An Answer Key to Latin for Beginners by Benjamin L. D’Ooge
This Wikibook is based on an answer key produced by Textkit forum members. The original contributors were Textkit forum members Skylax, Episcopus, Keesa, Mariek, jsc01, Tim, and of course, Jeff.
The references are to the paragraph numbers (§ N) and the original page numbers (p. N) of Latin for Beginners. These numbers are unlikely to coincide with page numbers of a PDF file, in case you're using one of those. The page numbers of a PDF file are often just a running pagination number whereas the original page numbers of Latin for Beginners used do not consider the front cover of a book and index, for example, as being part of the numbering.
Copies of the book can be found online at
|abl||the ablative case|
|dat||the dative case|
|gen||the genitive case|
|imp||the imperative mood|
|imperf||the imperfect tense|
|ind||the indicative mood|
|inf||the infinitive mood|
|nom||the nominative case|
|pass||the passive voice|
|perf||the perfect tense|
|pluperf||the pluperfect tense|
|subj||the subjunctive mood|
§ 10, p. 8Edit
Va'-de ad for-mi'-cam, O pi'-ger, et con-si'-de-ra vi'-as ei'-us et dis'-ce sa-pi-en'-ti-am: quae cum non ha'-be-at du'-cem nec prae-cep-to'-rem nec prin'-ci-pem, pa'-rat in aes-ta'-te ci'-bum si'-bi et con'-gre-gat in mes'-se quod co'-me-dat.
§ 22, p. 13Edit
- America est patria mea.
America subject, noun; est copula; patria noun; est patria mea predicate.
- Agricolam fīliam amat.
Agricola subject, noun; filiam object, noun; amat verb; filiam amat predicate.
- Fīlia est Iūlia.
Filia subject, noun; Iulia noun; est Iulia predicate.
- Iūlia et agricola sunt in īnsula.
Iulua noun; agricola noun; Iulia et agricola subject; sunt copula; insula noun; sunt in insula predicate (Note the plural subject, Iulia et agricola).
- Iūlia aquam portat.
Iulia subject, noun; aquam object, noun; portat verb; aquam portat predicate.
- Rosam in comis habet.
Rosam object, noun; comis noun; habet verb; in comis habet predicate.
- Iūlia est puella pulchra.
Iulia subject, noun; est copula; puella noun; est puella pulchra predicate.
- Domina fīliam pulchram habet.
Domina subject, noun; filiam object, noun; habet verb; filiam pulchram habet predicate.
§ 26, p. 14Edit
agricola, agricolae; aqua, aquae; causa, causae; domina, dominae; fīlia, fīliae; fortūna, fortūnae; fuga, fugae; iniūria, iniūriae; lūna, lūnae; nauta, nautae; puella, puellae; silva, silvae; terra, terrae
§ 30, p. 15Edit
amat, amant; labōrat, labōrant; nūntiat, nūntiant; portat, portant; pugnat, pugnant
§ 31, p. 15Edit
- Fīlia amat, fīliae amant.
- Nauta portat, nautae portant.
- Agricola labōrat, agricolae labōrant.
- Puella nūntiat, puellae nūntiant.
- Dominae portant, domina portat.
- The sailor fights / is fighting / does fight, the sailors fight / are fighting / do fight.
- The girl loves, the girls love.
- The farmer carries, the farmers carry.
- The daughter labours, the daughters labour.
- The sailor is announcing, the sailors announce.
- The ladies love, the lady loves.
§ 34, p. 17Edit
- forest, nom.sg.; forests, acc.pl.; forest, acc.sg.
- flight, acc.sg.; flights, gen.sg./nom.pl.; flight, nom.sg.
- earths', gen.pl.; earths, gen.sg./nom.pl.; earths, acc.pl.
- waters, acc.pl.; cause, acc.sg; moons, acc.pl.
- daughters, nom.pl./gen.sg; fortunes, gen.sg./nom.pl.; moons, gen.sg./nom.pl.
- injuries, acc.pl.; farmers', gen.pl.; waters', gen.pl.
- injuries', gen.pl.; farmers, gen.sg./nom.pl.; daughters, acc.pl.
- sailor, acc.sg.; farmers, acc.pl.; sailors, acc.pl.
- farmer, acc.sg.; girl, acc.sg.; forests' gen.pl.
§ 39, p. 19Edit
- Diana is a goddess.
- Latona is a goddess.
- Diana and Latona are goddesses.
- Diana is the goddess of the moon.
- Diana is Latona's daughter. / Diana is the daughter of Latona.
- Latona loves Diana.
- Diana is the goddess of the woods/forests.
- Diana loves the wood/forest.
- Diana carries arrows.
- Diana kills the wild beasts of the wood/forest.
- The wild beasts of the lands are fighting.
- Fīlia Lātōnae silvās amat.
- Fīlia Lātōnae sagittās portat.
- Fīliae agricolārum labōrant.
- Fīlia agricolae aquās silvae amat.
- Nauta fugam puellārum nuntiat.
- Puellae iniūrias nautārum nūntiat.
- Fīlia agricolae labōrat.
- Sagittae Diānae ferās terrae necant.
§ 40, p. 19Edit
- Quis est Diāna?
Who is Diana?
Diāna est dea silvārum et lūnae., Diāna dea est.
- Cuius fīlia est Diāna?
Whose daughter is Diana?
Diāna est fīlia Lātōnae.
- Quis Diānam amat?
Who loves Diana?
Lātōna Diānam amat.
- Quis silvam amat?
Who loves the forest?
Diāna silvam amat.
- Quis sagittās portat?
Who carries/is carrying arrows?
Diāna sagittās portat.
- Cuius fīliae labōrant?
Whose daughters labour/are labouring?
Fīliae agricolārum labōrant.
§ 47, p. 21Edit
A direct object is italicised, an indirect object is underlined, and the genitive of the possessor is bolded.
- Who gives money to the sailors?
- The daughters of the farmer are giving/give money to the sailors.
- Who announces/is announcing the fortune of the battle.
- Galba is announcing the fortune of the battle to the farmers.
- To whom does the mistress of the house/lady tell the story?
- The mistress of the house/lady tells the story to the farmer's daughter.
- Who is giving the wreath to Diana? / Who gives Diana a crown?
- The girl is giving the wreath to Diana because she loves Diana. / The girl gives Diana a crown because she loves Diana.
- The goddess of the moon carries arrows and kills wild beasts of the forests.
- Whose victory is Galba announcing?
- Galba is announcing the sailor's victory.
- Cui puellae corōnam dant?
- Puellae Iūliae corōnam dant, quia Iūlia corōnās amat.
- Nautae dominīs fābulam nārrant, quia dominae fābulās amant.
- Agricola fīliae aquam dat.
- Galba naurae causam pūgnae nūntiat.
- Dea lūnae aquās silvae amat.
- Cuius corōnam Lātōna portat? Diānae.
§ 53, p. 23Edit
In aquā, in terrā, dē silvā, cum fortūnā, ē silvīs, ā victōriā, ex aquīs, cum nautīs, dē lūna.
§ 56, p. 24Edit
Julia: Who, Galba, is Diana?
Galba: Diana, Julia, is the beautiful goddess of the moon and woods/forests.
J: Whose daughter, Galba, is Diana?
G: Diana is Latona's daughter, Julia.
J: What does Diana carry?
G: Diana carries arrows.
J: Why does Diana carry arrows?
G: Diana carries arrows, Julia, because she kills the bad wild beasts of the large/big forest.
J: Does Latona love her daughter?
G: She does, and her daughter loves Latona.
J: What does your little daughter carry?
G: My little daughter carries pretty wreaths / beautiful crowns.
J: To whom does your daughter give these pretty wreaths / beautiful crowns?
G: She gives the wreaths / crowns to Diana.
J: Who is with your daughter? Is she alone?
G: She is not alone; my little daughter is with my maidservant.
§ 62, p. 26Edit
- The farmer lives with his daughter in the cottage.
- The farmer's good daughter prepares dinner.
- Dinner is pleasing to the farmer, and the farmer praises his good daughter.
- Then the farmer's daughter calls the hens to dinner.
- The hens love the farmer's daughter.
- Bad daughters do not prepare good dinners.
- The daughter of the farmer is pleasing to the lady/mistress of the house.
- The lady lives on a large island.
- The lady gives money to the good little girl.
- Ubi agricola habitat?
- Agricola in casā parvā habitat.
- Quis cum agricolā habitat?
- Fīlia parva cum agricolā habitat.
- Fīlia agricolae bonam cēnam parat.
- Agricola bonam cēnam laudat.
- Bona cēna fīliae agricolae grāta est.
§ 63, p. 27Edit
- Quis cum agricolā in casā habitat?
Who lives in the cottage with the farmer?
Fīlia cum agricolā in casā habitat. / Fīlia agricolae. / Fīlia agricolae in casā cum agricolā habitat.
- Quid bona fīlia agricolae parat?
What does the farmer's good daughter prepare?
Fīlia bona cēnam parat. / Cēnam. / Fīlia bona agricolae cēnam parat.
- Quem agricola laudat?
Whom does the farmer praise?
Agricola fīliam laudat. / Fīliam agricolae. / Fīliam laudat.
- Vocatne fīlia agricolae gallīnās ad cēnam?
Does the farmer's daughter call the hens to dinner?
- Cuius fīlia est grāta dominae?
Whose daughter is pleasing to the lady?
Fīlia agricolae est grāta dominae. / Fīlia agricolae.
- Cui domina pecūniam dat?
To whom does the lady give money?
Domina bonae puellae parvae pecūniam dat. // Puellae bonae parvae. / Domina puellae pecūniam dat.
§ 69, p. 30Edit
Emphatic words are italicised.
- Longae nōn sunt tuae viae.
Your ways are not long.
- Suntne tubae novae in meā casā? Nōn sunt.
Are not the new trumpets in my cottage? They are not.
- Quis lātā in silvā habitat? Diāna, lūnae clārae pulchra dea, lātā in silvā habitat.
Who lives in the wide forest? Diana, the beautiful goddess of the clear moon, lives in the wide forest.
- Nautae altās et lātās amant aquās.
The sailors love deep and wide waters.
- Quid ancilla tua portat? Ancilla mea tubam novam portat.
What does your maidservant carry? My maidservant carries a new trumpet.
- Ubi sunt Lesbia et Iūlia? In tuā casā est Lesbia et Iūlia est in meā.
Where are Lesbia and Julia? Lesbia is in your cottage, and Julia is in mine.
- Estne Italia lāta terra? Longa est Italia, nōn lāta.
Is Italy a wide land? Italy is long, not wide.
- Cui Galba agricola fābulam novam nārrat? Fīliābus dominae clārae fābulam novam nārrat.
To whom does Galba, the farmer, tell the new story? He tells the new story to the daughters of the famous lady.
