Fundamentals of Airports
Recent surveys have revealed that there are close to 42,000 airports in the world, and many professionals in the aviation and aeronautical science industries are tasked with understanding both elementary and advanced concepts in airport functionality. Airfields may be designated for public, private, and/or military use, and may house a number of support facilities such as fixed-base operators, management facilities, passenger terminals, and navigational aids. Many airports are designed with a complicated infrastructure that permits all of the airports users (such as airlines, passengers, and general aviation operators) to gainfully interact with the field's individual facilities.
This development-stage textbook is designed to allow the reader to understand a number of concepts fundamental to the workings of an airport, such as:
- Airport Regulatory Bodies
- Navigational Equipment and Use
- Airport Ownership
- The Distinction Between Public, Private, and Military Airports
- Fixed-Base Operators and General Aviation Users
- Passenger Terminals, Security, and Airline Users
- Airport Markings
- Air Traffic Control and Taxiway/Runway Use
Airport Regulatory BodiesEdit
The International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, is responsible for establishing international aviation standards that are adopted by regional aeronautical syndicates. The ICAO's Annex 14 establishes regulations specific to aerodromes and heliports.
In the United StatesEdit
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responsible for the oversight of aviation activities in the United States, and the FARs−or Federal Aviation Regulations (comprising Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations) are largely adapted from ICAO recommendations. While Part 139 of the FARs, found in Subchapter G, outlines regulations regarding airport certification, Subchapter I is concerned entirely with rules surrounding airports.
Airport Ownership and Operational ResponsibilityEdit
Types of Airport OwnershipEdit
Airports can be owned by a number of different entities; the military, civil government bodies, privately owned corporations, and even individuals are examples of these. The owners of an airport are responsible for overseeing day-to-day operation of the field and ensuring compliance with the rules imposed on them by the regulatory body/bodies responsible for their governance. Regardless of the airport's owner, fields can be designated either for public or private use. In essence, a public use airport is accessible to all aircraft provided they comply with any rules the airport operators develop concerning operations at their field. Conversely, private-use airports are designated for specific people and companies, and may not be accessed (except in an emergency) without prior permission.
Government Owned AirportsEdit
Government owned airports fall under the authority of a specific level of local government, such as the federal government, the state government, county government, or municipal government. Some larger areas delegate power over airports to the local port authority (The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ), for example, has operational authority over LaGuardia Airport, Newark Liberty Airport, John F. Kennedy Airport, Stewart Airport, Teterboro Airport, and Atlantic City Airport). Other airports are run directly by the county or municipality in which they are located; Westchester County Airport and Santa Monica Municipal Airport are owned by the respective governmental authorities for which they are named. Military Airfields tend to be owned by the branch of service responsible for their management—the United States Air Force owns McGuire Field—a joint air force base in New Jersey. In some cases, airports designated for both military and civil use (such as Charleston Joint Base) are designated as shared use, and the military owns part of the airport while the civil government owns and operates the parts of the airport pertinent to civil flight, such as passenger terminals.
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