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1 Available from http://www.cddc.vt.edu/digitalgov/gov-publications.html; Internet; accessed on September 18, 2002.

2 Deloitte and Touche, “At the Dawn of e-Government: The Citizen as Customer.” Available from http://www.publicnet.co.uk/publicnet/fe000620.htm; Internet; accessed on January 9, 2003.

3 Rogers W’O Okot-Uma, “Electronic Governance: Re-inventing Good Governance.” Commonwealth Secretariat, London, p. 5; available from http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/egov/Okot-Uma.pdf; Internet; accessed on August 14, 2002.

4 ADB Board Paper on Governance: Sound Development Management, 1995

5 Roundtable Report on Singapore e-Government, ICT 36th Conference, Singapore (October 2002); available at http://www.ica-it.org/conf36/docs/Singapore.pdf; Internet; accessed on January 3, 2003.

6 Dibya Sarkar, “State makes payroll info self-service,” FCW.COM [home page online], March 31, 2003; available at http://fcw.com/geb/articles/2003/0331/web-miss-03-3103.asp; Internet; accessed on April 4, 2003.

7 Global Programme on Transnational Organized Crime [home page online]; available from http://uncjin.org/CICP/Folder/trans.htm; Internet; accessed on March 3, 2003.

8 Metropolitan Computer Times[Manila], Vol. XVIII 20, March 3, 2003, pp. 1, 5.

9 Richard Heeks, http://www.idpm.man.ac.uk/idpm/; Internet; accessed on August 16, 2002.

10 Jeremy Grace, Charles Kenny, and Christine Quiang, with Jui Liuard Taylor Reynolds, “Information and Communications Technologies and Broad-Based Development: A Partial Review of the Evidence,” (Washington, DC: World Bank DECRA Research Project, 2001).

11 The Working Group on e-Government in the Developing World, 8.

12 Rachel Konrad, “Battling Bush’s Digital Divide,” C/NET News.com [home page online]; 11 February 2002; available from http://news.com.com/2100-1023-834645.html; Internet; accessed on November 9, 2002.

13 Speech by Dr. Richard Hu, Singapore’s Minister of Finance, CPA Australia 7th Asian Regional Conference, Mandarin Hotel (17 August 2001).

14 Chua Jek Heng, “e-Procurement and G2B Portals,” ICA 35th Conference (Berlin), October 2001; available from http://www.ica-it.org/conf35/docs/session2-jc.pdf; Internet; accessed on September 3, 2002.

15 Available from http://www.nbi.doj.gov.ph/news.html; Internet; accessed on July 23, 2002.

16 Dr. Hongren Zhou, “Global Perspectives in e-Government.” Presentation made during the United Nations’ Third Caribbean Ministerial Consultation and High-Level Workshop in Jamaica, 11 December 2001.

17 Derived from comments and email discussions with Thomas Parks, ICT Program Officer, The Asia Foundation and peer reviewer of this primer, September 17, 2002.

18 World Bank, “OPEN: Seoul’s Anticorruption Project” (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000); available from http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/egov/seoulcs.htm; Internet; accessed on August 17, 2002. Also found in Richard Heeks, “Understanding e-Governance for Development” (2001) http://www.man.ac.uk/idpm/idpm_dp.htm#ig.

19 Available from http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/egov; Internet; accessed on March 20, 2002.

20 Vanessa Palo, “Anti-War Protestors Hold Virtual March”, 28 February 2003. Available at http://archive.salon.com/news/wire/2003/02/28/virtual_march/; Internet; accessed on March 27, 2003.

21 Available from http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/egov/bhoomi_cs.htm; Internet; accessed on August 30, 2002.

22 Alex Perry, “Getting Out the Message,” Time Magazine, June 4, 2001 Vol. 157 No. 22; available from http://www.time.com/time/interactive/politics/changing_np.html; Internet; accessed on August 29, 2002.

23 Nancy Hafkin and Nancy Taggart, “Gender, Information Technology, and Developing Countries: an Analytic Study.” Washington, DC: AED/LearnLink, 2001, p. 10.

24 Ibid, p. 11.

25 Privatization.org [home page online]; available from http://www.privatization.org/Collection/WhatIsPrivatization/Privatization_techniques.html; Internet; accessed on September 4, 2002

26 Software and Information Industry Association, “Promoting Public-Private Cooperation in e-Government – Not Competition,” 2; available from http://www.netcaucus.org/books/egov2001; accessed on August 17, 2002.

27 Available from http://www.tradeport.org/ts/countries/malaysia/mrr/mark0196.html; Internet; accessed on April 3, 2003.

28 Raymond Hor, “Malaysia to launch e-Procurement Telecenters nationwide,” INTERNET.COM [home page online], August 2, 2001; available from http://ecommerce.internet.com/news/news/article/0,3371,10375_858721,00.html; Internet; accessed on January 22, 2003.