- Clāra est īnsula Sicilia.
The island of Sicily is famous.
- Quem laudat Lātōna? Lātōna laudat fīliam.
Whom does Latona praise? Latona praises her daughter.
§ 77, p. 33Edit
Galba: Who, O Marcus, is the lieutenant with the spear and the trumpet?
Marcus: The lieutenant, O Galba, is Sextus.
G: Where does Sextus live?
M: Sextus lives in the town with his daughters.
G: Do the townspeople like Sextus?
M: The townspeople like Sextus and praise him, because he fights with great firmness.
G: Where, O Marcus, is your maidservant? Why is she not preparing dinner?
M: My maidservant, O Galba, is giving water and grain to the lieutenant's horse.
G: Why doesn't Sextus' slave care for his master's horse?
M: Sextus and his slave are hastening to the town's wall. The townspeople are preparing for war.
§ 78, p. 34Edit
- Ubi fīliae Sextī habitant?
Where do the daughters of Sextus live?
Fīliae in oppidō habitant.
Cum Sextō in oppidō habitant.
- Quem oppidānī amant et laudant?
Whom do the townspeople love and praise?
Oppidānī Sextum amant et laudant.
- Quid ancilla equō lēgātī dat?
What does the maidservant give to the horse of the lieutenant?
Ancilla equō aquam et frūmentum dat.
- Cuius equum ancilla cūrat?
Whose horse does the maidservant care for?
Ancilla equum Sextī cūrat. / Ancilla cūrat equum lēgātī.
- Quis ad mūrum cum Sextō properat?
Who is hurrying to the wall with Sextus?
Servus cum Sextō ad mūrum properat.
- Quid oppidānī parant?
What are the townspeople preparing for?
Oppidānī bellum parant.
§ 82, p. 35Edit
- The fatherland of the good slave, the village of the good servants, O good people.
- The people of the great town, in the large town, in the great towns.
- With long spears, to long spears, to the wide walls.
- O wicked lieutenant, friends of the bad lieutenant / of the friend of the bad lieutenant, dinners pleasing to the good lord.
- Wheat of the small horses, O good lord, to the famous lieutenants.
- The Rhine is in Germany, my fatherland.
- Sextus, the lieutenant, carries a long spear.
- The good townspeople give money to Sextus, the renowned lieutenant.
- The bad slaves kill the good horse of Marcus, the master.
- Galba, the farmer, and Julia, his good daughter, are labouring.
- Marcus, the sailor, lives on the island of Sicily.
- Quis, serve male, amīcus tuus est? Cūr Galbam dominum tuum nōn laudat?
- Amīcus est ex vīcō Germāniae, patriae meae.
- Amīcus populum Italiae nōn amat.
- Quis equum bonum Galbae agricolae cūrat?
- Ubi, Mārce, est Lesbia ancilla?
- Ad casam parvam Iūliae filiae agricolae properat.
§ 86, p. 37Edit
- In the village there is a good sailor.
- Sextus is a friend of the good sailor.
- Sextus gives a helmet to the good sailor.
- The Roman people praise the good sailor.
- Sextus carries the booty with the good sailor.
- Where, good sailor, are the arms and offensive weapons of the Roman lieutenant?
- The good sailors are hastening to war.
- The reputation of the good sailors is clear.
- Battles are pleasing to good sailors.
- The townsmen are caring for the good sailors.
- Why, good sailors, are the wicked farmers hastening to the Rhine?</ li>
- The bad farmers are fighting with the good sailors.
- Agricola malus cum praedā ad vīcum properat.
- Fāma agricolae malī bona nōn est.
- Cūr fīlia Galbae agricolae malō arma et tēla dat?
- Lesbia nautam bonum ad cēnam vocat.
- Cūr Lesbia cum nautā bonō ā/ex casā properat?
- Ubi, Sexte, est galea mea?
- Nautae bonī ad pūgnam dūram properant.
- Equī agricolārum malōrum parvī sunt.
- Populus Rōmānus nautīs bonīs pecūniam dat.
- Amīcī nautās bonōs cūrant.
- Cuius amīcī agricolīs malīs pūgnant?
§ 90, p. 38Edit
- The grain of the good land, of the bad sword, of the long war.
- Great firmness, great garrisons, o famous Vergil.
- O bad servant, o famous town, o bad son, (o) bad sons, of the bad son.
- Of the long river, the long rivers, of the long rivers, the fame of the great garrison.
- With small swords, with the famous goddesses, to the famous sailors.
- Of the many battles, of great spoils / to great spoils, to the hard battles.
- Germany, the fatherland of the Germans, is a famous land. In Germany there are many rivers. The great and wide Rhine is a river of Germany. In the wide forests of Germany there are many wild beasts. Many Germans live in great towns and in small villages and many are good farmers. The wars of the Germans are great and famous. The people of Germany love war and battles, and they often fight with their neighbours. The river Rhine is near to many famous towns.
§ 95, p. 40Edit
Great is the fame of Italy, the fatherland of the Romans, and famous is Rome mistress of the world. Who does not praise the Tiber, the Roman river, and the beautiful fields neighbouring the river? Who does not praise the high walls, the long and hard wars, and the famous victories? Beautiful is the land of Italy. The good fields give farmers great rewards, and the farmers' horses carry plenty of grain / an abundance of wheat to the towns and villages. In the fields of the Roman people labour many slaves. The roads of Italia are long and wide. Neighbouring Italy is the island of Sicily.
§ 96, p. 41Edit
Cornelius: Where, O Marcus, is your son? Is he in the beautiful land of Italy?
Marcus: He is not in Italy, O Cornelius. He is hastening to the river Rhine with the Roman troops because there is a rumour of a new war with the Germans. The free people of Germany do not love the Romans.
C: Is your son a lieutenant of the Roman troops?
M: A lieutenant he is not, but he is among the legionary soldiers.
C: What (kind of) arms does he bear / carry?
M: He bears a large shield and a hard coat of mail and a beautiful helmet.
C: What (kind of) weapons of offense does he bear / carry?
M: He bears a sword and a long spear.
C: Does the lieutenant love your son?
M: He does, and he often gives my son beautiful rewards and many spoils.
C: Where is the land of the Germans?
M: The land of the Germans, O Cornelius, is beside the Rhine, the great and deep river.
§ 99, p. 43Edit
- Marcus accounces his plan to his friend Sextus.
- There is plenty of grain in our fields.
- My friends are praising the good dinner of your maidservant.
- Your coat of mail, O my son, is hard.
- Our shields and spears, my friend, are in the Roman camp.
- Are not the men of your fatherland free? Yes, they are.
NB: liberi could also mean "children", but then the sentence wouldn't make sense.
- Where, O Cornelius, is your beautiful helmet?
- My helmet, O Sextus, is in my cottage.
- The long spear is yours, but the sword is mine.
- Julia loves her beautiful hens and the hens love their mistress.
- Our camp is your camp.
- There is plenty of booty / an abundance of spoils in your camp.
- Your friends often give food and money to the wretched and sick.
- Magister noster dīligentiam Mārcī laudat.
- Fīlius meus Sextus praedam suam in castra Rōmāna portat.
- Puellae tuae bonae aegrīs et miserīs auxilium dant.
- Sunt pūgnae crēbrae / proelia crēbra in vīcīs nostrīs.
- Ubi, mī fīlī, est cibus lēgātī?
- Castra sunt mea, sed tēla sunt tua.
§ 107, p. 45Edit
- The Romans, the famous people of Italy, are preparing for war. Out of their fields, villages, and towns the strong men are hastening to arms with great zeal. Already the lieutenants with legionary soldiers are hastening out of Italy to the Rhine, the deep and wide river of Germany, and servants carry food and wheat with horses and carts to the Roman camp. The germans are weak because of lack of good weapons, but the Romans, armed with helmets, coats of mail, shields, swords, and spears, are strong (or: but the armed Romans are strong because of their helmets, coats of mail, shields, swords, and spears).
- Agricolae validī Italiae māgnā cum dīligentiā in agrīs labōrant.
- Sextus lēgātus et fīlius Mārcus cum Germānīs pūgnant.
- Legiōnāriī Rōmānī pīlīs longīs armatī sunt.
- Ubi, Sexte, est Lesbia ancilla tua?
- Lesbia est cum amīcīs meīs in casā Galbae.
- Multī sunt aegrī aquā malā et inopiā cibī.
- Germaānī cum fīliīs fīliabusque (cum) equīs et carrīs properant / mātūrant.
§ 111, p. 47Edit
- Which cottage is Julia in? Julia is in neither cottage.
- The teacher gives a reward to no bad boy.
- One boy is a sailor, the other one is a farmer.
- Some men love the water, others love the land.
- Galba works alone with zeal.
- Is there any wagon in my field?
- Lesbia is the maid of one of the lords, Tullia is the maid of another lord.
- Lesbia prepares dinner alone.
- The dinner of no other maid is good.
- Lesbia gives dinner to no other man.
- Virī tōtīus Germāniae bellum parant.
- Alia oppida sunt magna, alia parva.
- Alius puer gallīnās amat, alius equōs.
- Iam praeda ūnīus oppidī est in castrō nostrō.
- Tōtus vīcus noster inōpiā īnfīrmus est.
- Populus in/ad alterum oppidum iam properat/mātūrat.
- Apud Rōmānōs inopia frūmentī nōn est. / Apud Rōmānōs nulla est inopia frūmentī.
§ 117, p. 49Edit
- Eam, eum, id, eōs, eās, ea laudat.
- Is carrus, ea fāma, iī magistrī, eae fēminae, id domicilium, ea domicilia.
- Id praesidium validum, apud eās fēminās īnfīrmās et aegrās, ea inopia cōnstantiae, ea cōnsilia crēbra.
- Altera fēmina suās gallīnās vocat.
- Alia fēmina eius gallīnās vocat.
- Gallus arma sua laudat.
- Gallus arma eius laudat.
- Is agricola agrōs eōrum saepe arat.
- Iī servī miserī dominum suum dēsīderant.
- Iī servī miserī dominus eōrum dēsīderant.
- Virī līberī patriam suam amat.
- Vīcōs et oppida eius amant.
§ 118, p. 50Edit
Marcus: Who is the man, Cornelius, with the little boy? Is he Roman and free?
Cornelius: He isn't a Roman, Marcus. That man is a slave and his dwelling place is in the forests of Gaul.
M: Is the boy a son of this slave or another?
C: The boy is the son of neither. He is the son of the lieutenant Sextus.
M: Where does the boy hurry to with that slave?
C: He is hurrying to Sextus' wide fields with the slave. All the grain is already ripe and a large number of slaves are working in the fields of Italy.
M: Are the Gauls farmers and do they plough the fields of their fatherland?
