C# Programming/Keywords/out

The out keyword explicitly specifies that a variable should be passed by reference to a method, and set in that method. A variable using this keyword must not be intialized before the method call to ensure the developer understand its intended effects. Using this keyword requires the called method to set the variable using this modifier before returning. Using out also requires the developer to specify the keyword even in the calling code, to ensure that it is easily visible to developers reading the code that the variable will have its value changed elsewhere, which is useful when analyzing the program flow.

An example of passing a variable with out follows:

void CallingMethod()
    int i;
    SetDependingOnTime(out i);
    // i is now 10 before/at 12 am, or 20 after

void SetDependingOnTime(out int iValue)
    iValue = DateTime.Now.Hour <= 12 ? 10 : 20;

C# Keywords
abstract as base bool break
byte case catch char checked
class const continue decimal default
delegate do double else enum
event explicit extern false finally
fixed float for foreach goto
if implicit in int interface
internal is lock long namespace
new null object operator out
override params private protected public
readonly ref return sbyte sealed
short sizeof stackalloc static string
struct switch this throw true
try typeof uint ulong unchecked
unsafe ushort using var virtual
void volatile while
Special C# Identifiers (Contextual Keywords)
add alias async await dynamic
get global nameof partial remove
set value when where yield
Contextual Keywords (Used in Queries)
ascending by descending equals from
group in into join let
on orderby select where