Canadian Refugee Procedure/Counsel of Record
As Martin Jones and Sasha Baglay observe, “the representation of refugee claimants by qualified counsel is an important part of the Canadian refugee determination process. The availability and expertise of counsel bring significant benefits to both the claimants and the overall efficiency and legitimacy of the process. The representation of refugee claimants is also an expression of a fundamental constitutional and common law value: that individuals facing complicated legal proceedings with serious consequences should be allowed to be represented so as to ensure that there is a full and fair hearing.” The following sections outline the contours, limits, and practicalities of this right.
Canadian Charter of Rights and FreedomsEdit
Section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms provides:
Life, liberty and security of person 7. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice.
Section 10(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms provides the following right to counsel:
Arrest or Detention 10. Everyone has the right on arrest or detention ... (b) to retail and instruct counsel without delay and to be informed of that right ...
Both sections 7 and 10 of the Charter are relevant to the right to counsel in refugee proceedingsEdit
The court has found that section 7 Charter rights are involved in inland refugee proceedings and that they include “the right to be represented by competent and careful counsel”. For a discussion of s. 10 of the Charter, see: Canadian Refugee Procedure/Counsel of Record#The right to counsel does not apply where a person is not yet subject to proceedings before the Board and where the person is not detained.
Canadian Bill of RightsEdit
Section 2(d) of the Canadian Bill of Rights concerns the right to counsel:
Construction of law 2 Every law of Canada shall, unless it is expressly declared by an Act of the Parliament of Canada that it shall operate notwithstanding the Canadian Bill of Rights, be so construed and applied as not to abrogate, abridge or infringe or to authorize the abrogation, abridgment or infringement of any of the rights or freedoms herein recognized and declared, and in particular, no law of Canada shall be construed or applied so as to (d) authorize a court, tribunal, commission, board or other authority to compel a person to give evidence if he is denied counsel, protection against self crimination or other constitutional safeguards;
IRPA s. 167 - Right to counselEdit
Right to counsel 167 (1) A person who is the subject of proceedings before any Division of the Board and the Minister may, at their own expense, be represented by legal or other counsel.
In what immigration contexts do claimants have a right to counsel?Edit
The right to counsel applies from the time a person is subject to proceedings before the Board, not just at the hearingEdit
Section 167(1) of the Act provides that a person who is the subject of proceedings before any Division of the Board may be represented by legal or other counsel. As such, this provision of the Act ties the right to counsel to whether or not the individual is the subject of proceedings before the Board. In Canada v. Gutierrez, the Federal Court of Appeal found that the applicants had a right to counsel at an interview conducted after their claim had been made, but a few weeks before their hearing before the Board was scheduled. In that situation, the claimants were considered to be the subject of proceedings before the Board, and as such, were entitled to be represented by counsel according to s. 167 of the Act.
The right to counsel does not apply where a person is not yet subject to proceedings before the Board and where the person is not detainedEdit
A person is generally not entitled to counsel at interviews or pre-hearing proceedings where the person has not yet become the subject of proceedings at the Board, for example before a claim is referred to the Board: Canada v. Bermudez. In Canada v. Barrios, the claimant's request to be represented by counsel during his initial encounter with a CBSA officer who was interviewing him at the border was denied. In subsequent proceedings before the RPD, the claimant requested that evidence arising from this interview be excluded because it was, he argued, obtained in violation of his right to counsel. The court held that the CBSA's conduct in interviewing the claimant in the absence of counsel did not violate any right to counsel, since the person concerned had no right to counsel in the circumstances because they were not, at the time they were being interviewed, subject to any proceedings before the Board.
This conclusion will be different, however, where a person is detained and not free to leave at the time that they are being questioned: Chen v. Canada. This is so on the basis that in such circumstances an individual's s. 10(b) right to counsel under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms will apply.
The right to counsel in Canadian law is not a right to state-funded counselEdit
Section 167(1) of the IRPA provides that an individual may be represented by counsel "at their own expense". In Canada, the courts have stated, "there is no general constitutional right to legal aid, but only a right arising in specific circumstances". As such, no Canadian case has established that refugee claimants have a right to state-funded counsel. Instead, the Federal Court has held that "state-funded legal aid is only constitutionally mandated in some cases [and] the right to counsel is not absolute". This is consistent with jurisprudence in similar jurisdictions and at international law. For example, the UK High Court states that international law does not require the provision of legal advice and assistance to asylum seekers. US courts have not accepted a constitutional or statutory argument that appointed counsel is required for noncitizens to vindicate their right to a fair hearing in immigration court. Similarly, Canadian courts have held that international law does not specifically call for legal counsel as part of the implementation of a fair refugee adjudication system.