29 International Council for Information Technology in Government Administration (ICA), Roundtable Report on Singapore, 36th Conference (Singapore), October 2002; available from http://www.ica-it.org/conf36/docs/Singapore.pdf; Internet; accessed on January 12, 2003.

30 UK Office of Government Commerce, “Security and Privacy,” available from http://www.ogc.gov.uk/sdtoolkit/reference/deliverylifecycle/stratman/secur_priv.html; Internet; accessed on March 2, 2003.

31 UN-ASPA, Benchmarking e-Government: A Global Perspective. (New York: UN, 2002), 50-51; available from http://www.unpan.org/e-government/Benchmarking%20Egov%202001.pdf ; Internet; accessed on 01 July 2002.

32 Kuk-Hwan Jeong and John Leslie King, “Korea’s National Information Infrastructure,” CRITO, University of California, Irvine (January 1996). Available from http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/iip/GIIconf/jeongpap.html; Internet; accessed on April 4, 2003.

33 Paula Shaki Trimble, “Open Minds on Open Source,” FCW.COM, [home page online], December 4, 2000; available from http://www.fcw.com/fcw/articles/2000/1204/pol-nasa12-04-00.asp; Internet; accessed on March 17, 2002.

34 For a report on the impact of viruses on business and world economies, see: http://cnnfn.cnn.com/2001/08/31/technology/wires/virus_re/

35 Derived from the comments of Dr. Clay Wescott, Asian Development Bank, a peer reviewer of this primer.

36 Thomas Murphy, “Assessing the Risks of Open Source”, Tech Update, [home page online], September 13, 2002; available from http://techupdate.zdnet.com/techupdate/stories/mqain/0,14179,2880274,00.html; Internet; accessed on January 18, 2003.

37 Paul Festa, “Governments Push Open Source Software,” C/Net News.com, [home page online], August 29, 2001; available from http://news.com.com/2100-1001272299.html?tag=rn; Internet; accessed on April 3, 2003.

38 Matt Loney, “UK Government Backs Open Source,” C/Net News.com, [home page online], July 23, 2002; available from http://news.com.com/2100-1001-945947.html?tag=mainstry; Internet; accessed on December 17, 2002.

39 Eurolinux Alliance, “France Towards Open e-Government — Government Agency to Enforce Open Standards and Promote Open Source/Free software,” LWN.NET [home page online], November 21, 2001; available from http://old.lwn.net/2001/1129/pr/pr4501.php3; Internet; accessed on April 3, 2003.

40 Peter Galli, “German Government Moves to Linux,” eWeek.com [home page online], 3 June 2002; available from http://eweek.com/article2/0,3959,4279,000.asp; Internet; accessed on March 12, 2003.

41 Bob Liu, “China to be Stronghold for Open Source,” November 5, 2002. Available from http://asia.internet.com/asia-news/article/0,3916,161_1494881,00.html; Internet; accessed on April 2, 2003.

42 Harvard University Center for International Development and World Economic Forum, The Global Information Technology Readiness Report 2001-2002 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 9-14, 26-29. Available from http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cr/pdf/gitrr2002_ch02.pdf; Internet; accessed on April 21, 2002.

43 The Working Group on e-Government in the Developing World, 17.

44 Reprinted with permission from Dr. Hongren Zhou, 38.

45 Ibid, 18.

46 The Working Group on e-Government in the Developing World, 18.

47 Marina Bidoli, “Follow the Leader,” Future Company, 29 March 2002; available from http://www.futurecompany.co.za/2002/03/29/covstory.htm; Internet; accessed on April 20, 2003.

48 Office of the e-Envoy online [home page online]; available from http://www.e-envoy.gov.uk/oee/oee.nsf/sections/about-oee/$file/aboutus.htm; Internet; accessed on January 15, 2002.

49 The entire section of the discussion is a full excerpt taken from the question “What should our relationship be with the Private Sector?” The Working Group on e-Government in the Developing World, 22.

50 “Government by Computer,” The Economist, 22 March 2003, 30-31.

51 Lisa Snell and Adrian Moore, “e-Government” (November/December 1999). http://www.heartland.org/ia/novdec99/privatization.htm accessed on April 21, 2002.

52 “The Next Revolution,” The Economist -The Survey of Government and the Internet edition, 24 June 2000, 16.

53 Subhash Bhatnagar and Nitesh Vyas, “Gyandoot: Community-Owned Internet Kiosks,” The World Bank online [home page online]; available from http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/egov/gyandootcs.htm; Internet; accessed on April 15, 2002.