing — 1st prize, W. S. McGee; second prize, C. Balhausen. Architectural Drawing — 1st prize, C. Wedel; 2nd prize, Warburton. Mr A. S. Chalmers moved the adoption of the report, and said it gave him great pleasure to see so many drawings. Ballarat ought to be proud of such a school, and it, as well as other schools of a similar character, deserved the hearty support of the Government. Mr Cox seconded the motion, which was then put and carried unanimously. Mr James Oldham said that every one who had carefully examined the drawings must admit that the pupils had exercised great perserverance. Thirty years ago there were no schools of design in England, though they existed a century ago in Belgium and other countries in Europe. After the Exhibition of 1851, Britain decided to make up the ground she had lost, and established a Department of Science and Art, and aided the institution of schools in design, the only condition insisted uponbeing that the schools should be subject to examination from the South Kensington School. After that examiners were appointed and exhibitions offered throughout the country. The consequence was that in 1855 the French were compelled to admit that England had outstepped them in many branches. About five years ago a commission called the Technical Commission was appointed here to distribute a sum which now amounted to £500, but this was very small in proportion to the sum voted in England for the same purpose. It had been asked, what do we want with art teaching? He thought it was the very thing they required in a young country like this, where new industries were continually springing up. As one of the masters connected with the school, he could testify to the advancement made by the pupils in the face of many difficulties, and concluded by reminding the pupils of the advice given by the poet Longfellow, "To learn, to labor, and to wait." Mr B. O. McCox proposed a vote of thanks to the judges. He was sure that they would all agree that the judges had exercised both discrimination, and taste, and they had done it without fee, and for the benefit alone of the school. This school certainly deserved the support of all. It had often been remarked that during this century, greater strides had been made than in any other, and it was to be attributed to the union of science and art. In no branch had greater progress been manifested than in the love of the beautiful — love which was to be seen in their houses, on the walls, and in every article of furniture. He had great pleasure in moving a vote of thanks to the judges. The motion was put, and carried unanimously. Mr Gibson returned thanks for the vote. He said that this year's progress was greater than any preceding one. To the unsuccessful competitors he would say "continue to persevere," and there was no telling when they would come to the front. No effort, however inconsiderable, was not without good, in that both the eye and the taste were trained. There was one thing, the judges remarked, and that was the absence of drawings of trees, and he was sure that much of the foliage they saw around them would amply repay the time devoted to their study. The Chairman then distributed the prizes, but, owing to the crowded state of the room, some little confusion took place." Votes of thanks were passed to the chairman and both masters of the school, and the meeting broke up.[14]

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Challen the key player in early telephony experiments by Victoria Posts and Telegraphs, Henry Sutton in the wings

