Domain Name Server, a service that resolves symbolic host names into numeric IP addresses, and vice versa.
A character encoding scheme is a set of rules for representing a sequence of character codes with byte sequence.
Resource that provide a set of glyphs for text rendering.
A client-side font configuration library split from Xft as an X-independent module. Modern GNU/Linux desktops are using it as default font system, as opposed to the traditional font system managed by X server.
Graphical unit for composing text display of a writing system. A glyph may represent the shape of a single character, part of a character (in the case of characters with multiple parts), or a combined form of character sequence (in the case of ligatures).
The GIMP Tool Kit, a toolkit initially created for using with The GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program), but later becomes an independent general-purpose toolkit. GTK+ is written in C, licensed under LGPL.
Internet/Intranet Input Method Framework, a new framework for cross-platform input method developed by OpenI18N.org. IIIMF bridges different IM protocols by using wrappers that communicate with a common protocol.
The practice of developing software with the readiness to work in different languages and cultures without modification of the source code or re-compilation. This usually means abstraction in culture-sensitive operations as well as defining the mechanism for dynamically loading locale-based implementations.
The features of the user's environment that are dependent on language, country and cultural conventions. The locale determines conventions such as string collation; date and time formats; number and currency formats; and so on.
Portable Operating System Interface Specification is the minimum specification of system calls for operating systems based on Unix, defined by IEEE so that applications based on it are guaranteed to be portable across OSs. Although based on Unix, POSIX is also supported by some non-Unix OSs.
Secure Shell is used for remote login using an encrypted connection to prevent sniffing by third parties.
A library for GUI application development. It provides common widgets and controls such as menu, button, text entry, etc.
Universal Multi-octet coded character set, as defined by ISO/IEC 10646 to represent the world's writing systems. It is maintained by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2, with contributions from the Unicode Consortium.
A free X Window implementation for PC, although Mac is also supported. It is developed on top of the free source code from the X consortium (X.org), along with hardware drivers and some extensions. It used to be the only X Window implementation for FOSS on PC, until recent forks 1 by efforts such as Xouvert, freedesktop.org X server, Keith Packard's kdrive, and X11R6.7, the latest one which is endorsed by X.org itself. (See also: X.org.)
X Input Method framework, introduced in X11R6 as part of its I18N. It makes complicated text input processes, such as those for CJK, possible.
X Keyboard extension, introduced in X11R6 as part of its I18N. It provides a method to describe keyboard layouts, to combine multiple layouts, and to switch between them.
X Output Method framework, introduced in X11R6 but fully implemented in X11R6.5.1 to provide complex text rendering. But its late arrival, when rendering engines like Pango have already matured, makes its usefulness questionable.
The X consortium that maintains the X Window system. Normally, it maintains the X specification and provides the framework implementation source code in free license. In early 2004, triggered by license change in XFree86, a group of developers forked XFree86 source and made it X11R6.7 release in the name of X.org.
The service that provides interface to graphical hardware and input devices in the X Window system. Its clients are called X Clients. (See also: X Client.)
A graphical environment initially developed by the Athena project at MIT with support from some vendors, and later maintained by the X consortium. X Window is the major graphical environment for most Unix variants nowadays.