Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Urinary System

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Water In The BodyEdit

Maintaining Water BalanceEdit

Desert AnimalsEdit


The Kidneys And Urinary SystemEdit

The kidneys in mammals are bean-shaped organs that lie in the abdominal cavity attached to the dorsal wall on either side of the spine (see diagram 12.2). An artery from the dorsal aorta called the renal artery supplies blood to them and the renal vein drains them.


Diagram 12.3 - The urinary system

Diagram 12.4 - The dissected kidney

Kidney Tubules Or NephronsEdit


Diagram 12.5 - Several kidney tubules or nephrons


Diagram 12.6 - A kidney tubule or nephron

Processes Occurring In The NephronEdit

The Production Of Concentrated UrineEdit

Water Balance In Fish And Marine AnimalsEdit

Fresh Water FishEdit

Marine FishEdit

Marine BirdsEdit

Diabetes And The KidneyEdit

Other Functions Of The KidneyEdit

Normal UrineEdit

Normal urine consists of water (95%), urea, salts (mostly sodium chloride) and pigments (mostly from bile) that give it its characteristic colour.

Abnormal Ingredients Of UrineEdit

Excretion In BirdsEdit


Use this Excretory System Worksheet to help you learn the parts of the urinary system, the kidney and kidney tubule and their functions.

Test YourselfEdit


  • How Stuff Works. This animation traces the full process of urine formation and reabsorption in the kidneys, its path down the ureter to the bladder, and its excretion via the urethra. Needs Shockwave.