THE TELEPHONE. Very interesting and successful experiments with the last great revelation of science, the telephone, were made on Sunday at the Ballarat and Melbourne telegraph offices simultaneously. Sunday was selected as the day for experiment, not that the gentlemen operating have not due respect for the fourth commandment, but because on that day only the telegraph lines are not used, and the work of important scientific trial of a great discovery can be carried on without interruption. At the Melbourne office Mr James and a few other gentlemen attended at 11 a.m., the time agreed upon, while Messrs Bechervaise, Challen, Blandford, Macaw, Whitelaw, with a few gentlemen specially invited, and the representatives of the Press, occupied the Ballarat office. Mr P. R. Challen, a clever electrician employed at the Melbourne office, and a member of the Torpedo Corps, is, we are informed, the gentleman, who constructed the first telephones ever seen in Victoria, from some of which results completely satisfactory have been obtained. He obtained his idea of the instrument from the description of Professor Bell’s given by the Scientific American, though he never anticipated obtaining the results detailed by some American papers. Mr. Challen's telephone is constructed thus:— A magnetised steel bar about 6 inches long forms the core; at one end of this, thin silk-covered copper wire, in quantity proportionate to the resistance of the line, is wound; the core is then enclosed in a wooden case; close to and in front of the coil of wire a very thin plate of iron called the diaphragm is fixed, and the upper part of the wooden case forms a kind of bell or sound concentrator. The ends of the copper wire are connected with the telegraph or connecting wire between the two persons who wish to talk, and each person having a telephone, communication is established. The person speaking holds his telephone to his mouth, letting it touch his chin, and speaks into it in a clear, distinct manner. The sound causes the diaphragm to vibrate, and these slight vibrations so affect the magnetised steel bar that by an electromagnetic effect a current of electricity is created in the encircling coil of wire. Flashing along the line of communication to the second telephone, it passes reversely through the coils, and affecting the magnetism of the bar causes the diaphragm to vibrate and produce sounds similar to those shouted into the sending telephone. The sound itself does not travel, but, by an application of that marvellous agent electricity, is reproduced. In 1861 one Reiss, of Frankfort, constructed a telephone which transmitted musical sounds, and anticipations of it seem to have existed for very many years. Professor Bell brought it to its present pitch, and by experiments such as are now being made all over the world, we may hope to reach in earnest that imaginative account given in jest by an American journal, wherein it was stated that a large audience could sit in a room and listen to a concert given in another room 30 miles away, the sound coming by telephone with as much distinctness as though the audience and the singers were only 30 feet apart. Messrs Bechervaise and Challen acted as conductors of the experiments here, and a lively conversation with the Melbourne operators commenced. On placing the telephone to the ear to listen for the answer, the words came in a faint thin tone, but one so exquisitely clear that the very inflexions of the speaker’s voice could be noticed. "Cooey," from its open, vowel sound, could always be heard, but sibilant and guttural sounds did not always come plainly. At times the answers were wonderfully distinct, every word falling on the ear with refreshing clearness. The voice always, however, seemed to be refined, and, as it were, thinned away until the sounds seemed to come from fairy-like creatures seated in the recesses of the telephone. The voice of Mr Bechervaise was recognised by Mr. James, and friendly greetings were exchanged. The Melbourne men said that it rained, and asked to be cheered with a song. They were regaled with "Hold the fort," the strains of which they did not recognise! Whether this was due to the slips of the singers, or to want of knowledge of religious matters on the part of the hearers, remained an open question. The Melbourne operators then sang ‘"God Save the Queen, taking different parts. The melody came through with the utmost distinctness, the tenor voice sounding remarkably clear. The fairy sounds were so attractive that "Encore" was shouted from this end and the peal of laughter that burst from the lips of those who had been singing was plainly audible here, 100 miles from the vocalists. Conversation followed, and everyone had a chance of hearing for himself the replies from Melbourne. At half past 12, after the most successful experiments yet made, an appointment was made for 3 o’clock, and the parties separated. At 3 a large party, including a few ladies, assembled in the Ballarat office, and experiments made again. A flute was played at the Melbourne end, a telephone being placed on it. At this end the sound resembled "horns of Elf-land faintly blowing," every note coming with a purity and distinctness very pleasing. Communication now began to change for the worse, and frequently words and whole sentences of a speech seemed to be arrested, or to only reach the ear in a series of funny crackles. It was stated that heavy rain was falling, and that disturbing electrical influences were prevalent, so that the second sitting was closed early. Mr Challen will, we believe, remain here, and some more experiments may be made tonight. The success attending the operations here is apparent when we state that from Sydney to East Maitland only "Cooey" would travel, and that from Melbourne to Albury, 190 miles, only an occasional word could be communicated. Here ordinary conversation could be heard, though the telephone had to be held closely to the ear. Challen has substituted for a magnetised piece of steel with soft iron core, as Professor Bell uses, a piece of steel without the iron. Mr H. Sutton, who made a very good pair of telephones on Professor Bell's principle, and who used them on Sunday, found them inferior in power to Mr Challen's.[15]

It would appear that Sutton is the original inventor of what we would now call a telephone handset