UNHCR has expressed the view that whether or not refugee claimants have a right to state-funded counsel in Canada should be thought of as an open question. Section 7 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms raises the possibility that an implied right to state-funded counsel for indigent claimants may, under certain circumstances, be included within its protection guarantees, given that protection claims involve grave issues related to a person’s security. Specifically, the notion of “fundamental justice” in s. 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms involves both substantive and procedural fairness. As a consequence, a UNHCR report discussing the Canadian asylum process observes that representation is likely necessary when refugee claimants do not understand the procedures in order to ensure that the process is conducted in accordance with principles of fundamental justice. The academic Sharryn Aiken, et. al., also write that "there are strong arguments that s 7 guarantees refugee claimants a right to counsel at refugee hearings".
Indeed, at the international level there are many statements about rights to legal counsel in asylum proceedings. The UN Human Rights Committee has concluded that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights requires that ‘“asylum-seekers be properly informed and assured of their rights, including the right to apply for asylum, with access to free legal aid”. Similarly, the European Court of Human Rights has held that failure to provide access to legal aid for asylum seekers by Greece constituted a violation of the European Convention on Human Rights in particular circumstances. As well, the Council of the European Union Procedures Directive on Minimum Standards on Procedures in Member States for Granting and Withdrawing Refugee Status provides that in the event of a negative decision, applicants in EU member states are in principle entitled to free legal assistance which Member States may, however, make contingent upon the fulfilment of further requirements such as that the appeal or review is likely to succeed.
The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights states that legal aid may be necessary when it is required in order to effectively vindicate a fundamental protected right under the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man or the Constitution or laws of a particular country. This flows in large measure from the principle that rights must be implemented in ways that give them proper effect. It also flows from the right to equal protection of - and before - the law. They state in a report on the Canadian refugee determination system that when deciding whether legal aid is necessary for a particular individual, one may properly consider the circumstances of the particular case, its significance, legal character, and the context in the particular legal system.
In what contexts will a lack of counsel render a hearing unfair?Edit
The fact that a claimant lacks counsel does not, in and of itself, mean that their hearing is unfairEdit
The Federal Court states that "individuals are free to choose to represent themselves or to be represented by counsel". As a matter of practice, the notices of hearing sent by the Board to claimants advise them of their right to be represented by counsel. While about 90% of claimants attend their hearing with representation, they may proceed with a claim and hearing without counsel. The Canadian jurisprudence is clear that where a claimant does not request a postponement on the basis of this lack of counsel, there is no obligation on the Board to canvass the issue of a postponement of the hearing simply because a claimant is unrepresented. As Refugee Appeal Division Member Atam Uppal held in one case, the mere fact that a claimant was unrepresented and the Board denied the claim did not mean that the RPD denied procedural fairness or that the claimant was denied his right to a fair hearing. Instead, the lack of representation by counsel results in a breach of procedural fairness only if, given the circumstances, it deprives the applicant of the opportunity to
“participate meaningfully” in the hearing.
A panel may be obliged to postpone a hearing to give a claimant an opportunity to obtain counsel upon request in certain circumstancesEdit
The court has stated that "the right to be represented by counsel is not an absolute right. It is predicated on all parties and counsel acting reasonably in all circumstances." In certain circumstances, where a party has acted diligently and reasonably and has not been able to obtain counsel for the hearing, and requests a postponement of a hearing to obtain counsel, it may be unfair for a panel to deny that request and proceed with the hearing. The following principles can therefore be drawn from the case law: although the right to counsel is not absolute in an administrative proceeding, refusing an individual the possibility to retain counsel by not allowing a postponement is reviewable if the following factors are in play: the case is complex, the consequences of the decision are serious, the individual does not have the resources - whether in terms of intellect or legal knowledge - to properly represent his interests. See Rule 54 on changing the date and time of a proceeding for further discussion of this and a discussion of the rules that a panel should consider when exercising its discretion: Canadian Refugee Procedure/Changing the Date or Time of a Proceeding.