C: They aren't farmers. The Gauls love war, not agriculture. Among them the men fight and the women, with the help of the children, plough fields and prepare food.
M: Our teacher often tells us boys and girls pleasing stories of the Gauls, and he often praises them.
C: Bad is their fate and the wretched slaves often long for their fatherland with many tears.
§ 124, p. 53Edit
Sextus: Where are you, Marcus? Where is Quintus? Where are you, friends?
Marcus: I am with Quintus in the forest, Sextus. We are not alone; there are many other boys in the forest.
S: Now you are happy, but recently you weren't happy. Why were you wretched?
M: I was wretched because my friends were in another village and I was alone. Now I am among my companions. Now we are and will be happy.
S: Have you been to school today?
M: We weren't in school today, because the teacher was ill.
S: Will you be in school soon.
M: My friends will be there, but I will not be.
S: Why won't you be there? The teacher, often angry, doesn't praise your lack of zeal and industry.
M: I was recently ill and now I am weak.
§ 125, p. 53Edit
- Es, estis, erātis, eris, eritis.
- Sum, eram, erō.
- Est, erat, erit.
- Sumus, erāmus, erimus.
- Sunt, erant, erunt.
- Cūr nōn erās in lūdō hodiē? Eram aeger/aegra.
- Nūper erat nauta, nucn est agricola, mox erit magister.
- Hodiē sum laetus/laeta, sed nūper eram miser/misera.
- Magistrī erant laetī dīligentiā puerōrum.
§ 131, p. 56Edit
- we call (act.ind.praes.1st.pl), you hasten (act.ind.praes.2nd.pl.), they order (act.ind.praes.3rd.pl.)
- you move (act.ind.praes.2nd.pl.), you praise (act.ind.praes.2nd.sg.), you see (act.ind.praes.2nd.sg.)
- you destroy (act.ind.praes.2nd.pl.), you have (act.ind.praes.2nd.pl.), they give (act.ind.praes.3rd.pl.)
- you hasten (act.ind.praes.3rd.sg.), he longs for (act.ind.praes.3rd.sg.), we see (act.ind.praes.1st.pl.)
- he orders (act.ind.praes.3rd.sg.), they move (act.ind.praes.3rd.pl.), he kills (act.ind.praes.3rd.sg.)
- we tell (act.ind.praes.1st.pl.), you move (act.ind.praes.2nd.sg.), they see (act.ind.praes.3rd.pl.)
- you labour (act.ind.praes.2nd.pl.), they hasten (act.ind.praes.3rd.pl.), you carry (act.ind.praes.3rd.sg.), they prepare (act.ind.praes.3rd.pl.)
- he destroys (act.ind.praes.3rd.sg.), you have (act.ind.praes.2nd.pl.), we order (act.ind.praes.1st.pl.), you give (act.ind.praes.2nd.sg.)
- arāmus, arāmus, arāmus
- cūrant, cūrant, cūrant
- dās, habēs, habēs
- dēlēmus, dēsīderō, habitant
- vocat, vident, nārrāmus
- pūgnāmus, iubēmus, movet, parat
- labōrant, necāmus, nūntiās/nūntiātis
§ 135, p. 57Edit
- we were seeing, he was longing for, you were hastening
- they were giving, you were calling, we were destroying
- they do fight, you were praising, you were moving
- they were ordering, you were hastening, we were carrying
- you were giving, they were telling, you were labouring
- they were seeing, you were moving, we were announcing
- he was killing, I was moving, he was having, you were preparing
- habēbās/habēbātis, necābāmus, labōrābant
- movēbat, iubēbāmus, pūgnābāmus
- nārrābāmus, vidēbant, vocābant
- habitābant, dēsīderābam, dēlēbāmus
- dabās/dabātis, movēbās/movēbātis, nūntiābās/nūntiābātis
- cūrābant, arābat, laudābāmus
§ 136, p. 57Edit
Niobe, queen of the Thebans, was a beautiful woman yet proud. She was proud not only because of her beauty and the power of (her) husband but also due to her great number of children. For she had seven sons and seven daughters. But this pride was the cause of great sadness to the queen and the cause of hard/cruel punishment to her children.
§ 139, p. 58Edit
- you will move, you will praise, I shall plough
- you will destroy, you will call, they will give
- you will hasten, he will long for, we shall see
- he will have, they will move, he will kill
- we will tell, you will advice, they will see
- you will work, they will care for, you will give
- we will live, you will hasten, they will order, he will prepare
- I shall announce, we shall carry, I shall order
- nūntiābimus, vidēbimus, mātūrābō/properābō
- portābo, arābit, cūrābunt
- nūntiābis/nūntiābitis, movēbis/movēbitis, dabis/dabitis
- pūgnābimus, dēlēbimus, dēsīderābō
- vocābit, vidēbunt, nārrābitis
- habitābunt, iubēbimus, laudābit
- labōrābunt, necābimus, habēbis/habēbitis, dēlēbit
§ 140, p. 59Edit
Apollo and Diana were children of Latona. The Thebans prepared frequent sacrifices to/for them. The townspeople loved Latona and her children. This was troublesome to the proud queen. "Why?" said the queen, "are you preparing sacrifices for Latona and her children? Latona has two children; I have fourteen. Where are my sacrifices?" Latona, angry because of these words, calls her children. Apollo and Diana fly to her, and destroy the wretched children of the proud queen with their arrows. Niobe, recently happy, now wretched, sits among her slain children and longs for them with perpetual tears.
§ 145, p. 60Edit
- The Romans have land fit for agriculture.
- The Gauls were hostile to the Roman troops.
- To whom was the goddess Latona not friendly?
- The goddess Latona was not friendly to the proud queen.
- Our food, Marcus, will be pleasing to the armed men.
- What was annoying to the people of Italy?
- The long wars with the Gauls were annoying to the people of Italy.
- The fields of the Germans were neighbouring to the Rhine river.
- The Romans moved the camp to the forest close to the town.
- Not only the beauty of the queen but also her pride was great.
- Soon the beautiful queen will be sick with sorrow.
- Why was Niobe, the queen of the Thebans, happy? Niobe was happy because of her many sons and daughters.
- Sacra populī superbae rēgīnae molesta erunt.
- Sacra nōn sōlum Lātōnae sed etiam Diānae grāta erant.
- Diāna inimīcos Lātōnae dēlēbit.
- Poena rēgīnae superbae deae Diānae grāta erat.
- Rōmānī cōpiās ad māgnum agrum castrīs idōneum movēbunt.
- Aliī sociī erant Rōmānīs amīcī, aliī Gallīs.
§ 146, p. 61Edit
Among the ancient ladies, Cornelia, daughter of Africanus, was especially famous. Her sons were Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus. These boys lived with Cornelia in the town of Rome, the most famous town of Italy. There Cornelia took care of them and there she taught them with great zeal. Cornelia was a good woman, and she loved good discipline most of all.
§ 149, p. 62Edit
- Who is driving? Why does he come? Whom does he send? Whom are you leading?
- What do they send? To whom do they come? Whose camp do they fortify?
- Whom do they drive? We are coming. What does the boy find?
- Whom do we send? Whose horse are you (pl.) leading? What do they say?
- We are fortifying, you (pl.) are coming, he says.
- We are driving, you (pl.) find, you (sg.) are fortifying.
- You (sg.) find, you (pl.) lead, you (sg.) are saying.
- You (pl.) drive, we hear, we rule.
- Quid reperiunt? Quem audiunt? Cūr venit?
- Cuius castra mūnīmus? Cui dīcit? Quid dīcimus?
- Agō, dūcis/dūcitis, audiunt.
- Mittis/mittitis, dīcit, mūnīs/mūnītis.
- Veniō, reperīmus, mittunt.
- Dūcunt, agis/agitis, mūnit.
- Dūcitis, reperītis, regitis.
§ 150, p. 62Edit
Next to the dwelling place of Cornelia was the abode of the beautiful Campana. Campana was proud not only because of her beauty but most of all because of her jewels. She was always praising them. “Do you have any jewels, Cornelia?” she says. “Where are your jewels?” Then Cornelia calls her sons Tiberius and Gaius. “My boys”, she says, “are my jewels. For good children always are especially bright jewels for a good woman.”
§ 152, p. 64Edit
- He was driving, he was coming, he was sending, they were leading.
- They were driving, they were sending, you were leading, they were fortifying.
- We were sending, you were leading, they were saying.
- We were fortifying, you were coming, you were saying.
- You were sending, we were coming, he was finding.
- You were finding, you were coming, you were hearing.
- We were driving, you were finding, he was fortifying.
- You were driving, I was saying, I was fortifying.
- Dūcēbant, agēbās,/ agēbātis, mūniēbat.
- Mittēbant, reperiēbāmus, veniēbam.
- Mittēbās / mittēbātis, mūniēbās / mūniēbātis, dīcēbat.
- Audiēbant, dūcēbās / dūcēbātis, agēbam.
- Dīcēbāmus, mittēbat, mūniēbam.
- Veniēbant, audiēbat, reperiēbam.
- Regēbās / regēbātis, veniēbāmus, regēbant.
§ 155, p. 65Edit
- Do you believe the words of the allies? Many don’t believe their words.
- My neighbours do not favour your advice, because they are eager for war.
- Tiberius and Gaius did not resist the hard discipline and they obeyed Cornelia.
- The goddess was hostile to the seven daughters of the queen.
- A hard punishment and perpetual sorrow will not persuade the queen.
- Recently she was resisting and now she resists the power of Latona.
- Soon the arrows will fly and injure the wretched children.
§ 158, p. 66Edit
- He will say, you will lead, we shall fortify.
- They will say, you will say, we shall send.
- They will fortify, they will come, they will send, they will drive.
- He will lead, you will send, he will come, he will drive.
- He will fortify, you will find, we will drive.
- I shall send, we shall come, they will rule.
- You will hear, you will come, you will find.
- He will find, I shall drive, we shall lead, he will send.
- You will see, I shall sit, we shall call.
- Reperiam, audiet, venient.
- Mūniam, mittet, dīcēmus.
- Agam, dūcēs / dūcētis, audient.
- Mittēs / mittētis, mūniēs / mūniētis, dīcet.
- Veniam, reperiēmus, mittent.
- Quis fābulae crēdet? Ego fābulae crēdam.
- Cuius amīcīs favētis? Amīcīs nostrīs favēmus.
- Quis armīs nostrīs resistet? Sextus armīs vestrīs resistet.
- Quis eī persuādēbit? Iī eī persuādēbunt / Illī eī persuādēbunt.
- Cūr equō meō nocēbās? Nōn nocēbam equō tuō.
- Cui servus bonus pāret? Servus bonus magistrō (suō) pāret.
- (Virī) nostrī aliī pūgnae studēbant / Nostrī novō proeliō studēbant.