A NEW TELEPHONE. Some interesting and very successful experiments in telephony were made few evenings ago at Mr H. Sutton's music warehouse in Sturt street, in the presence of Mr Oddie, Mr Bechervaise, the postmaster, Mr Blandford of the Telegraph-office, and several other gentlemen. The instruments experimented with were two of Professor Bell’s portable telephones (made by Mr Sutton), from which splendid results were obtained, and a new form of telephone, described by its inventor, Mr H. Sutton, as a compound telephone, and the general opinion of those who witnessed the experiments is, that in spite of the adverse circumstances under which they took place, this telephone is a great improvement on Professor Bell's. In all the experiments a resistance, equal to 30 miles of ordinary telegraph wire was used in the circuit. It appears whilst experimenting seven months ago with the horseshoe form of permanent magnet, the poles of which were surrounded with convolutions of fine wire and various diaphragms, he found that when subjecting a vibrating diaphragm to the action of both poles of the magnet at the same time, instead of the entire magnetic force being utilised in evolving electricity, that part of the force was neutralised in the diaphragm, which seemed to act in the same way as the keeper of a permanent magnet. He found by presenting only one pole of the same magnet to the diaphragm that a far stronger current was evolved, and knowing the action is reciprocal between each pole of the same magnet, the idea was suggested to place a coil of wire on both ends of a bar magnet. The compound form of telephone is the outcome of these and other experiments. This instrument is different from Bell's portable telephone, in that it consists of a curved magnet, surrounded by coils of wire at both ends. Each coil has a separate diaphragm, the curve of the magnet being so arranged that one diaphragm comes opposite the mouth of the operator, whilst the other diaphragm reaches his ear. The following good results are obtainable from the arrangement:— 1st. That he can both speak and listen at the same moment. 2nd. That it evolves more intensity of sound. 3rd. The timbre of sounds transmitted are reproduced more perfectly. 4th. When used as a transmitting instrument the results obtained from all other telephones of the ordinary form in the same circuit are considerably improved. 5th. The instrument is mounted on an adjustable stand, which leaves both hands of the operator free. In Professor Bell's arrangement two telephones are necessary, one held to the ear, another to the mouth, both hands being thus engaged. Mr Sutton's telephone being compound, opens up a new field for experimental research, and we understand that he is still engaged in experiments which may further improve the application of telephonic science.[16]

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50 year anniversary of the establishment of Sutton's business

FIFTY YEARS AGO. A retrospective view of things established facts in no uncertain manner, and it is by looking backward, and studying what has happened, that one can satisfy oneself in respect to most things. We are certain of what has happened in the past, but cannot say what the future will bring forth. Such musings as these are engendered by reading the advertisement, appearing in another column — of what is possibly Ballarat's oldest business house — Suttons, the music sellers. The late R. H. Sutton, a cultured scholar and musician, attracted here, as were many other of England’s best sons, in the early fifties, found that Ballarat folk even then aspired to the arts, and required to be catered for musically. Mr Sutton undertook to supply the want, his experience in England and France particularly qualifying him for the task. Underlying Mr Sutton's ability as a musical man, there was a fine business quality, and these two characteristics are doubtless responsible for the writing today of this little bit of Ballarat's history. It is almost remarkable that a business such as music selling should have lived for over 50 years, through the vicissitudes and the ebb and flow of happenings in a goldfields town. That it should have done so reflects considerable credit upon the management of the house of Suttons. Many Ballarat folk have watched with interest the growth of the commercial concern, which today is looked upon by many as more of an institution than a mere trading house, and it has been an exceedingly pleasing feature that whilst the Messrs Sutton were establishing themselves in a very large way of business in Melbourne and at Bendigo and Geelong, their Ballarat house has continued to go ahead, and add to its fame and standing. The artistic musical influence of a business, conducted as Suttons has been, is of incalculable benefit to a community. This is fairly demonstrated by the fact that Messrs Sutton are able to show that they have in this district served as many as three generations with their requirements in regard to pianos, organs, and music. Speaking in the purely commercial aspect, it cannot be denied that it is by business integrity and careful uprightness in the conduct of their affairs, that such houses as Suttons and others here have created a worldwide reputation for the commercial stability of Ballarat. Citizens, we are sure will join us in congratulating Messrs Sutton upon having passed their 50 years of establishment.[17]

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Sutton remains a trustee of the Automobile Club of Victoria

CYCLING AND MOTORING NOTES. BY TANGENT. . . . The Automobile Club of Victoria held its annual general meeting in the club rooms on 29th inst., Mr. T. Corlett presiding. The report and balance sheet were adopted. The following officers were elected:— Trustees, Messrs. T. Rand, W. H. Felstead and Henry Sutton; president, Sir John Madden; vice-presidents, Messrs. Frank Stuart, Weigall, W. S. Howard Smith; committee, Captain Tarrant, Messrs Bagot, H. E. Hall, H. B. James, W. C. Knight; hon. treasurer, Mr. H. H. Hutchinson. The gymkhana will be held on 28th July (instead of on 14th). The events will be open to any motor car owner. Post entries will be received.[18]

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Sutton continues as trustee for the Automobile Club of Victoria

