German/Level III/Markus Studiert

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Lektion Eins für Fortgeschrittene

Geschichte 1-3 ~ Markus studiert edit

Markus ist in der Universität. Er trinkt dort einen Kaffee und isst ein Brötchen. Danach geht er in die Bibliothek. Er sucht ein Buch über Biochemie. Er holt das Buch aus dem Regal und setzt sich an einen Tisch. Nach einer Stunde geht er in den Hof und raucht eine Zigarette. Danach geht er an den Tisch zurück. Er denkt: "Wenigstens eine Stunde..." und stellt das Buch wieder in das Regal.

This short story (Geschichte) is told in the 3rd person (see Grammatik 1-3). Note how this is apparent from both the pronoun (Er or "he") and verb forms.

Vokabeln 1-3 edit

die Bibliothek           library
die Biochemie            biochemistry
das Brötchen             roll, biscuit
das Buch                 book
der Fortgeschrittene     advancer
  die Fortgeschrittenen  advancers (pl.)
die Geschichte           story
der Hof                  courtyard; also court
der Kaffee               coffee
die Stunde               hour
der Tisch                table
das Regal                shelf
die Zigarette            cigarette
denken                   think                     (Er denkt = He thinks)
essen                    eat                       (Er isst = He eats)
holen                    fetch, get                (Er holt = He gets/fetches)
rauchen                  smoke (a cigarette)       (Er raucht = He smokes)
sich setzen              sit (oneself) down        (Er setzt sich = He sits)
stellen                  place                     (Er stellt = He places)
suchen                   seek, search for          (Er sucht = He looks for)
trinken                  drink                     (Er trinkt = He drinks)
aus                      out
danach                   afterwards
dort                     there
in                       in
nach                     after
über                     about
wenigstens               at least, at any rate
wieder                   again

Grammatik 1-3 ~ Personal Pronouns edit

As in English, personal pronouns exist in three grammatical persons, each with singular and plural number. In Gespräch 1-1 and 1-2, you see only the singular versions. The table here gives also the plural (nominative case only):

    ich     I   – 1st person, singular
    du     you – 2nd person, singular
    er     he – 3rd person musculine, singular
    sie     she – 3rd person feminine, singular
    es     it – 3rd person neuter, singular
    wir     we – 1st person, plural
    ihr     you – 2nd person, plural
    sie     they – 3rd person, plural
    Sie     you (formal) – 2nd person, plural and singular, always declined plural

Grammatik 1-3 ~ Incomplete Sentences edit

What are we to make of short, incomplete sentences such as that in Gespräch 1-1: 'Und dir?'? This translates as: 'And for you?'. In English and German it is not always necessary to express every part of a sentence, especially in conversation where the words left out are easily understood by both or all parties. Walk up to a stranger and say 'And you?' and a possible response is a hostile 'Out of my face, fool'. But in the conversation between Heinrich and Karl, Heinrich knows that Karl is really meaning: Und wie geht es dir?, with that part underlined left out of the conversational statement. Note especially that the pronoun 'you' retains its case—its relation to the missing verb from the implied sentence—distinctive in German (that is, dir instead of du) but not so in English (the form "you" covers both cases).

Übersetzung 1-2 edit

Although these sentences involve many grammatical concepts that have not been covered, each can be written in German by referring to the example sentences and vocabularies in Lessons 1 and 1A. Using a piece of paper and pencil, translate each of these sentences into German:

  1. Hello Mark! Do you have a cigarette?
  2. Are you studying German?
  3. Catherine drinks coffee at a table.
  4. The students study at the library.
  5. He eats cheese and sausage in the courtyard.
  6. She looks for a book about biology.
  7. Mark goes back to the University.
  8. Mark removes the book from the shelf and places it on the table.