NB: Nostrī and vestrī can be used as substantives for “our men” and “your men” respectively.
§ 161, p. 68Edit
§ 162, p. 68Edit
- They will flee, they do, he threw.
- Destroy, announce (pl.), they flee.
- Come (pl.), say, you will make.
- Lead (pl.), I shall throw, they fled.
- Do, we threw, we flee, seize (pl.).
- Sit (pl.), find, teach (pl.).
- We shall flee, they will throw, you will seize.
- They will find, you seized (pl.), they do harm.
- Favour (pl.), resist, you will obey (pl.).
- Fly to many lands and give help.
- I will take my weapons and I will destroy many wild beasts.
- Who will believe your story?
- Be good, boys, and hear the pleasing words of the teacher.
- Dea arma rapiet et tēla iaciet.
- Tēlīs multās ferās dēlēbit.
- Auxilium dabit īnfīrmīs.
- Ad multās terrās volābit et ferāe fugient.
- Nārrate, Rōmānī, līberīs fābulam clāram.
§ 167, p. 70Edit
- you are praised, you praise, it is given, he gives.
- It will be given, he will give, you are seen, you see.
- He called, he was called, you will destroy, you will be destroyed.
- He was prepared, he prepared, you care for, you are cared for.
- They were carried, they carried, we will be seen, we will see.
- You are ordered, you order, you were praised, you praised.
- You will be moved, you will move, they were given, they were giving.
- They are destroyed, they destroy, we were prepared, we prepared.
- Parāmus, parāmur, vocābor, vocābō, portābās / portābātis, portābāris / portābāre / portabāminī.
- Video, videor, nūntiābātur, nūntiābat, iubēbunt, iubēbuntur.
- Necāberis / necābiminī, necābis / necābitis, movēs / movētis, movēris / movēminī, laudāmus, laudāmur.
- Vocor, vocō, habēbis / habēbitis, cūrāris / curāminī.
- Videntur, vident, docēbāmus, docēbāmur, movēbunt, movēbuntur.
§ 168, p. 71Edit
Perseus was the son of Juppiter, the greatest of the gods. The poets tell many stories about him. The gods favour him, they give him magical armour and wings. Armed with these weapons and supported by the wings he flew to many lands, destroyed savage monsters and gave aid to the wretched and the weak. Ethiopia is a land of Africa. Cepheus rules this land. Neptunus, the greatest god of the waters, was angry with him and he sends a savage monster to Ethiopia. There the monster not only harmed the wide and beautiful fields of Ethiopia, but also destroyed the dwellings of the farmers and killed many men, women and children. The people fled from the fields and fortified the towns with strong walls. Then Cepheus, moved by great sadness, hurries to Juppiter’s oracle and speaks as follows: “My friends are killed, my fields are being devastated. Hear my words, Juppiter. Give help to the wretched. Drive the savage monster out of my fatherland.”
§ 170, p. 72Edit
- He drove, he was driven, he sent, he was sent, he led.
- They drive, they are driven, they are sent, they send, they fortify.
- I am sent, I will be sent, I shall send, you will be led, you are led.
- We will be said, we say, we shall say, we are said, you (pl.) were fortified.
- He is led, you (pl.) are led, we are found, I shall be found, he is driven.
- We drove, we were driven, you are found, you will be found.
- You are fortified, I was coming, I was led, it will be said.
- You are sent, you sent, you will be sent, you are sent, you were driven.
- It is said, he says, they are fortified, they will find, they will be heard.
- Agēbar, agēbam, dūcēbāmus, dūcēbāmur, dīcit, dīcitur.
- Mittam, mittar, reperiēs, reperiēris, dūcunt, dūcuntur.
- Reperior, dūcimur, aguntur, dūcēbāris / dūcēbāminī.
- Agēmus, agēmur, dūcit, dūcitur, venient, mūnientur.
- Regēbant, regēbantur, mittēs / mittētis, mittēris / mittēminī, mitteris / mittiminī.
- Dūcēbatur, veniet, dīceris / dīciminī.
§ 171, p. 73Edit
Then the oracle answers as follows: “Bad is your fortune. Neptunus, the great god of the waters, (who is) hostile to the land of Ethiopia, sends these punishments. But prepare a suitable offering for the angry god and the savage monster will be driven from your fatherland. Your daughter Andromeda is pleasing to the monster. Give her to the monster. Save your dear fatherland and the life of your people.” Andromeda, however, was a beautiful girl. Cepheus loved her very much.
§ 174, p. 74Edit
§ 175, p. 74Edit
docē, docēte, docēre, docēminī
sedē, sedēte, sedēre, sedēminī
volā, volāte, volāre, volāminī
cūrā, cūrāte, cūrāre, cūrāminī
mitte, mittite, mittere, mittiminī
dūce, dūcite, dūcere, dūciminī
mūnī, mūnīte, mūnīre, mūnīminī
reperī, reperīte, reperīre, reperīminī
iace, iacite, iacere, iaciminī
rape, rapite, rapere, rapiminī
§ 176, p. 75Edit
- Then Perseus with his wings will fly to many lands.
- The savage monster hastens through the waters and will soon devastate our fields.
- If, however, Cepheus will hasten to the oracle, the oracle will answer as follows.
- Who will be conquered by the weapons of Perseus? Many monsters will be conquered by his weapons.
- With great cares and many tears the farmers are driven from their dear homes.
- Many places will be laid waste and many towns will be destroyed.
- The monster is strong, yet it will be overcome.
- Will you always believe the words of the oracle? I will not always believe them.
- Will Cepheus obey the oracle? The words of the oracle will persuade them.
- If we will not flee, the town will be taken and the townsmen will be killed.
- Call the boys and tell the famous story about the savage monster.
- Volā, cūrārī, mittiminī, dūc.
- Dūcere, dūcī, rapiminī, mūnī.
- Iacī, volāre, mitte, reperīrī.
- Mittī, dūciminī, iacere, capī.
- Reperī, audīte, regiminī, mūnīrī.
§ 177, p. 76Edit
§ 182, p. 78Edit
- The men, (who are) tired because of lack of food, will leave from that place.
- The Germans approached the Roman camp, nevertheless the lieutenant kept the troops from the battle.
- Many towns of the Gauls will be taken by the Romans.
- Then the Romans will kill all the people of these towns with swords and spears.
- The townsmen will resist the Romans, but they will flee, tired from the long battle.
- Many fled out of Gaul and lived in the villages of the Germans.
- The wretched sailors are wounded by savage enemies and are in need of food.
- Leave and give the men grain and plenty of wine.
- Our troops were kept from the battle by the lieutenant Sextus.
- That town was far away from the Roman province.
- Nautae dēfessī locō deae Diānae cārō appropinquābant. 2.
- Cibō et vīnō egēbant. Sine cibō, sine vinō erant.
- Tum Galba et septem aliī (virī) ā Sextō ad īnsulam antīquam mittuntur.
Tum Galba semtemque aliī (virī) ā Sextō ad īnsulam antīquam mittuntur.
- Iam ā terrā nōn longē absunt, et altō in locō (virōs) armātōs vident.
- Pīlīs sagittīsque ā virīs ab terrā prohibentur.
- Virī māgnō (cum) studiō tēla dē locō altō iaciēbant.
§ 188, p. 80Edit
Marcus: Where have you been, Titus and Quintus? Titus: I've been to my school and Quintus has been to his school. We've been good boys. Has Sextus been in the village today? M: He has. He was hurrying through the fields near the river recently. There he and Cornelius have a boat. T: A boat, you say? Tell someone else that story! M: Yes, truly, a beautiful new boat. Quintus: With whose money do Sextus and Cornelius prepare that boat? Who gives them the money? M: The friends of Cornelius have much gold and the boy doesn't lack money. T: Where will the boys sal to? Will they sail far from land? M: Their plans are doubtful. But today, I believe, if the wind is (will be) suitable, they will sail to the biggest island. They have been there before already. Then, however, the wind was treacherous and the boys were in great danger. Q: Water moved by the wind is always hostile to sailors, and often the treacherous wind seizes the boats and drives and destroys them. Those boys, if they won’t be very careful, will be overcome by the angry water and strong wind and thus be killed.
§ 189, p. 81Edit
- Ubi puerī anteā fuerant? In lūdō fuerant.
- Ubi Sextus fuerat? In agrō proximō fluviō fuerat.
- Quis hodiē cum Sextō fuit? Cornēlius cum eō fuit.
- Quis ita dīcit? Marcus.
- Sī ventus fuit idōneus, puerī in nāvigiō fuērunt.
- Mox cum puerīs nāvigābimus.
- Nōn erit perīculum, sī attentī fuerimus.
§ 193, p. 83Edit
Cepheus, moved very much by the adverse fortune, has left and has told the words of the oracle to the people of Ethiopia with many tears. The fate of Andromeda, a beautiful girl, was lamented by all the people, yet there was no help. Then Cepheus, filled with sadness (with a heart full of sadness) led his dear daughter out of the towngate to the water and bound her arms to hard rocks. Then the friends of the poor girl went far away and waited a long time for the savage monster.
Then Perseus, supported by wings, flew by chance over Ethiopia. He saw the people, Andromeda, and the tears and he went down to earth exceedingly astounded. Then Cepheus told him about all his worries and spoke as follows: I will obey the words of the oracle, and give my daughter for my fatherland; but if you will kill that monster and save Andromeda, I will give her to you.
§ 194, p. 84Edit
dederam, dederās, dederat, dederāmus, dederātis, dederant
portāverō, portāveris, portāverit, portāverimus, portāveritis, portāverint
dēlēveram, dēlēverās, dēlēverat, dēlēverāmus, dēlēverātis, dēlēverant
mōverō, mōveris, mōverit, mōverimus, mōveritis, mōverint
habueram, habuerās, habuerat, habuerāmus, habuerātis, habuerant
dīxerō, dīxeris, dīxerit, dīxerimus, dīxeritis, dīxerint
discesseram, discesserās, discesserat, discesserāmus, discesserātis, discesserant
fēcerō, fēceris, fēcerit, fēcerimus, fēceritis, fēcerint
vēneram, vēnerās, vēnerat, vēnerāmus, vēnerātis, vēnerant
mūnīverō, mūnīveris, mūnīverit, mūnīverimus, mūnīveritis, mūnīverint
§ 195, p. 85Edit
§ 196, p. 85Edit
- You have had, they have moved, they had sent.
- He has seen, you will have said, to have led.
- You have sent, they have obeyed, we had left.
- He has strengthened, I had given, I will have sent.
- We will have had, I have destroyed, he has obeyed, to have been.
- You had given, you will have strengthened, you had come, to have sent.
- You had come, to have made, you had given, you will have carried.
- Who had the words of the oracle moved? The words of the oracle had moved the people.