Motor Notes. BY "AUTO." "Punch" has been appointed official organ of the Automobile Club of Victoria. The annual general meeting and the special general meeting of the Automobile Club of Victoria were held at the club rooms on Friday, 15th March, the vice-president (Dr. Weigall) being in the chair, and a large number of members present. The office-bearers for the year ending 29th February, 1908, are as follows:— Patron, His Excellency the Governor, Sir Reginald Talbot; president, His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Madden, G.C.M.G.; vice-presidents, the Hon. Frank Stuart, Dr. R. E. Weigall, Mr. H. J. J. Maddox; trustees, Messrs. W. H. Felstead, Thomas Rand, Henry Sutton; committee, Messrs. H. C. Bagot, L. Brockelbank, J. Beswicke, T. Corlett, W. R. Grimwade, W. E. Hall, W. C. Knight, Captain Harley Tarrant, Dr. W. B. Vance; auditors, Messrs. F. G. Wilson and Thos. Rollason; hon. treasurer, Mr. E. L. Holmes. The committee have appointed Mr. W. Gwennap Legge to the position of secretary vice Mr. John Lang, whose increasing professional duties prevented him from devoting the large amount of time necessary to the secretarial work. The club is now endeavouring to secure suitable premises, in order that the committee may be able to offer all the conveniences and attractions of a first-class metropolitan club. Consequently a large increase in expenditure is anticipated, especially if a building should be erected to suit the club's requirements. Therefore, the committee will be materially assisted if a united effort be made to largely increase the number of members on the club roll. With that end in view, members are requested to secure at least one or two nominations from friends — motorists or gentlemen interested in motoring.[19]

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Sutton and his brothers contribute immortelles for the grave of a trusted family employee

OBITUARY. The remains of the late Mr. George Thomas, who was connected with the Bendigo branch of Messrs. Suttons Propty Limited for the past two years, were interred in the Methodist portion of the Bendigo Cemetery on Saturday. The Rev. H. Bride Barber, of Eaglehawk, an old friend of the deceased's family, conducted the service at the grave. The coffin-bearers were Messrs. S. Rayworth, Tickell, Johns, and Rosewarne. Beautiful immortelles were received from Messrs. Alfred, Walter, Fred, and Henry Sutton, and from the employes of the Bendigo and Melbourne branches, as well as from local sympathising friends.[20]


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Sutton prepares to demonstrate his new system of wireless to Defence

AUSTRALIAN "WIRELESS." IMPORTANT NEW INVENTION. VALUABLE DEFENCE DISCOVERY. Although the Commonwealth Government have invited tenders tor the installation throughout the Commonwealth of wireless telegraphy, it is exceedingly unlikely that any tender will be accepted. The director of the Naval Forces (Captain Creswell), and the Minister for Defence (Mr. Ewing) have for some time past been watching the experiments of an Australian inventor, and are now disposed to think that he has evolved a system of wireless telegraphy far superior to anything which the Marconi, Poulsen, de Forrest, or other companies have to offer. The matter has been kept a profound secret, so far, but tomorrow the inventor is to be introduced to the Military Board, and on a short range apparatus established at the barracks he will demonstrate to them the wonderful results he has obtained. This inventor was one of the earliest experimenters with "wireless." A friend of Tesla, he had the advantage of wireless expositions and demonstrations from that scientist in London long before Marconi's name was connected with it. He is the original discoverer of the system of telegraphic photography, in which, following on the announcement of his discoveries, such great strides have been made. Indeed, it was while proceeding to develop telegraphic photography that he discovered the principles of the new system of wireless. He was convinced that pictures could be telegraphed without wires, as well as with them, and it was in trying to solve a difficult problem which presented itself in the course of his experiments that a new vista of wireless achievement was opened up to him. He found that he had discovered a new form of wave, entirely different from the Hertzian, and from the Poulsen. With this wave he obtained absolute accuracy in transmitting message. Every portion of the wave can be utilised, and is utilised in his system. Then it is worked with a low power. This Australian system requires only one-sixth of the electrical power needed in the Marconi system to produce vibrations. With a spark only one-eighth of an inch long, obtained from an ordinary motor cycle coil, he transmits clear, sharp signals a distance of 300ft., sending complete Morse messages as fast as skilled operators can read them through a telephone receiver. That is with the small model on which the demonstration is to be made in the barracks-square tomorrow. At the inventor's laboratory in the suburbs there is a vast pole, like the mast of a ship, carrying the antennae of his wireless equipment. Down below are his instruments, and whenever a vessel of the Royal navy, or a German mail steamer, or any other wireless installation, sends messages, the bells in the office below the mast are set ringing violently, and through the telephone receiver can be heard the "tick-tock-tick-tock-tock" of a wireless message sent by somebody some where. The vessels of the Royal Navy communicate between Sydney and Melbourne, and Sydney and Adelaide. But all their messages are intercepted by this suburban installation. Many a message intended to be private finds its way to the inventor's ears, although both the experts of the navy and the engineers of the German mail steamers believe that their messages cannot be tapped. It is in this, that the defence value of the new invention lies. There is no "wireless" message which cannot be caught up and recorded by this installation. If in cypher it cannot, of course, be solved without the key. On the other side, there is no system — however it may be "tuned" or guarded — which is safe against the new "wireless." From its instruments messages can be poured into the receivers of the enemy's installations, so that the messages are simply a confused medley of signals. This, however, is only one of the methods which the new system has of confounding and silencing competitors. There are others more drastic and more effective, but these are being kept secret. They are among Australia's few military secrets. The inventor of the new system is not a poor man. He does not seek reward. Electrical research is his hobby, and he has brought his system — unpatented — to the Commonwealth, and presented it to them. Captain Creswell has only been convinced of its importance and value after the fullest and most complete experiments. The Minister has been satisfied, and there is little doubt that tomorrow's demonstration will bring conviction to the Military Board. After that, there is little doubt that the Commonwealth will adopt the new system, and install it at the various stations recommended by the Wireless Telegraphic Conference. The peculiar properties of the system, which will be of such incalculable value in time of war, will still be kept secret.[21]