Where a claimant is unrepresented and is clearly not understanding what is occurring, the Board should inquire about whether they wish to have counselEdit
The general rule is that there is no stand-alone duty on a tribunal to advise a party about the availability of or right to legal aid in immigration proceedings. That said, the court has noted that "applicants are often lost without counsel" and that counsel "can make a significant impact in the smooth progression of a proceeding". Where it is clear that an unrepresented claimant is not understanding what is occurring, a panel may be obliged to enquire with the claimant about whether they wish to have counsel. In Alvarez v. Canada, the Court found a breach of natural justice in circumstances where the tribunal proceeded despite the fact that it was clear that the applicant was not understanding the proceedings. The court reached this conclusion even though the claimant had not formally requested an adjournment at the time of the hearing. For additional discussion of this principle, see: Canadian Refugee Procedure/Changing the Date or Time of a Proceeding#The Board's actions on its own motion (ex proprio motu).
The Board has a heightened duty of procedural fairness when dealing with self-represented claimantsEdit
Unrepresented claimants are comparatively rare in refugee proceedings; for example, in 2011–2012 Legal Aid Ontario provided services to 90% of all refugee claimants in Ontario. The proportion of unrepresented claimants nationally remained relatively consistent at 12 to 13 percent from 2009 to 2012. British Columbia has traditionally had significantly higher rates of unrepresented claimants than the rest of the country, with approximately a quarter of claimants unrepresented at their refugee hearings. Caselaw establishes that the RPD owes unrepresented litigants a heightened duty of fairness. However, the precise scope of this duty will depend on all of the circumstances of the case, including the sophistication of the applicant; where the applicant is clearly sophisticated, this may support the fairness of the procedural choices that were made. The courts have commented positively on Members taking steps to inform self-represented claimants about RPD procedures and about the existence and application of the National Documentation Package. The Board also commits in its Guideline 8 - Concerning Procedures with Respect to Vulnerable Persons Appearing Before the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada that it "will take extra care to ensure that self-represented vulnerable persons can participate as meaningfully as possible in their own hearings."
In what contexts will counsel incompetence render a hearing unfair?Edit
Normally, claimants with counsel are more likely to succeed with their claimsEdit
Statistically, claimants with counsel are far more likely to succeed with their refugee claims than are those who are unrepresented. Several studies have shown that there is a clear correlation between having legal advice and the recognition of refugee status. A study of legal advisers in Cairo, Egypt, for example, found that refugees who had legal advice had nearly double the chance of having their refugee status recognized after a UNHCR interview than other, unrepresented, asylum seekers. In the US, Schoenholtz and Jacobs found that asylum seekers who had legal assistance were four to six times more likely to be recognized as refugees compared to those who did not have assistance. In this study, access to a legal adviser was found to improve the chance of recognition, regardless of the refugee’s origin, at every stage of the determination process studied. Studies of the Canadian refugee status determination system have also concluded that having a lawyer is associated with an increased chance of success in refugee proceedings: according to a study by academic Sean Rehaag, Canadian claimants with representation from a lawyer were approximately 75 percent more likely to succeed than those who were unrepresented.
Deficiencies of counsel's conduct are properly attributed to their clientEdit
Generally, the courts have held clients liable for the misconduct of their counsel: “It is well recognized that a person has to accept the consequences of their choice of counsel.” Sometimes counsel will adopt a theory of the case that does not succeed or will make tactical decisions in approaching a case where another lawyer would have decided differently. The Federal Court has held that the general rule is that you do not separate counsel's conduct from the client. Counsel is acting as agent for the client and, as harsh as it may be, the client must bear the consequences of having hired poor counsel. This principle is reflected in the instructions in the Basis of Claim form that every claimant receives as part of the claimant process, which notes that "If you have counsel, you are responsible for making sure that your counsel meets the deadlines." That said, this principle may be distinguishable in situations where counsel's conduct is incompetent to the point where it would be unfair to attribute deficiencies to the client, as discussed in the following section.
