Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy *


Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing levels of abstraction - thus providing a useful structure in which to describe Lesson Plan Components: Interest Approach, Discussion, Presentation, Demonstration, and Test Items. Content Goals start with an active verb. Note the 'Cues' below, which suggest active verbs that may be used when creating Lesson Plan Components. See the Example Lesson Plan.


observation and recall of information
knowledge of dates, events, places
knowledge of major ideas
mastery of subject matter
Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.


understanding information
grasp meaning
translate knowledge into new context
interpret facts, compare, contrast
order, group, infer causes
predict consequences
Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend


use information
use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
solve problems using required skills or knowledge
Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover


seeing patterns
organization of parts
recognition of hidden meanings
identification of components
Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer


use old ideas to create new ones
generalize from given facts
relate knowledge from several areas
predict, draw conclusions
Cues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite


compare and discriminate between ideas
assess value of theories, presentations
make choices based on reasoned argument
verify value of evidence
recognize subjectivity
Cues: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize

*Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green.

Note: IPSI uses Bloom's work as modified by Simpson and Kratwold to create three domains: cognitive, psychomotor, and afective. The first, second and fourth levels of Bloom form the cognitive domeain. The third level of Bloom forms the psychomotor domain and the fifth and sixth levels of Bloom form the affective domain. Accordingly, content will be parsed into one of nine categories --- three levels of cognitive, three of psychomotor and three of affective. These nine categories are sufficiently precise so that prescriptions regarding instruction and testing can be aligned with the intent expressed in content goals.

See alsoEdit

Contemporary Educational Psychology/Chapter 9: Instructional Planning--a discussion of Bloom's taxonomy as it relates to classroom teaching.