- To whom will Cepheus have told the words of the oracle? Cepheus will have told the words of the oracle to Perseus.
- Her friends shall have gone away from Andromeda.
- The fierce monster had destroyed many dwelling places.
- Where have you seen the monster? We have seen it in the water.
- What will the monster do? The monster will kill Andromeda.
- Pāruērunt, dēlēvimus, habuerō.
- Mīserimus, vēneram, mūnīvērunt.
- Discesseram, pāruit, mīsistī / mīsistis.
- Dēlēvisse, vīdisse, dederit, portāvērunt.
- Dēlēverat, mōvit, habuistī / habuistis.
- Dedī, mōverās / mōverātis, dīxerāmus.
- Fēceris / fēceritis, dūxerint, dedisse.
- Quis mōnstrum vīderat? Andromeda id vīderat.
- Cūr virī ex oppidīs discesserant? Discesserant quia mōnstrum vēnerat.
- Pāruitne Cēpheus ōrāculō? Pāruit.
§ 198, p. 86Edit
|amō, amāre, āmāvī||parō, parāre, parāvī||do, dare, dedī||laudō, laudāre, laudāvī|
|dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī||habeō, habēre, habuī||moveō, movēre, mōvī||pāreō, pārēre, pāruī|
|videō, vidēre, vīdī||dīcō, dīcere, dīxī||discēdō, discēdere, discessī||dūcō, dūcere, dūxī|
|vidē||dīcite (dīc)||discēdite||dūcite (dūc)|
|mittō, mittere, mīsī||capiō, capere, cēpī||mūniō, mūnīre, mūnīvī||veniō, venīre, vēnī|
§ 200, p. 87Edit
Perseus was always eager for battle and he answered: “Your words are very pleasing,” and gladly* he prepared his magical armour. Suddenly the monster is seen; it hastens quickly through the water and approaches Andromeda. Her friends are far away and the poor girl is alone. Perseus, however, flew over the water without delay. Suddenly he came down and wounded the savage monster severely with his hard sword. For a long time the battle is fought, for a long time the fight is doubtful. Finally, however, Perseus killed the monster and carried back the victory. Then he came to the stone, freed Andromeda, and led her to Cepheus. He, recently wretched, now glad, spoke as follows: “with your help, my friend, my dear girl is free; Andromeda is yours.” For a long time Perseus lived there with Andromeda and was loved greatly by all the people.
- laetus is an adjective describing Perseus, but it is more fluently translated as an adverb.
§ 202, p. 88Edit
monita sum, monita eram, monita erō
rēcta sum, rēcta eram, rēcta erō
capta sum, capta eram, capta erō
audita sum, audita eram, audita erō
§ 205, p. 89Edit
§ 206, p. 89Edit
laudāre, laudāvisse, laudātūrus esse
monēre, monuisse, monitūrus esse
regere, rēxisse, rēctūrus esse
capere, cēpisse, captūrus esse
audīre, audīvisse, audītūrus esse
§ 207, p. 90Edit
- The story of Andromeda was told.
- Many stories have been told by the teacher.
- The field had been plowed by the strong farmer.
- The fields had been plowed by the strong farmers.
- The gold will have been carried by the treacherous slave to his (own) dwelling place.
- Our weapons were praised by the lieutenant. Who has praised your weapons?
- We were called to dinner by your maid.
- Andromeda was not given to the monster because the monster had been killed by Perseus.
- Prōvinciae vāstātae sunt, ager vāstātus erat, oppida vāstāta erunt.
- Ōrācula audīta sunt, ōrāculum audītum est, ōrācula audīta erant.
- Ōrāculum audītum erit, prōvincia capta erat, nāvigia capta sunt.
- Agrī vāstātī sunt, vir monitus est, puellae monitae erunt.
- Oppida rēcta erant, captī / captae erimus, audītus / audīta eris, auditī / audītae eritis.
§ 211, p. 93Edit
- Did Cornelia not have the ornaments of gold? Yes, she did.
- Sextus was not holding a shield on his left arm, was he? Not on the right; but Sextus was holding his shield on his left arm.
- Many wars had been waged in vain by the Gauls.
- When the town was occupied by the treacherous Sextus, the wretched townsmen were slain by the sword (put to the sword).
- This town was full of grain.
- Did Sextus not demand grain from the townsmen? Yes, but they refused to give him grain.
- Why was the town destroyed by Sextus? Because grain was refused.
- That victory was not doubtful.
- The townsmen were weary and lacked weapons.
- They did not attempt flight, did they? Not at all.
- Ubi Iūlia stābat? Ubi iusserās stābat/ stābat ubi iusserās.
- Gerēbatne Iūlia ūlla ōrnāmenta?
Ūllane Iūlia gerēbat ōrnāmenta?
Ōrnāmentane Iūlia gerēbat?
Habēbat multa aurī ōrnāmenta.
- Nōnne fugam temptāvit ubi perīculum vidit? Temptavit.
- Quis eam cēpit? Galba eam sine morā cēpit et bracchiō sinistrō (eam) tenuit.
- Num habēbat aurum dominae? Nōn; aurum ā perfidā ancillā captum erat et reportātum est.
§ 217, p. 95Edit
- The school’s teacher ordered the children to work with diligence.
- To be without food and wine is annoying for the men.
- The armed men forbade the Gauls to pitch camp in that place.
- Is the lieutenant in the fort or on the wall? He is in front of the gate.
- When our men began to flee, the lieutenant was captured by your men.
- The Gauls had stormed the fort there, where the garrison was weak.
- Some were trying to fight, others were attacking the gates.
- The women were sitting in front of (their) dwelling places and were not able to resist the strong Gauls.
- War is savage; it favours neither the weak nor the wretched.
- But the men demanded weapons and were eager to drive the Gauls down from the walls.
- For this fort to be occupied by Gauls will not be pleasing to the Romans.
- The Gauls, when conquered by the Romans, ceased to be free.
- You can not live long without water.
- Puella aquam cotīdiē ā fluviō ad portās portāre incēpit.
- Gallī castra in locō proeliō idōneō posuerant.
- Diū castellum occupāre frūstrā temptābant. (§ 190, a)
- Neque iacere tela in mūrōs cessāvērunt.
- Sed oppidum capere nōn poterant.
§ 218, p. 95Edit
Once upon a time the Sabines were waging war with the Romans and had gained many victories. Already they were laying waste the fields next to the walls; already they were approaching the town. However the Romans had fled onto the Capitol and were far away from peril. They believed in strong walls and high rocks. In vain the Sabines hurled their weapons; in vain they attacked the strong gates; they could not take possession of the fort. Then they made a new plan. Tarpëia was a pretty, proud Roman girl. Daily she carried water to the Roman troops. The Sabines did not harm her because she had no weapons and the Sabines did not wage war with women and children. Tarpëia loved ornaments made of gold very much. Daily she saw the gold ornaments of the Sabines and soon she began to long for them. One of the Sabines said to her: “Lead the Sabine forces within the gates, O Tarpëia, and very great will be your rewards.”
§ 228, p. 99Edit
- Who is sick? The slave whom I love is sick.
- Whose shield do you have? I have the shield that the lieutenant sent to the fort.
- To whom will the lieutenant give his shield? He will give the shield to my son.
- Where did the ancient Germans live? The ancient Germans lived on the land that is next to the Rhine.
- With whom were the Germans in the habit of waging war? The Germans used to wage war with the Romans, who were eager to overcome them.
- Which men are pitching camp? These are the men by whose arms the Germans were conquered.
- Which weapons do your forces lack? Our forces lack swords and spears.
- By whom was the left gate being held? The left gate was being held by (our) allies.
- Which provinces have been occupied by the Romans. Many provinces have been occupied by the Romans.
- Which men will the Gods favour? The Gods will favour good men.
- Quam victōriam nūntiābis/nūntiābitis?
- Victōriam quam nautae reportāvērunt populō nūntiābō.
- Virī quī castra ponēbant pugnae studēbant.
- Tamen mox ā cōpĭīs quās Sextus mīserat victī sunt.
- Cōpĭīs nostrīs resistere nōn poterant, sed ab eō locō sine morā fūgērunt.
§ 229, p. 100Edit
Tarpëia, excited because of the Sabines’ beautiful ornaments, could not resist and replied: “Give the ornaments that you wear on (your) left arms to me, and I shall quickly lead your forces into the fort.” And the Sabines did not refuse; but through the tough, great gates of the fort they hastened to where Tarpëia led (them) and soon they stood between the firm and high walls. Then, without delay, they harshly threw (their) shields onto Tarpëia; for they were also bearing shields on their left arms! Thus was the treacherous girl, Tarpëia, killed; in this way did the Sabines take possession of the fort.
§ 234, p. 103Edit
- Neither the foot-soldiers nor the cavalrymen were able to take possession of the Roman fort.
- With extremely great they attacked the high walls daily.
- The feet of the soldiers were often wounded by the stones that were being thrown down from the wall.
- Which new plan did the leader make?
- He tempted the faithless girl with beautiful ornaments.
- What did the girl do?
- The girl, excited by the gold, led the soldiers through the gates.
- Yet she did not gain the rewards that she had asked for with the greatest eagerness.
- Among the ancient Romans Tarpëia was not praised.
- Quod navigium est illud quod videō? Illud navigium est Victōria; id nunc ventō idōneō/ secundō navigat et mox Italiae adpropinquābit.
- Iūdicēs barbarōs rapī et interficī/necārī iussērunt.
- Prīncipēs barbarōrum subitō fugere incēpērunt, sed celeriter ab equitibus captī sunt.
- Rēx peditēs ad mūrum, dē quō oppidānī lapidēs maximō (cum) studiō iaciēbant, dūxit.
§ 237, p. 105Edit
- Do you hear the trumpets, Marcus? Not only do I hear the trumpets, but I can also see the rows of soldiers and the wagons full of baggage.
- What legions do we see? These legions have recently come from Gaul.
- What have they done there? Were they eager to fight or were they without courage?
- They have fought many battles and have brought back great victories and many prisoners.
- Who is the commander in chief of these legions? Caesar, the greatest general of the Romans.
- Who is the horseman who is wearing a beautiful wreath? That horseman is my brother. The wreath has been given to him by the consul because he had fought with the greatest courage and had saved our fatherland from barbarians.
- Quis patrem meum hodiē vīdit?
- Eum nūper vīdī. Ad domicilium tuum cum mātre et sorōre tuīs (tuā) properābat.
- Homines ubi ā patriā longē absunt et cibō egent iniūriā continērī nōn possunt.
- Salūs mīlitum Caesarī imperātōrī cāra est.
- Prīncipēs oppidum frūmentī plēnum quod ā cōnsule tenēbātur oppūgnāre studēbant.
- Rēx captīvōrum impedīmenta dēlērī vetuit.
