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Bloom's Taxonomy *
Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing levels of abstraction - thus providing a useful structure in which to describe Lesson Plan Components: Interest Approach, Discussion, Presentation, Demonstration, and Test Items. Content Goals start with an active verb. Note the 'Cues' below, which suggest active verbs that may be used when creating Lesson Plan Components. See the Example Lesson Plan.
- observation and recall of information
- knowledge of dates, events, places
- knowledge of major ideas
- mastery of subject matter
- Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
- understanding information
- grasp meaning
- translate knowledge into new context
- interpret facts, compare, contrast
- order, group, infer causes
- predict consequences
- Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
- use information
- use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
- solve problems using required skills or knowledge
- Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
- seeing patterns
- organization of parts
- recognition of hidden meanings
- identification of components
- Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer
- use old ideas to create new ones
- generalize from given facts
- relate knowledge from several areas
- predict, draw conclusions
- Cues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
- compare and discriminate between ideas
- assess value of theories, presentations
- make choices based on reasoned argument
- verify value of evidence
- recognize subjectivity
- Cues: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
*Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green.
Note: IPSI uses Bloom's work as modified by Simpson and Kratwold to create three domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and afective. The first, second and fourth levels of Bloom form the cognitive domeain. The third level of Bloom forms the psychomotor domain and the fifth and sixth levels of Bloom form the affective domain. Accordingly, content will be parsed into one of nine categories --- three levels of cognitive, three of psychomotor and three of affective. These nine categories are sufficiently precise so that prescriptions regarding instruction and testing can be aligned with the intent expressed in content goals.
Contemporary Educational Psychology/Chapter 9: Instructional Planning--a discussion of Bloom's taxonomy as it relates to classroom teaching.