As previous, another perspective

Wireless telegraphy experiments conducted by Mr. Sutton, of Messrs. Sutton and Co., in Melbourne, are being carefully inquired into by the naval director, at the request of the Minister of Defence, and will eventually be reported upon by the chief electrical engineer of the Post Office. Captain Creswell is much impressed with the possibilities of usefulness in naval defence work which Mr. Sutton's experiments open out. There is, however, no intention on the part of the Federal Government to indefinitely postpone the acceptance of the wireless telegraphy tenders, due next month, on account of these experiments. One of the great systems whose commercial and technical value has stood the test of the scrutiny of Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir William Preece and other great experts will be purchased by the Post Office when it inaugurates its official stations.[22]

Report on trial of the Sutton System

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. THE NEW DEVELOPMENT. Great interest has been displayed in the new development in wireless telegraphy, particulars of which were published in "The Argus" of Tuesday last. The inventor is Mr. H. Sutton, of the firm of Sutton Bros., Melbourne, and the claims for the invention are that it will supersede any of the well known systems of wireless telegraphy. The invention has been submitted to the Defence authorities, and the director of the naval forces (Captain Creswell) was some time ago asked to take charge of the inquiries. The value of the invention is an immediate and special interest for Victoria, inasmuch as tenders have been called by the Postal department for the establishment of the instruments at several selected places in the Commonwealth. The discovery was kept a secret for many weeks while preliminary inquiries were being made as to its value. It was recently decided, however, to conduct experiments at the Victoria Barracks, and yesterday the representatives of the inventor were present at the invitation of the officers of Defence. The stipulation was that the inquiry should be confidential, and only officers of the Defence department were present. The instruments were established in the quadrangle behind the Victoria Barracks, and "short circuits" established. The essentials of the new invention are that the ether wave can be worked with a lower power, that it differs in its current, and that the messages are transmitted with absolute accuracy. The system by which this is done is, of course, the secret, and this was not divulged yesterday. But those who witnessed the experiments were much impressed with them, and they will be made the subject of a report to be forwarded to the Minister for Defence in due course. The inventor claims that the messages transmitted by other systems in Australia are registered on the apparatus in his laboratory, and it is from this point of view that the discovery has become so valuable from a defence point of view.[23]

As previous, another perspective

Private tests of Mr. Sutton's wireless telegraphy inventions took place yesterday at the Victoria Barracks, in the presence of the Naval Director, Captain Creswell, the Chief of Ordnance, Colonel Parnell, and other members of the Military and Naval boards. The results of the tests were treated as confidential. The Postmaster-General has arranged for further trials to take place next month on the return of the Chief Electrical Engineer, from Broken Hill.[24]