A hearing will be unfair where counsel incompetence results in a miscarriage of justiceEdit
The two-part test for setting aside a decision on the basis of counsel incompetency is that a party must establish 1) that counsel’s acts or omissions constituted incompetence, and 2) that a miscarriage of justice resulted:
The core test for setting aside a decision due to counsel incompetence consists of two components: a performance component and a prejudice component. The burden is on the Applicant to prove both. The Applicant must prove that counsel performed incompetently. The incompetence must be specific and supported by evidence. The Applicant must also prove that the incompetence caused a miscarriage of justice. A miscarriage of justice may manifest in procedural unfairness, a compromise of trial fairness, or some other readily apparent form.
In the words of the Federal Court of Appeal, the irreparable harm that can befall an individual upon deportation "obviously calls for the utmost vigilance from counsel representing claimants, and for the need on their part to act with the highest standard of professionalism and thoroughness." There is a strong presumption that former counsel’s conduct fell within the wide range of reasonable professional assistance. As such, the test for concluding that counsel was incompetent is strict, and counsel incompetence will only be found to have caused procedural unfairness in extraordinary circumstances. Notice must be given to former counsel and the applicant has the burden of proof. For more details on the prerequisites for making such an argument before the RPD, see Rule 62(4): Canadian Refugee Procedure/Reopening a Claim or Application#Rule 62(4) - Allegations against counsel. Examples of inadequate representation, counsel incompetence, negligence, and other improper conduct follow:
- Failure to comply with undertakings: In Shirwa v. Canada, counsel had made an undertaking to file written submissions on issues that were raised during the hearing and then failed to do so. The court held that this was a serious failure on the part of counsel.
- Failure to provide important evidence to the Board: In El Kaissi v. Canada the court concluded that counsel had acted incompetently where they failed to produce a piece of corroborating evidence which the applicant had provided to counsel. In Mcintyre v. Canada, the court concluded that counsel had acted incompetently when they failed to file crucial evidence as to the country conditions that demonstrated how the applicant, a gay man, would be affected by removal.
- Failure to assist the claimant in the preparation of documents: In Galyas v. Canada, the court held that counsel had acted incompetently where the claimant had been "left to prepare [his BOC form] by himself, without guidance on what it should contain[,] and what the RPD would be looking for in such a narrative." In El Kaissi v. Canada the court concluded that counsel had acted incompetently where they did not assist the claimant in the preparation of the Personal Information Form.
- Failure to meet with the claimant in advance of the hearing to prepare: In El Kaissi v. Canada the court concluded that counsel had acted incompetently where they did not meet with their clients until just prior to the hearing.
- Failure to advance an important argument before the Board as a result of ignorance: Counsel must have a sufﬁcient knowledge of the fundamental issues or principles of law applicable to the particular work they have undertaken to enable them to perceive the need to ascertain the law on relevant points. For example, in Satkunanathan v. Canada the applicant's former counsel appeared to be under the mistaken impression that it was not possible to advance a particular argument before the Board, when in fact it was. This was held by the court to have fallen below the standard of competence expected of counsel and to have resulted in an unfair hearing.
- Failure to notify the claimant of their hearing date.
- Failure to appear for a hearing date where they are counsel of record.
- Acting while having a conflict of interest.
- Cumulative grounds: Counsel have also been held incompetent because of the cumulative impact of many acts and omissions which alone would not amount to incompetence. As the court stated in Fernandez v. Canada, "I do not have to find any one act of egregious conduct to find that former counsel was incompetent. I need to establish that the actions fell outside of the realm of reasonable judgment".
Where counsel provides inadequate representation, including professional incompetence, negligence, and other improper conduct, this may support a finding that the proceeding was unfair. In making this determination, there must be an assessment of whether counsel’s performance resulted in procedural unfairness, whether the reliability of the trial’s result may have been compromised, or whether the outcome might be affected. With respect to whether the outcome might be affected, the court examines whether there is "a reasonable possibility that the original decision could have been different."
Rule 14 - Becoming counsel of recordEdit
Counsel of Record Becoming counsel of record 14 (1) Subject to subrule (2), as soon as counsel for a claimant or protected person agrees to a date for a proceeding, or as soon as a person becomes counsel after a date for a proceeding has been fixed, the counsel becomes counsel of record for the claimant or protected person. Limitation on counsel’s retainer (2) If a claimant or protected person has notified the Division of a limitation on their counsel’s retainer, counsel is counsel of record only to the extent of the services to be provided within the limited retainer. Counsel ceases to be counsel of record as soon as those services are completed.
