Calculus/Volume of solids of revolution

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Volume of solids of revolution

In this section we cover solids of revolution and how to calculate their volume. A solid of revolution is a solid formed by revolving a 2-dimensional region around an axis. For example, revolving the semi-circular region bounded by the curve and the line around the -axis produces a sphere. There are two main methods of calculating the volume of a solid of revolution using calculus: the disk method and the shell method.

Contents

Disk MethodEdit

 
Figure 1: A solid of revolution is generated by revolving this region around the x-axis.
 
Figure 2: Approximation to the generating region in Figure 1.

Consider the solid formed by revolving the region bounded by the curve   , which is continuous on   , and the lines   ,   and   around the  -axis. We could imagine approximating the volume by approximating   with the stepwise function   shown in figure 2, which uses a right-handed approximation to the function. Now when the region is revolved, the region under each step sweeps out a cylinder, whose volume we know how to calculate, i.e.

 

where   is the radius of the cylinder and   is the cylinder's height. This process is reminiscent of the Riemann process we used to calculate areas earlier. Let's try to write the volume as a Riemann sum and from that equate the volume to an integral by taking the limit as the subdivisions get infinitely small.

Consider the volume of one of the cylinders in the approximation, say the  -th one from the left. The cylinder's radius is the height of the step function, and the thickness is the length of the subdivision. With   subdivisions and a length of   for the total length of the region, each subdivision has width

 

Since we are using a right-handed approximation, the  -th sample point will be

 

So the volume of the  -th cylinder is

 

Summing all of the cylinders in the region from   to   , we have

 

Taking the limit as   approaches infinity gives us the the exact volume

 

which is equivalent to the integral

 
Example: Volume of a Sphere

Let's calculate the volume of a sphere using the disk method. Our generating region will be the region bounded by the curve   and the line   . Our limits of integration will be the  -values where the curve intersects the line   , namely,   . We have

 

ExercisesEdit

1. Calculate the volume of the cone with radius   and height   which is generated by the revolution of the region bounded by   and the lines   and   around the  -axis.

 

2. Calculate the volume of the solid of revolution generated by revolving the region bounded by the curve   and the lines   and   around the  -axis.

 

Solutions

Washer MethodEdit

 
Figure 3: A solid of revolution containing an irregularly shaped hole through its center is generated by revolving this region around the x-axis.
 
Figure 4: Approximation to the generating region in Figure 3.

The washer method is an extension of the disk method to solids of revolution formed by revolving an area bounded between two curves around the  -axis. Consider the solid of revolution formed by revolving the region in figure 3 around the  -axis. The curve   is the same as that in figure 1, but now our solid has an irregularly shaped hole through its center whose volume is that of the solid formed by revolving the curve   around the  -axis. Our approximating region has the same upper boundary,   as in figure 2, but now we extend only down to   rather than all the way down to the  -axis. Revolving each block around the  -axis forms a washer-shaped solid with outer radius   and inner radius   . The volume of the  -th hollow cylinder is

 

where   and   . The volume of the entire approximating solid is

 

Taking the limit as   approaches infinity gives the volume

 

ExercisesEdit

3. Use the washer method to find the volume of a cone containing a central hole formed by revolving the region bounded by   and the lines   and   around the  -axis.

 

4. Calculate the volume of the solid of revolution generated by revolving the region bounded by the curves   and   and the lines   and   around the  -axis.

 

Solutions

Shell MethodEdit

 
Figure 5: A solid of revolution is generated by revolving this region around the y-axis.
 
Figure 6: Approximation to the generating region in Figure 5.

The shell method is another technique for finding the volume of a solid of revolution. Using this method sometimes makes it easier to set up and evaluate the integral. Consider the solid of revolution formed by revolving the region in figure 5 around the  -axis. While the generating region is the same as in figure 1, the axis of revolution has changed, making the disk method impractical for this problem. However, dividing the region up as we did previously suggests a similar method of finding the volume, only this time instead of adding up the volume of many approximating disks, we will add up the volume of many cylindrical shells. Consider the solid formed by revolving the region in figure 6 around the  -axis. The  -th rectangle sweeps out a hollow cylinder with height   and with inner radius   and outer radius   , where   and   , the volume of which is

   
 
 

The volume of the entire approximating solid is

 

Taking the limit as   approaches infinity gives us the exact volume

   
 

Since   is continuous on   , the Extreme Value Theorem implies that   has some maximum,   , on   . Using this and the fact that   , we have

 

But

   
 
 

So by the Squeeze Theorem

 

which is just the integral

 

ExercisesEdit

5. Find the volume of a cone with radius   and height   by using the shell method on the appropriate region which, when rotated around the  -axis, produces a cone with the given characteristics.

 

6. Calculate the volume of the solid of revolution generated by revolving the region bounded by the curve   and the lines   and   around the  -axis.

 

Solutions

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Volume of solids of revolution