||-i is a buzzed continuation of the consonant following z-, c-, s-, zh-, ch-, sh- or r-.
(In all other cases, -i has the sound of bee; this is listed below.)
||if ending a syllable, then as in "father"
||when occurring at the end of a syllable and not in the combinations of ie, üe, ue, then a backward, unrounded vowel, which can be formed by first pronouncing a plain continental "o" (AuE and NZE law) and then spreading the lips without changing the position of the tongue. That same sound is also similar to English "duh", but not as open.
||like English "eye", but a bit lighter
||as in "hey"
||approximately as in "cow"; the a is much more audible than the o
||as in "so", "dough"
||starts with plain continental "a" (AuE and NZE bud) and ends with "n"; as in "stun", "fun"
||as in "taken"
||as in German Angst, including the English loan word angst (starts with the vowel sound in father and ends in the velar nasal; as in "flung", "dung", "young";like song in American English)
||like e in en above but with ng added to it at the back
||starts with the vowel sound in book and ends with the velar nasal sound in sing
||like ar (exists only on own, or as last part of final in combination with others- see bottom of list)
||like English "ee", except when preceded by "c", "ch", "r", "s", "sh", "z" or "zh"
||as i + a; like English "yard" or the name "iago"
||as i + ê; but is very short; e (pronounced like ê) is pronounced longer and carries the main stress (similar to the initial sound ye in yet)
||as i + ao
||as i + ou
||as i + an; like English yen
||as i + en; as in the English word "in";
||as i + ang
||as i + ng
||as i + ong;
||like English "oo", except in xu and yu, where it is pronounced as u
||as u + a
||as u + o (as o after initials b, p, m and f); the o is pronounced shorter and lighter than in the o final
||as u + ai
||as u + ei; here, the i is pronounced like ei
||as u + an
||as u + en; like the on in the English won
||as u + ang; like the ang in English angst or anger
||as u + eng
||as in German "üben" or French "lune" (To get this sound, say "ee" with rounded lips)
||as ü + ê; the ü is short and light
||as ü + an;
||as ü + en;
||as in "bet". Only used in certain interjections.
||plain continental 'or'. Only used in certain interjections.
||as i + o