Who may act as counsel in refugee proceedings before the Board?Edit
An individual can pay fees to be represented by a person who is a lawyer, paralegal or immigration consultant. A person may also be represented by someone who is not one of those professionals. For the form that needs to be completed in such circumstances, see Rule 5 (which applies to refugee claimants - Canadian Refugee Procedure/Information and Documents to be Provided#Rule 5 - Declaration where counsel is not acting for consideration) and Rule 13 (which applies to persons who have already been conferred refugee status - Canadian Refugee Procedure/Information and Documents to be Provided#Rule 13 - Declaration where counsel not representing or advising for consideration).
Parties may be represented by multiple counsel (co-counsel) in a proceedingEdit
Parties may be represented by more than one representative (counsel, immigration consultant, etc.) in a proceeding before the IRB. This was allowed for the Minister in Muhammad v Canada, a case before the Immigration Division, and has been allowed for claimants appearing before the RPD as well. Indeed, this is commonly done for the training for new representatives, as when articling students co-counsel with a more experienced lawyer.
The Refugee Appeal Division has concluded that the law is that, in general, there is "no obligation of the RPD to inform claimants of the availability of Legal Aid". That said, the Board publishes a Claimant's Kit, which is made available to all claimants, and includes a list of Canadian legal aid offices. Six provinces - British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador - offer immigration and refugee legal aid services. Some other provinces, such as Nova Scotia, used to provide legal aid, but cancelled the programs in the late 1990s during budgetary cuts. The overwhelming majority of the work of the Refugee Protection Division is centered in the provinces that do have legal aid programs.
British Columbia Legal Services SocietyEdit
In British Columbia, the Legal Services Society authorizes 16 hours for case preparation, with an additional 8 hours permitted if there is a second adult client, and a further four hours for any additional adult clients. Lawyers are also paid for their time at the RPD hearing. LSS will pay for up to 10 hours of interpretation services per adult client, with additional hours requiring authorization. The BC Public Interest Advocacy Centre states that these hours rates are "so low they invariably require a subsidy in time and commitment from counsel who accept such retainers to ensure adequate representation." In the 2013-2014 fiscal year, funding was approved for 82 percent of applications by refugee claimants (348 out of 424 applications). The average total cost to BC's Legal Services Society of a refugee claim under the new system in the 2013-2014 fiscal year was $2,062, including disbursements. The average of legal fees alone charged in private refugee cases in the Western Region in the same time period would appear to have been in the range of $4000. Such limits on legal aid fees have been said to have resulted in "more experienced lawyers [stopping the practice of] asylum and immigration law" in other jurisdictions.
Legal Aid ManitobaEdit
In Manitoba, most of the case preparation work is done by two salaried paralegals working with the Manitoba Interfaith Immigration Council. The legal aid tariff in that province provides far fewer hours for work on refugee claims than is allowed under the tariffs in British Columbia, Ontario and Alberta. As of 2019, the Manitoba tariff allows 13 hours for preparation and the first half-day of hearing.
Legal Aid OntarioEdit
Legal Aid Ontario (LAO) provides (as of 2013) counsel with 5 hours to prepare a BOC form, 11 hours to prepare for a refugee hearing, plus the time of the hearing. LAO will pay up to 10 hours of interpretation services in case preparation, with authorization required for any additional time. LAO pays 16 hours to prepare for a RAD hearing (plus an additional four hours and attendance time if the RAD proceeding involves an oral hearing), 15 hours for an application for leave for a judicial review, and 15 hours to prepare for a judicial review (the combination with preparation hours not to exceed 27 hours, plus attendance time).
While Quebec operates a legal aid program for refugee claimants, they have been criticized in the past for their failure to compensate counsel for preparatory and pre-hearing work.
Rule 15 - Request to be removed as counsel of recordEdit
Request to be removed as counsel of record 15 (1) To be removed as counsel of record, counsel for a claimant or protected person must first provide to the person represented and to the Minister, if the Minister is a party, a copy of a written request to be removed and then provide the written request to the Division, no later than three working days before the date fixed for the next proceeding. Oral request (2) If it is not possible for counsel to make the request in accordance with subrule (1), counsel must appear on the date fixed for the proceeding and make the request to be removed orally before the time fixed for the proceeding. Division’s permission required (3) Counsel remains counsel of record unless the request to be removed is granted.