Another report, original not yet identified

A new invention in wireless telegraphy, which is considered by the Federal electrical experts who have examined it to be far superior to any other system now in vogue, has been submitted to the Commonwealth Government for approval and purchase. The new invention is the work of a young Australian. The most sanguine expectations are being indulged in respecting its practical success.[25]

1908 08Edit

Sutton's work is essentially dismissed as puffery, author and comments need analysis

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD. Sir,— I have read with interest your article on wireless telegraphy published in this day's "Herald." It is of national importance that any suggestions or inventions emanating from an Australian source should receive every possible encouragement; but at the same time it is as well to point out inaccuracies which are liable to discount the value of new propositions in the minds of experts in Europe or America. In your paragraph of to-day you state:— "The inventor affirms that he has discovered a new form of atmospheric wave, entirely different from the Hertzian or the Poulson, and with which he has obtained absolute accuracy in transmitting messages." I admit ignorance with regard to the term "atmospheric wave" as applied to the subject of wireless telegraphy. The medium by which a wireless message, as we know it, is transmitted is not an "atmospheric wave," whatever this latter may convey to the mind, but may be described as an "undulating electrical stress" set up in space. It is true that atmospheric conditions play a considerable part in the practical transmission of wireless messages, but this is due to the fact that certain weather conditions assist to absorb the so-called "Hertzian waves." Such is the case when natural electrical stresses already exist during transmission. The artificial stresses are apparently partially absorbed when the atmosphere is ionised, and in this way have their power of promulgation minimised. It is well known that "wireless" telegraphs show a decreased efficiency when operated during a hot and dry condition of atmosphere. However, the atmosphere has nothing to do with the generation of electrical waves, although it may affect it. A steam engine is not actuated by the atmosphere, although the latter has some connection with its operation. The term "atmospheric waves" is misleading. Your article further states that the Australian system only requires one-sixth of the electrical power needed in the Marconi system to produce vibrations. I do not understand what the inventor means by this observation. Probably he refers to the resulting efficiency, and in this connection I may state that during the trials between the Telefunken and Marconi systems made by the Argentine Government, the Telefunken apparatus only required one-twelfth the energy for the same work done by the Marconi instrument. With regard to the assertion that with a spark of only an eighth of an inch long, obtained from an ordinary motor cycle coil, the inventor transmits a clear, sharp signal a distance of 300ft, sending complete Morse messages as fast as skilled operators can read them through a telephone receiver, I may state that there is nothing novel about this, such results having been obtained years ago. I am, etc., July 29. W. A. HAMILTON GOSCHE.[26]

A normally slow acting Defence Department is quick to act upon Sutton's suggestion to secure homing pidgeons for backup messaging

PIGEONS AND DEFENCE. COMMONWEALTH ENCOURAGEMENT. When the Minister for Defence (Mr. Ewing) had placed before him the new wireless telegraphy system invented by Mr. Henry Sutton, it was pointed out to him that in time of war an enemy's wireless instruments could easily be put out of action. Mr. Sutton demonstrated this, and put forward this fact as the reason why the German Government had bought the British Admiralty's stock of homing pigeons when the British authorities gave them up for "wireless." Mr. Sutton was of opinion that the discovery which he had made in wireless telegraphy was also known to the Germans, who had done a great deal of research work in that direction. It was apparent that a wireless system needed to be backed up by a stock of reliable pigeons if communication in time of war was to be maintained between ships at sea and the land defences. Mr. Ewing accordingly asked the Commonwealth representative in London (Captain Collins) to obtain information about pigeons. This information has now been received from Captain Collins. It shows that on the German estimates for 1908-9 a sum of £6,000 was placed for the maintenance of a pigeon service. There are depots at all headquarters and fortresses, while 200 private homing societies have placed their birds at the disposal of the Government. France, too, has a complete pigeon service, and a system of co-operation with private owners. In all other European countries, except Switzerland and Norway, pigeon-lofts are maintained in a complete system of communication by means of the birds kept in operation. These facts have much impressed the Minister. He intends to make efforts to arrange with private bird fanciers to place their pigeons at the disposal of the Government when needed. He has found that there are about 20,000 homing pigeons, and he is placing on the estimates a sum of money to provide trophies for homing competitions, so as to encourage the breeding of reliable birds in the Commonwealth. Those who compete for the trophies will have to place their lofts at the disposal of the Defence department should the occasion arise.[27]