§ 239, p. 106Edit
- When the savages took Rome, they destroyed the greatest works of the kings.
- The Romans have received (suffered) many defeats from the savages.
- When the fear among the townspeople was greatest, their doubtful (wavering) spirits were strengthened by the famous orator.
- Rome is on the bank of a big river.
- When Caesar, the commander in chief, ordered his soldiers to take their weapons, they could not be restrained from the battle.
- When the battle was fought, the general could not be found.
- The general had been wounded by a arrow in the head and could not stand.
- A foot soldier has carried him from the battle with great labour (effort).
- He has held the general with his arms and saved him from the greatest dangers.
- For his courage the good soldier has received a crown from the general.
- Cōnsul corōnam in capite victōris posuit.
- Ante portās ab oppidānīs acceptus est.
- Ōrātor clārus eum laudāvit et dīxit: “Labōribus tuīs patriam ā calāmitāte servāvistī.”
- Verba ōrātōris victōrī grāta fuērunt.
- Patriam servāre opus magnum erat.
§ 240, p. 107Edit
Once upon a time the Cimbri and the Teutons, people of Germany, had approached Italy with their wives and children, and they had conquered the Roman forces with a very great battle. When the flight of the legions was announced, the fear of all Rome was very great, and the Romans, heavily moved, made frequent sacrifices to the gods and sought safety.
Then Manlius, the orator, strengthened the hearts of the people as follows: “We have suffered (received) a great defeat. Our towns are taken by the Cimbri and the Teutons, our farmers are killed, our fields are laid waste, the troops of the savages are approaching Rome. If we, therefore, do not fight a new battle with new spirits and drive the Germans out of our fatherland without delay, there will be no safety for our women and children. Save the children! Save our fatherland! Previously, we were overcome because our generals were weak. Now Marius, the famous general, who has gained many other victories already, will lead the legions and he will hasten to free our minds from the Cimbrian terror.”
At that time, Marius was waging war in Africa. He was called from Africa to Italy without delay. He made a levy of new troops not only on the whole of Italy but also on the provinces of the allies. Moreover, he trained the soldiers with severe discipline and continuous labour. Then he quickly hastened with the foot soldiers and the horsemen, who were already eager for battle, to the camp of the Germans. The battle was long and fiercely contested. At last, the savages fled and many were killed by the horsemen during their flight. Marius was called father of the fatherland.
§ 245, p. 109Edit
- Which city do we see? The city you see is Rome.
- The Roman citizens had strengthened their city with high towers and long walls.
- The winds prevented the men-of-war from approaching the territory of the enemies.
- The general has received golden spurs and other decorations from his retainers.
- The Roman soldiers have waged fierce wars with/against the enemies and have conquered/defeated them with great slaughter.
- Some animals love the land, others the sea.
- The men-of-war that were carrying aid to the general have been destroyed by the enemies with fire.
- In this sea we have seen many birds that had flown far away from land.
- Haven’t you seen the men-of-war of the enemies and the fires that our city was being destroyed with? Yes, but we have seen neither the slaughter of the citizens nor the flight of the retainers.
- Birds and other animals have quickly begun to seek safety by flight when they saw the fire.
- The judge didn’t stand in the ranks of foot soldiers, did he? Not at all, the judge was among the horsemen and his horse wore a beautiful decoration.
- Inopiā frūmentī animālia vīcī vīvere nōn poterant.
- Imperātor, ubi fāmam audīvit, equitem ad vīcum celeriter mīsit.
- Eques equum pulchrum habēbat et calcāria aurea/aurī gerēbat.
- Cīvibus dīxit: “Clientēs vestrōs cum equīs et carrīs ad castra nostra mittite, et cōpiam frūmentī accipiētis.”
- Animīs laetīs mātūrāvērunt verbīs eius pārēre.
§ 248, p. 112Edit
|caedēs||f||long vowel (not ō) + s|
|calamitās||f||long vowel (not ō) + s|
|caput||n||caput is an exception|
|eques||m||-es (also a horseman is a masculine)|
|lapis||m||lapis is an exception (-is, usually feminine)|
|salūs||f||long vowel (not ō) + s|
|urbs||f||consonant + s|
§ 249, p. 112Edit
- The safety of the allies was always dear to the Romans. Once upon a time, the Gauls, friends of the Romans, had received many wrongs from the Germans, who lived across the Rhine river. When ambassadors came from them to Caesar, the Roman general, and asked for help, the Romans hurried with long (great) marches (= a forced march) to the territory of the enemies. Soon they came to the banks of the great river. The general was eager to lead his troops across the river, but he could by no way (do that). He had no ships. The water was deep. However, the distinguished commander, (who was) never moved by adverse fortune, made a new plan. He ordered his men to build a bridge over the wide river. Never before had a bridge been seen over the Rhine. When the enemies saw the bridge that the Romans had built, moved by the greatest fear, they began to prepare (their) flight without delay.
- Hostis/hostēs summum montem occupāverat/occupāverant.
- Erant multae arborēs in collibus adversīs.
- Castra ad pulchum fontem posuimus.
- Iter per hostium fīnēs numquam est sine perīculō.
- Tempus mēnsis idōneum erat itinerī.
- Dentēs monstrī erant longī.
- Peditēs, ubi sanguinem captīvōrum vīdērunt, moenia summā vī petere/oppūgnāre incēpērunt.
§ 256, p. 114Edit
|vir ācer||viri ācris, viro ācrī, virum ācrem, viro ācrī, viri ācrēs, virorum ācrium, viris ācribus, viros ācrīs/ācrēs, viris ācribus|
|legiō ācris||legiōnis ācris, legiōnī ācrī, legiōnem ācrem, legiōne ācrī, legiōnēs ācrēs, legiōnum ācrium, legiōnibus ācribus, legiōnēs ācrīs/ācrēs, legiōnibus ācribus|
|animal ācre||animālis ācris, animālī ācrī, animal ācre, animālī ācrī, animālia ācria, animālium ācrium, animālibus ācribus, animālia ācria, animālibus ācribus|
|ager omnis||agrī omnis, agrō omnī, agrum omnem, agrō omnī, agri omnēs, agrorum omnium, agrīs omnibus, agros omnīs/omnēs, agrīs omnibus|
|scūtum omne||scūti omnis, scūtō omnī, scūtum omne, scūto omnī, scūta omnia, scūtorum omnium, scūtīs omnibus, scūta omnia, scūtis omnibus|
|proelium pār||proeliī paris, proeliō parī, proelium pār, proeliō parī, proelia paria, proeliōrum parium, proeliīs paribus, proelia paria, proeliīs paribus|
§ 258, p. 115Edit
Once the Roman foot soldiers with the swift horsemen made a journey to the
enemies’ city. When they were not far away, they seized a farmer, who
explained to them a short and easy way. Already the Romans could see the
high walls, strong towers and other works of the city. On the walls there
stood many chiefs. When the chiefs saw the Romans, they order the citizens
to throw stones and other weapons from the walls. Then the brave soldiers
could not be kept from battle and the eager general ordered a signal with
the trumpet to be given. With the greatest force they all hastened. The
commander in chief commited all the baggage to his lieutenant, Sextus.
Sextus placed the baggage on the top of the hill. The battle was heavy and
keen, but the enemies were not equal to the Romans. Some were killed,
others were taken. Among the prisoners were the mother and sister of the
king. Only a few Romans were wounded by the enemies. The favourable battle
was pleasing to the Romans. Fortune always favours the brave.
- Aliī mēnsēs brevēs, aliī longī sunt/ Mēnsēs aliī longī aliī brevēs sunt.
- Summum montem occupāre erat difficile.
- Apud collēs Italiae sunt fontēs multī et pulchrī.
- Mīlitēs ibi sedēbant ubi impedīmenta conlocāta erant quia pedēs (eōrum) dēfessī erant.
- Urbs quam mīlitēs petere/oppūgnāre studēbant moenibus validīs et turribus altīs mūnīta erat.
- Nōnne rēx corōnam gravem aurī et omnem pecūniam suam servō perfidō mandāvit? Vērō, sed servus anteā perfidus numquam fuerat.
§ 261, p. 116Edit
- Before the arrival of Caesar, the swift horsemen of the enemies had made a fierce attack on the camp.
- To restrain the army from the battle was not easy.
- After his arrival, Caesar ordered the legionary soldiers to be led out of the camp.
- Before the camp there was a fight with the enemies’ cavalry.
- After a short time the cavalry fled across the river where the enemies’ camp was situated.
- Then the victorious commander in chief (apposition: victor, commander in chief) laid waste the fields and burned the villages of the enemies.
- However, he has not stormed the camp, because the soldiers were tired and the place difficult.
- The enemies did not cease to throw spears, which have injured only a few.
- After the adverse fight, the chiefs of the Gauls were eager to send ambassadors to Caesar, but they could not persuade the people.
- Vidistīne nāvem longam in lacū?
- Eam nōn in lacū sed in portū vidī.
- Ventō validō nauta frātrem nāvigāre vetuit.
- Num Caesar impetum equitātum ā cornū dextrō fecit?
- Minimē, impetum ā cornū sinistrō fecit.
- Quis vēlōcem equum tuum pārēre docuit?
- Manibus meīs equum exercuī, neque opus erat difficile.
- Pulchrum est animal et vīs habet magna.
§ 270, p. 119Edit
- In Corinth all decorations of gold had been seized by victorious leaders.
- Caesar has led the army to Geneva with long (large) marches.
- Which bridge had the enemy burnt? The enemy had burnt the bridge over the Rhine.
- At Pompeii you can see many houses of the Romans.
- The consul hastened from Rome to the country on (with) a swift horse.
- Many people were sitting in the house of the consul.
- The general had ordered the lieutenant to sail to Athens with many men-of-war.
- Before the walls of the city are rows of high trees.
- Because of the high trees we have not been able to find the lake and the harbour.
- Caesar drilled his legions that were in Gaul with many battles.
- Daily he pitched camp in a suitable place and fortified (it).
- Caesar, imperātor clārus, ubi Rōmā discesserat, equō vēlōcī ad prōvinciam Romānam properāvit.
- Fāmam dē sociīs Genāvae audīverat. Dē sociīs quī Genāvae erant fāmam audīverat.
- Post adventum Caesar mīlitēs convocāvit et eōs (eōsque) proelium committere iussit.
- Hostēs terga vertere properāvērunt, aliī quia timēbant, aliī propter vulnera.
- Nūper Athēnīs fuī et locum ubi iūdicēs sedēbant vīdī.
Nuper Athenis eram (fui) locumque vidi ubi sedebant iudices.
- Marcus et Sextus sunt frātrēs meī; alter Rōmae, alter rūrī habitat/vīvit.