Board commentary on discretion to refuse requests for counsel to be removed as counsel of recordEdit
Lorne Waldman notes in his text that "the Rules do not specify how the Board is to deal with an application by counsel to be removed." Some guidance on this issue comes from the drafting history for the current version of the rules and the Board's public commentary thereon. When this rule was being drafted and the IRB solicited feedback on it, three respondents provided comments concerning the process to follow to be removed as counsel of record. Specifically, respondents requested that the rule which stipulates that counsel of record remain counsel of record until the request is granted be changed to state that counsel are released as of the Division's receipt of the written notification. While the IRB has noted that it is unlikely to require counsel of record to continue to represent a claimant if a request has been made to the Division in a timely manner, the IRB maintains that it has discretion to deny the request in appropriate circumstances, such as where allowing it would impede the timely progress of a proceeding and cause an injustice. With this in mind, the rule retains its current form.
Rule 16 - Removing counsel of recordEdit
Removing counsel of record 16 (1) To remove counsel as counsel of record, a claimant or protected person must first provide to counsel and to the Minister, if the Minister is a party, a copy of a written notice that counsel is no longer counsel for the claimant or protected person, as the case may be, and then provide the written notice to the Division. Ceasing to be counsel of record (2) Counsel ceases to be counsel of record as soon as the Division receives the notice.
- Martin David Jones and Sasha Baglay. Refugee Law (Second Edition). Irwin Law, 2017, page 328.
- The Constitution Act, 1982, Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (UK), 1982, c 11, s 10 <http://canlii.ca/t/ldsx#sec10> retrieved on 2020-05-02.
- Mathon v Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration) (1988), 38 Admin LR 193 at 208 (TD), as cited in Martin David Jones and Sasha Baglay. Refugee Law (Second Edition). Irwin Law, 2017, page 314.
- Canadian Bill of Rights, SC 1960, c 44, s 2 <http://canlii.ca/t/j05x#sec2> retrieved on 2020-04-17.
- Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v Paramo de Gutierrez, 2016 FCA 211 at para 44.
- Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v Bermudez, 2016 FCA 131 at para 50.
- Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) v. Barrios (F.C., no. IMM-59-19), O’Reilly, January 10, 2020; 2020 FC 29.
- Chen v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship & Immigration),  F.C.J. No. 1163, 2006 FC 910 (F.C.).
- Council of Canadians with Disabilities v. British Columbia (Attorney General), 2020 BCCA 241 (CanLII), par. 95, <http://canlii.ca/t/j9c0x#par95>, retrieved on 2020-08-27.
- Austria v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), 2006 FC 423 (CanLII), par. 6, <http://canlii.ca/t/1n2qx#par6>, retrieved on 2020-08-12.
- Canadian Council for Refugees v R, 2007 FC 1262 (CanLII),  3 FCR 606, par. 229, <http://canlii.ca/t/1tz0l#par229>, retrieved on 2020-03-22.
- C.J.L.G. v. Sessions, 880 F.3d 1122 (9th Cir. 2018).
- Barutciski, Michael, The Impact of the Lack of Legal Representation in the Canadian Asylum Process, UNHCR, 6 November 2012, <https://www.unhcr.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/RPT-2012-06-legal_representation-e.pdf> (Accessed January 19, 2020), page 13.
- Sharryn Aiken, et al, Immigration and Refugee Law: Cases, Materials, and Commentary (Third Edition), Jan. 1 2020, Emond, ISBN: 1772556319, at page 187.
- UN Human Rights Committee, ‘Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: France’, UN doc CCPR/C/FRA/CO/4 (31 July 2008).
- MSS v Belgium and Greece App No 30696/09 (ECtHR, 21 January 2011).
- EC Directive 2005/85 of 1 December 2005, OJ 2005 L 326, 13, <https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:326:0013:0034:EN:PDF> (Accessed May 3, 2020).
- See generally, IACtHR, Advisory Opinion OC-11/90 supra, at para. 30 (addressing the issue of exhaustion of domestic remedies under the American Convention); UNHum.Rts.Committee, Currie v. Jamaica, Comm. Nº 377/1989, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/50/D/377/1989 (1994), at paras. 10, 13 (explaining that absence of legal aid where required to vindicate a right operates not only to excuse compliance with the requirement of exhaustion of domestic remedies, but also constitutes a violation of the right to a fair trial).
- Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), Report on the Situation of Human Rights of Asylum Seekers Within the Canadian Refugee Determination System, 2000, Inter-Am. C.H.R., OEA/Ser.L/V/II.106, Doc. 40 rev. (2000), available at: https://www.refworld.org/docid/50ceedc72.html [accessed 18 August 2020], para. 127.
- Ait Elhocine v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2020 FC 1068 (CanLII), par. 15, <http://canlii.ca/t/jc063#par15>, retrieved on 2021-01-06.
- Martin David Jones and Sasha Baglay. Refugee law (Second Edition). Irwin Law, 2017, page 323.
- Hamlin, Rebecca. Let Me Be a Refugee: Administrative Justice and the Politics of Asylum in the United States, Canada, and Australia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Print. Page 88.
- N.A.Y.T. v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), 2012 FC 225 (CanLII).
- X (Re), 2015 CanLII 52143 (CA IRB), par. 32, <http://canlii.ca/t/gkrv6#par32>, retrieved on 2020-03-16.
- Li v Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2015 FC 927 at paragraph 37.
- Afrane v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration) (1993), 64 F.T.R. 1 (F.C.T.D.)
- Mervilus v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), 2004 FC 1206 at paragraph 25.
- Cyril v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2015 FC 1106 (CanLII), par. 15, <http://canlii.ca/t/gl9cx#par15>, retrieved on 2020-05-13.
- Cervenakova v Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2012 FC 525, at paras 64, 67.
- Alvarez v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship & Immigration),  F.C.J. No. 1007, 2010 FC 792 (F.C.).
- Berger, Max, Immigration Essentials 2013 Presentation, Canadian Bar Association Immigration Conference Montreal Materials <http://www.cba.org/cba/cle/pdf/imm13_paper_berger.pdf>, page 33.
- BC Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Refugee Reform and Access to Counsel in British Columbia, July 2015 <https://bcpiac.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/LFBC-Refugee-Reform-Paper-Final-July-30-2015-2.pdf> (Accessed January 12, 2020), page 27.
- BC Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Refugee Reform and Access to Counsel in British Columbia, July 2015 <https://bcpiac.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/LFBC-Refugee-Reform-Paper-Final-July-30-2015-2.pdf> (Accessed January 12, 2020), page 3.
- Nemeth v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), 2003 FCT 590 (CanLII), 233 FTR 301,  FCJ No 776 (QL) at para 13
- Wysozki v. Canada (Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness) (F.C., No. IMM-4958-19), Strickland, March 31, 2020; 2020 FC 458, para. 38.
- Ait Elhocine v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2020 FC 1068 (CanLII), par. 25, <http://canlii.ca/t/jc063#par25>, retrieved on 2021-01-06.
- Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Guideline 8 - Concerning Procedures with Respect to Vulnerable Persons Appearing Before the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Amended: December 15, 2012, <https://irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/legal-policy/policies/Pages/GuideDir08.aspx> (Accessed February 9, 2020).
- Azadeh Dastyari, BA/LLB (Hons I) (Sydney), PhD (Monash), Daniel Ghezelbash, BA/LLB (Hons I), PhD (Sydney), Asylum at Sea: The Legality of Shipboard Refugee Status Determination Procedures, International Journal of Refugee Law, , eez046, https://doi.org/10.1093/ijrl/eez046
- Michael Kagan, ‘Frontier Justice: Legal Aid and UNHCR Refugee Status Determination in Egypt’ (2006) 19 Journal of Refugee Studies 45, 54.
- Andrew Schoenholtz and Jonathan Jacobs, ‘The State of Asylum Representation: Ideas for Change’ (2002) 16 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 739, 740.
- Sean Rehaag, “The Role of Counsel in Canada’s Refugee Determination System: An Empirical Assessment,” (2011) 49 Osgoode Hall Law Journal 71.
- Williams v Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration) (1994), 74 FTR 34 (TD).
- Jouzichin v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) (1994), 52 ACWS (3d) 157, 1994 CarswellNat 1592.
- Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Basis of Claim Form, November 2012 Version <https://irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/forms/Documents/RpdSpr0201_e.pdf>, Appendix page 2.
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