Photo of Sutton in "Punch"

(Start Photo Caption) MR. HENRY SUTTON. The Australian Inventor of a system of Wireless Telegraphy, recently tried at the Victoria Barracks. Stewart & Co., photo. (End Photo Caption)[28]

As previous, a journalist fails to do his homework on the homing pidgeon service

Homing Pigeon Service. Some days ago it was announced that in connection with naval matters the Federal Premier was about to, or had established, a homing pigeon service, which, in light of the following, does not appear to be a movement of progression. The London "Daily Telegraph," of a recent date, says:— "The Admiralty have decided to do away with the Homing Pigeon Service in the Royal Navy, and all the pigeon lofts on the home stations are to be abolished. This decision is due to the wonderful progress which has been made with wireless telegraphy. When the Naval Pigeon Service was established wireless telegraphy was unknown, whereas now it is generally used for communications over a long distance, and is far more reliable than homers. All the principal ships of his Majesty's fleet are now equipped, and round the coast are a series of wireless signal stations, manned by skilled operators. Signals are continually passing from the shore to men-o'-war far away at sea."[29]

The Age finally provides a professional analysis of the Sutton System of wireless

"AUSTRALIAN WIRELESS." THE RECENT TEST. A great deal of interest is felt in the result of a trial lately held at the Victoria Barracks of a wireless telegraphy invention called "Australian Wireless," of which Mr. H. Sutton, of Sutton and Co., music warehousemen, Bourke-street, is the author. Mr. Sutton claims to have discovered, by experimenting at Malvern, where he lives, certain valuable improvements on existing systems of aerial communication, and in order to turn them to account has offered to place them primarily at the disposal of the Australian Defence authorities; afterwards, if desirable, at the service of the Commonwealth Government generally. Mr. Sutton is not a competitor for the installation of wireless apparatus at coastal stations around Australia, tenders for which will be opened within the next five days, but his invention demands attention at a time when consideration is being given as to the acceptance of a tender, and it is not obligatory on the authorities to accept any offer if they think advantage may be gained by deferring that course. A common and conspicuous defect of all the known wireless systems is that they are slower in the enunciation of messages than the cable, although they get over the intervening space immeasurably more quickly. In ordinary telegraphy over land lines a skilled operator can receive at the rate of 35 words per minute. Through a cable messages cannot be got at half 35 words per minute. The wireless systems spell out their words slower than the cable, and their actual rate of delivery is still further retarded by frequent muddling up of sounds, causing demands for repeats. Mr. Sutton claims that his "Australian wireless" will deliver clear messages at 35 words per minute continuously and without flaw. The trial at the barracks was limited to testing that claim. Two naval officers were called into consultation as experts with the military representatives, and, subject to Mr. Sutton's explanations how to apply the mechanism, they really conducted the experiments. Over a distance of 400 yards, which was the extent covered by the miniature installation, they were able to send and receive messages accurately at the rate of 35 words per minute, and were delighted with the apparatus. Nothing further was done, but Mr. Sutton understands other tests are to be made by the Defence authorities. Since then he has been notified by a Minister in control of another department that he also wishes to have the "Australian wireless" tested. The frequent muddling of words which is characteristic of other system is due to the chemical disintegration of the mechanism in their receivers. To so great an extent does this take place that essential parts have to be replaced sometimes as often as once per week. Mr. Sutton has constructed a receiver that is unaffected by chemical action and rings true every time. Of the discoveries he says he has made, which, so far, have been untested officially, but which will soon be officially tested, the most important appears to be the Sutton Wave. At present wireless telegraphy is conducted by the use of two sorts of ether horizontal waves, namely, the Hertzian and the Poulsen. The former, known as the "damped" wave, is the basis of the Marconi system. Its action is left and right, or vice versa, for a great distance, with violent force and back and forth in a gradually diminishing disturbance area, expending its strength as it gets farther away. The Poulsen "undamped" wave is produced with less energy, and oscillates horizontally over a narrower track, but maintains its original force almost to its farthest point of penetration. The Sutton Wave exerts itself first in the exactly reverse way to the Marconi, namely, expanding from a small area to a very wide area of horizontal disturbance, growing in force all the time. Then it gradually becomes diminuendo, like the Marconi. Mr. Sutton claims that his wave has the advantage that it cannot be measured; that is, it cannot be used by opponents to filch messages that may be sent thereby. It is quite practicable for people to adjust receiving apparatus to pick up messages sent by the systems now in use, arid it is very regularly done. Mr. Sutton, at Malvern, for instance, where he has a receiver on a pole 50 feet high, is able to hear at will all kinds of wireless messages sent from the American fleet in Sydney Harbor to their relief ships in New Zealand, only most of them being code messages he cannot understand them. Another power which Mr. Sutton says he has acquired is that of creating an aerial storm when requisite, which will break up the transmitting waves of other systems and render their messages unintelligible at will. The instruments used at the recent trial were only small ones. The whole kit then employed was suitable for conveyance in a military expedition to be used for field signalling. A large installation is nearly completed, which Mr. Sutton says should be able to be used between Victoria and Tasmania, and might be set up at far less than the officially estimated cost of installing a wireless system between these two States.[30]