§ 271, p. 121Edit
Crete is an ancient island that is beaten by the high water of the great sea. There Minos once upon a time was king. Daedalus, who was fleeing out of his fatherland, Greece, came to him. King Minos received him with kind words and gave him a dwelling place at Crete. And in this place Daedalus lived without worry and made many famous works for the king. After a long time, however, Daedalus began to long for his dear native land. He was eager to hasten home, but he could not persuade the king and the savage sea forbade flight.
§ 276, p. 122Edit
Galba the farmer. Galba the farmer lives in the country. Every day he begins
to work at daybreak, and he does not cease in his zeal before the night. At
midday his daughter Julia calls him to dinner. At night he turns his tired
feet home. In the summer the sons of the farmer give their father aid. At
winter the farmer sends them to school. There the teacher tells the boys many
stories about the exploits of Caesar. In the summer the sons of the farmer
practice with continuous labour and the heavy work of the fields is not
troublesome to them. Galba lives without any care and does not fear adversity.
- Eō mēnse fuērunt multa proelia in Galliā.
- Equitātus hostium impetum in Caesaris aciem fēcit.
- Prīmā hōrā noctis nāvis fluctibus superāta est.
- Secundō diē barbarī in Caesaris fidem venīre studēbant / studuērunt.
- Spē victōriae commōtus rēx proelium commīserat.
- Eō annō īgnis multās avēs aliaque animālia dēlēvit.
- Sanguinem in dentibus ferae vidēbāmus / vīdimus.
§ 277, p. 123Edit
Then Daedalus, moved by heavy troubles (heavily troubled), spoke as follows to his son Icarus: “My heart, Icarus, is full of sadness nor do my eyes lack tears. I am most of all eager to depart from Crete, to hasten to Athens; but the king refuses to listen to my words and takes away all hope of return. But I shall never be conquered by adversity. Land and sea are hostile, but I shall find another way of flight.” Then he directs his mind to unknown arts (notice the accusative plural in –īs) and makes a wonderful plan. For he places feathers in a row and makes true wings.
§ 281, p. 125Edit
doceō mē; docēs tē; docet sē; docēmus nōs; docētis vōs; docent sē.
§ 283, p. 125Edit
- My mother is dear to me and your mother is dear to you.
- Your letters were pleasing to us and our letters were pleasing to you.
- The messenger of the king, who is with us, will answer nothing.
- The messengers have demanded peace and friendship for them and their companions.
- If you will take up arms, I will seize the kingdom.
- Who of you both is a Roman citizen. Neither of us.
- At that time many suffered punishment because they had attacked the kingdom.
- Inflict punishment on the fierce enemies of our native land, Caesar.
- At daybreak some intrusted themselves to flight, moved by fear; others, however, sustained the attack of our army with great courage.
- When the sister of the king heard about the adverse (outcome of the) battle, she killed herself at Pompeii.
- Quem docēs? Mē doceō.
- Mīlitēs gladiō sē(sē) vulnerāvit.
- Magister nōs laudat, sed vōs nōn laudat / neque vōs laudat.
- Itaque supplicium dē vōbis sūmet, sed nōs supplicium nōn dabimus/ neque nōs supplicium dabimus. (according to my dictionary, supplicium as punishment usually means the death penalty. Beware ye lazy boys!)
- Quis Rōmam iter mēcum faciet?
- Tēcum ad portās urbis iter faciam.
- Quis nōbis viam dēmōnstrābit? Diī vōbis viam dēmōnstrābunt.
§ 284, p. 125Edit
The boy, Icarus, stood next to him (lit. stood in the same place) and saw his father’s wonderful work. After the finished touch (the last hand) had been put to the wings, Daedalus tried them and flew in the air(s) like a bird. Then he fastened wings to his son’s shoulders and taught him to fly and said: “I forbid you, my son, to approach either the sun or the sea. If you approach the waves, the water will harm your wings, and if you approach the sun, the fire will burn them.” Then father and sun begin their difficult journey. They move their wings and commit themselves to the air. But the foolish boy does not obey his father’s words. He approaches the sun. His wings are burned and Icarus falls down into the sea and loses his life. Daedalus, however, flew without any danger across the waves to the island of Sicily.
§ 288, p. 127Edit
- You and I are living in the same town.
- We are not afraid of the journey itself, but of the fierce wild beast that are said to be in the dense forest.
- Once upon a time we ourselves made the same journey.
- At that time we saw many wild beasts.
- But they have not injured us.
- Caesar himself snatched a shield out of the hands of a soldier and hastened to the very line of battle.
- Therefore the soldiers threw their spears into the enemies’ bodies with the greatest courage.
- The Romans too received severe wounds.
- Finally the enemies retreated and fled in all directions.
- The same hour a letter was sent to Rome by the general himself.
- The same month the prisoners were also sent to Italy.
- But many refused to make the difficult journey across the mountains because of their wounds, and were said to be in Geneva.
- Pompeiīs est mōns mīrus.
- (Ego) ipse, ubi (in) eō locō eram, eum montem vīdī.
- Eōdem diē multae urbēs īgne et lapidibus ex monte ipsō dēlētae sunt.
- Num vēram eius calamitātis fabulam audīvisti(s)?
- Eō diē sōl ipse hominibus lūcem dare nōn poterat.
- (Tū) ipse eam fābulam nōbis nārrāre dēbēs.
§ 289, p. 127Edit
When Tarquin the Proud, the seventh and last king of the Romans was expelled into banishment by the angry Romans, he asked Porsena, the king of the Etruscans for help. Soon Porsena cam to Rome with great forces, and the city itself was in great danger. In the whole region the Roman army had been conquered. The king had already seized the Janiculum. Never before were the Romans held by such great fear. They hastened form the fields into the city and fortified the town itself with the greatest zeal.
§ 294, p. 129Edit
That brave leader of the Germans called together his men, and strengthened
their spirits in this way. “I have called you, who live in this country,
together at this place, because you, together with me, have to free those
fields and houses (of you) from the wrongs of the Romans. This will not be
hard for us, because those enemies fear these dense forests, wild beast
whose footprints they see, and the high mountains. If we are strong, the
gods themselves will show us the way of safety. That sun, those eyes have
seen our losses. Therefore the name of that Roman republic is hateful not
only to us, but also to all people who love liberty. I call you to arms.
Practise that ancient courage and you will conquer.”
- Cantatne avis ista?
- Haec avis et aestāte et hieme cantat et vōcem pulchram habet / vōxque eius pulchra est.
- Illae avēs rūrī hieme nōn cantant.
- Ēripe pīlum ē manibus istīus mīlitis et domum mēcum venī.
- Istīs ipsīs oculīs vestigia vidēbis inimīcī invīsī, quī domicilium meum cremāvit et impetum in fratrem meum fēcit.
- Propter hās / eās rēs dē eō supplicium sine morā sūmere dēbēmus.
- Hostēs reī pūblicae supplicia nōn semper dant.
§ 295, p. 130Edit
One part of the city seemed sufficiently fortified by walls, the other part by the river. But there was a bridge over the river that nearly presented a way for the enemies. Then Horatius Cocles, a brave man, shouted (said with a great voice), “Cut down the bridge, Romans! Shortly Porsenna will lead his troops across (it) into the city.” Already there were enemies on the bridge, but Horatius with two companions hastened to the farthest part of the bridge, and these alone sustained the frontline of the enemy. Then the Roman citizens truly began to cut down the bridge in the rear, and the enemies tried in vain to overcome Horatius.
§ 298, p. 132Edit
- Someone fell from the bridge down into the river but he has been saved without any danger.
- There is in fact some good fortune in the life of every man.
- Not even any of the soldiers has stayed in the camp.
- If you see anyone at my house, order him to leave.
- If anyone holds the bridge, not even such a great army can take the city.
- The city was not sufficiently fortified and at midday a certain king had almost led his troops across the bridge.
- Finally a certain soldier leaped down in the waves (while) armed and turned his eyes to the other bank unharmed.
- Everyone ought to give that brave soldier something.
- Such courage has in fact always pleased the Romans.
- Once upon a time Corinth was a large enough city and almost equal to Rome itself; now, however, the walls have fallen down and just a few remains of that town can be found.
- Everyone loves liberty, and in fact the name of the king is hateful to anyone.
- Sī Cornēlius quendam Corinthī vīderis (future perfect), eum ad mē mitte.
- Paene omnēs mīlitēs quī in fluctūs dēcidērunt incolumēs erant/fuērunt.
- Nē Pompeiīs quidem tantum īgnem vīdī.
- (Ego) ipse/ipsa alicui aliquid nārrāre studuī.
- Quisque opus suum laudābat / Suum quisque laudabat opus.
- Vīdistīne rūrī quemquam? Quemquam nōn vīdī.
- Nisī quis cum Horātiō in ponte mānēbit, rēs pūblica summō erit in perīculō.
§ 299, p. 132Edit
Soon, when (only) a small part of the bridge remained, Horatius ordered his comrades to get away and sustained with wonderful firmness the attack of that entire army, alone. Finally the bridge fell down into the water with a great splash (noise). Then indeed did Horatius retreat and leaped armed into the waters. The enemies hurled many spears towards him; however, he swam across the waves to the other bank unharmed. Because of such great deeds the Roman people not only gave him other great rewards, but also placed a statue of Horatius in a public place.
§ 306, p. 134Edit
- What were the scouts seeking for? The scouts were seeking for the most opportune time for the march.
- In the middle of the wood we made fires as frequent as possible, because we had never before seen wild beasts so audacious.
- In ancient times the Germans were braver than the Gauls.
- Caesar was more famous than the enemies who killed him.
- Each person carried a huge shield and quite a long spear.
- Among the foreigners the Germans were the boldest and the bravest.
- The mind of men is quicker than their body.
- The men of some lands are very unfortunate.
- The bodies of the Germans were more huge (bigger) than those of the Romans.
- The very keen leaders of the Gauls led their very quick horses across a certain river without any delay.
- In the summer, the days are longer than in the winter.
- A certain commander in chief has asked (from) the scouts about the recent arrival of the men-of-war.
- Omnium avium vēlōcissima/celerrima est aquila.
- Quaedam animālia celerior sunt quam equus celerrimus.
- Nōmen Rōmānum invīsissimum erat hostibus reī pūblicae.
- Rōmānī dē sociīs perfidīs supplicium gravissimum semper sūmpsērunt.
- Aegrior eram, itaque ab urbe rūs properāvī.
- Mārcus aliquōs amīcōs cāriōrēs quam Caesarem habēbat.
- Nōnne dē proeliō fāmam recentiōrem quaesīvistī(s)?
- Nē post victōriam tam opportūnam quidem amīcitiam imperātōris quaesīvit.
§ 310, p. 136Edit
- No one saw soldiers more spirited than the Romans.
- The general ordered immediately messengers as swift as possible to carry letters to Rome.