1908 09Edit

As previous, apparently a derivative work, needs analysis

AUSTRALIAN WIRELESS. The wireless telegraphy invention, called Australian Wireless, of which Mr. H. Sutton, of Sutton and Co., Bourke-street, Melbourne, is the author, was submitted to several tests in Melbourne recently, with the result that the examiners, two naval and several military experts, expressed themselves delighted with the apparatus. They were able to send and receive messages accurately at the rate of 35 words per minute, over a distance of 400 yards, which was the extent covered by the miniature installation. Mr. Sutton has offered to place his invention at the disposal of the Commonwealth Government. Mr. Sutton claims that the messages sent by his apparatus cannot be received by opponents. It is quite practicable for people to adjust receiving apparatus and filch messages sent by any system now in use, and it is regularly done. For instance, Mr. Sutton at Malvern, was able to hear on a receiving-pole fifty feet high all kinds of wireless messages from the American fleet in Sydney Harbour to their relief ships in New Zealand, only most of them being code messages, he could not understand them. An-other power which Mr. Sutton says he has acquired is that of creating an aerial storm which will break up and render unintelligible the transmitting waves of other systems. The Commonwealth Government has decided to make further tests with the new Australian wireless.[31]

Federal government again procrastinating on establishment of a coastal wireless network, Sutton's experiments a possible input

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. NO FEDERAL STATIONS. It is understood that there will be no provision made in the Postal Estimates this year for the installation of wireless telegraphy. It was originally intended that wireless stations should be established at Port Moresby, Good Island, Thursday Island, Cape York, Rottnest Island, and Fremantle. These were to be semi-military stations. Commercial stations were to be established on the south of Victoria, on King Island, and on the north coast of Tasmania — probably at Low Head. Tenders were called for the six firstnamed stations, and tenders from five of the leading companies were received. Not one of these tenders, however, provided for the erection and installation of the wireless system. All that the companies cared to do was to sell to the Government the necessary equipment, leaving to the Postal department the responsibility of installation In these circumstances none of the tenders have been accepted. There have been invited also tenders for the commercial installations proposed. These do not close for some weeks hence, but the Government policy in regard to wireless has undergone a change and it is improbable that any tender will be accepted. It has been found that the money available for urgently necessary postal works is insufficient to supply the needs of the Commonwealth and the view taken by the Commonwealth is that other services should be properly equipped, and the public demand met before such an undertaking as wireless telegraphy is embarked upon. There is another reason which weighs with the Federal Cabinet. A new system of wireless has been developed by Mr. Henry Sutton of Melbourne. This has already been described in "The Argus," and a series of experiments have been undertaken by the naval and military authorities. These have been satisfactory, and though the chief electrical officer of the Postal department (Mr. Hesketh) has not yet been called in to advise on the subject, it is known that the Minster for Defence (Mr. Ewing) is most favourably impressed. He has communicated his views to the Cabinet and other Ministers agree with him that it would be a foolish policy to accept the tender of any company until Mr. Sutton's system (which he proposes to present to the Commonwealth) has been thoroughly examined and tested. It is probable that extensive experiments will be undertaken by the Telegraph department before the end of the year with the object of testing the Sutton system. Mr. Sutton will be given full opportunity to demonstrate the utility of his system, and should his claims be justified steps will be taken to install it wherever needed.[32]

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