- Many rivers are more gentle than the Rhine.
- Among the Romans who was more famous than Caesar?
- I have seen no city more beautiful than Rome.
- Suddenly a great number of very bold (soldiers) joined, with much clamour, the quite violent battle.
- Your horse is not slow, is it? No, it isn't slow but faster than the eagle.
- When I was in Rome, no one was more friendly to me than Sextus.
- Certain women wished to give grain to the soldiers.
- The king prohibited the citizens from leaving the city at night.
- That boy is more slender than this woman.
- The scouts showed two routes, one easier, the other more difficult.
- Quam urbem Roma pulchriorem vidisti/vidistis?
- Galli Germanis alacriores non erant/fuerunt.
- Aquila equo tardior non est.
- Mulier alacris noctu iter facere non timebat/timuit.
- Multitudinis animi/mentes leniores amicioresque erant.
- Sed regis mens dissimillima erat.
- Rex nobili patri suo similis non erat.
- Colles illi humiliores sunt quam finium nostrorum ingentes montes.
§ 314, p. 138Edit
- The remaining enemies, who had joined the battle on the right flank, fled from the higher ground and retreated into the largest forest.
- In the outermost part of the forest had been pitched the enemy's camp.
- Many prisoners were led to Caesar by the horsemen.
- However, Caesar ordered them to be delivered to slavery.
- In the next day a great multitude of women was discovered, in the lowest valley, by the Romans.
- These women, terrified throughly because of Caesar's arrival, were eager to kill themselves.
- They too had heard many stories about the crimes of the Roman army.
- The reputation of those soldiers was not the best.
- In the buildings of the barbarians quite large a wealth of grain was found.
- No one is able to fight frequent battles without any danger.
- Mulieres reliquae ex aedificiis suis fugerunt seque abdiderunt.
- Terrebantur neque capi cupiebant neque in servitutem tradi.
- Nihil servitute peius esse potest.
- Servitus morte peior est.
- In Romano imperio multi occisi sunt quia "servi esse"/servire recusabant (recusabant ne "servi essent"/servirent).
- Patriam tradere pessimum scelus est.
§ 318, p. 139Edit
- The barbarians decided to join the battle that much more because the Romans were seen to be weak.
- My plan is much better than yours because it is much easier.
- This road is much wider than that (road there).
- The barbarians weren't at all slower than the Romans.
- Your horse is a little faster than mine.
- Those who were a bit stronger restrained the rest from abandoning the entrance.
- Among those nations Germany has the best soldiers.
- The nearer road which leads through the valley is between the port and the lake.
- The slaves, who inhabited the nearer fields, did not wish to abandon their former masters because they liked them.
- The more remote parts of Germany never came under the protection of the Romans.
- For it was much more difficult for the Roman army to go across the Rhine.
- Aliud multō difficilius iter per prōvinciam Galliam relinquēbātur.
- Antīquis temporibus nulla cīvitās validior erat quam imperium Rōmānum.
- Ulterioris Galliae cīvitatēs obsidēs Caesarī trādere nōn cupiēbant.
- Servitūs morte nihilo melior (potior) est.
- Cīvīs optimī ā pessimis amāti nōn sunt.
- Hostēs acrēs sē statim in proximās silvās receperunt quod Caesaris recentibus victōriīs terrēbantur.
§ 324, p. 141Edit
§ 326, p. 141Edit
- No affair has been managed better than the famous battle in which Marius with a much smaller army put to flight the much larger army of the Germans.
- The enemy fiercely made an assault upon the Roman cohorts.
- Nevertheless, Marius most bravely kept back them all.
- The barbarians weren't stronger than the Romans.
- At first the barbarians seemed to be victorious, then the Romans fought more violently.
- Finally, when the battle had been fought for a very long time, as I may say, the barbarians strove to flee.
- A certain (tribe) of the German tribes, as soon as they heard the rumour of that loss, hid themselves into the farthest regions of their lands.
- The Romans prevailed more often than the enemy because they had a better armour.
- Among all nations the Romans were most powerful.
- These cohorts, as soon as they had retreated to a more level territory, pitched camp without any trouble.
- Aliquae gentēs ab hostibus (suis) facile superantur.
- Germānia Galliā multō māior est.
- Nonne Rōmānī inter Ītaliae gentes potentissimī erant (plūrimum valēbant)?
- Mīlēs propter vulnera difficillimē ē fossa corpus suum trāxit.
- Neque fugere neque pugnāre poterat.
- Quī eum servāvit? Equēs quidam rem audacter suscepit.
- Rūmorēs dē mīlitīs morte vērī nōn erant.
§ 332, p. 144Edit
- Caesar set file to the most (the largest part) of the buildings.
- A large part of the fortification was destroyed with water of the river.
- The Gauls of these parts (this region) had assembled five thousand men.
- Two of my brothers heard the same rumour.
- Which of the Romans was more famous than Caesar?
- The five cohorts of that legion were defending the camp most bravely.
- This place equally far away from Caesar's camp and the camp of the Germans.
- Caesar, as soon as arrived, requested more supplies from (his) allies.
- Didn't the merchants know the size of the island? They knew the length but not the width (of it).
- A few of the enemies occupied the hill which our scouts saw.
- Duōs frātrēs habeō et ex eīs ūnus Rōmae vīvit.
Mihi sunt frātrēs duo quōrum alter Rōmae vīvit.
- Caesar tribus legiōnibus urbem ipsan oppugnavit.
- Hōra ūna mūnītiōnis magnam partem dēlevit.
- Ubī hōstēs portās diutius dēfendere nōn potuerunt, sē in collem receperunt quī proximē (abl. of measure as found in Cicero: brevī spatiō; acc. of extent as found in Caesar: breve spatium) aberat.
- Ibi eōrum tria mīlia Rōmānīs fortiter rēstiterunt.
- Duōs frātrēs habeō et ex eīs ūnus Rōmae vīvit.
§ 336, p. 145Edit
§ 337, p. 145Edit
Caesar waged war in Gaul for seven years. In the first year he subdued the Helvetii, and in the same year many German tribes
surrendered themselves to him. For many years the Helvetii harassed the Gauls, and the German leaders often led their
troops across the Rhine. They did not come one by one, but many thousand men were fighting in Gaul. Because of that reason
the leaders of the Gauls called together an assembly and decreed to send delegates to Caesar. Caesar, as soon as he heard
this rumour, assembled his troops without delay. At daybreak he set to fight quite fiercely with the Germans. For the whole
day fight went on quite violently. Caesar himself led the line of battle from the right flank. A large part of the army of
the Germans fell. After the great slaughter the few (survivors) fled many miles to the river.
- Caesar ā flūmine mīlia passuum duo castra posuit.
- Castra fossa quindecim pedēs lātā et vallō novem pedēs altō mūnīvit.
- Hostium castra magnō spatiō (acc. of extent as found in Caesar: magnum spatium) longissime aberant.
- Postrīdiē decem mīlia passuum hōrīs tribus īre condendit (cucurrit).
- Subitō hostēs omnibus cōpiīs (viribus) in novissimum agmen impetum fēcerunt.
- Hōrās duās Rōmānī ā barbarīs pressī sunt.
- Hōrīs tribus post (hōrā quarta) barbarī fugiēbant.
§ 341, p. 147Edit
- Against Caesar's expectation, three of the ambassadors were afraid to travel through the enemy's territory.
- Who has encouraged them? The general has encouraged them and he attempted to persuade them, but was unable (to persuade them).
- What has thoroughly terrified the ambassadors? Either the fear of the enemy, who were pressing hard upon (them) on all sides, or because the length of the march terrified them.
- Nevertheless, almost all very much more afraid of Caesar than the enemy.
- The bravest tribes of Gaul originated from the Germans.
- For which reason were they brave? Because they did not suffer to carry with them neither wine nor other (things) which destroy manliness.
- Caesar asked the merchants about the island Britannia, but could learn nothing (from them).
- Thus he decided to proceed to that land himself, and almost in the middle of the summer set out with many warships.
- He completed the journey with great speed and embarked in the most suitable place.
- The barbarians, with their best men, attempted to keep them off the island.
- He, however, pursued the barbarians for many miles; nevertheless, without a cavalry he could not overtake them.
- Hostēs contrā spēm nostram fugerunt equitātusque eōs subsecūtus est.
- Ē turbae omnibus partibus oriebantur clāmōrēs eōrum quī vulnerabantur.
- Caesar passus nōn est equitātum longius īnsequi.
- Equitātus primā horā profectus est revertebaturque horā quartā.
- Vāllum duodecim pedēs altum circa castra Rōmāna erat.
- Caesar diēs trēs propter/ob rem frūmentāriam morabitur.
- Paene omnēs legātī hostēs metuebant/verebantur iterque morārī cōnātī sunt.
§ 344, p. 149Edit
§ 347, p. 151Edit
§ 353, p. 152Edit
- They come to lead/send/see/hear/be led/be sent/be seen/be heard.
- We escape in order not to be captured/be handed over/see/be killed/be seized/resist.
- He sent the messengers to speak/hear/come/tell/be heard/sit in the assembly.
- They fortify the camp in order to more easily to defend themselves/to sustain an attack/to overcome the enemy/the seek safety.
- Helvētiī lēgātōs mittunt ut pācem petant.
- Prīma lūce proficīscuntur ut ante noctem iter longius faciant.
- Mulierēs in silvās abdent nē capiantur.
- Gallī bella multa gerunt ut patriam suam (ā) servitūte līberent.
- Rōmānīs fortiter resistent nē deleantur.
§ 354, p. 153Edit
§ 360, p. 155Edit
- They had come to lead/send/see/hear/be led/be sent/be seen/be heard.
- He was feeling that he might not be captured/be betrayed/be seen/be killed/be seized/be opposed.
- He sent messengers in order to for them to speak/hear/come/tell/be heard/sit in the assembly.
- They have fortified the camp in order to more easily defend themselves/sustain an attack/defeat the enemy/seek safety.
- Caesar mīlitēs hortātus est ut fortius pugnārent.
- Helvetii domōs suās reliquerunt ut bellum gererent.
- Explōrātorēs statim profecti sunt nē ā Germanīs caperentur.
- Caesar dē eīs supplicia sūmpsit ut aliī terrērentur magis.
- Nūntiōs Rōmam mīsit ut victōriam nūntiārent.
§ 361, p. 156Edit
§ 363, p. 157Edit
§ 368, p. 159Edit
- He asked and encouraged him to speak himself.
- Caesar gave orders to the Helvetii that they are not to travel through the province.
- Caesar did not order the Helvetii to travel through the province.
- He persuaded (his) fellow citizens to part from their country.
- Caesar will advice the second line of soldiers not to join the battle.
- He required them not to wage war with the Helvetii nor their allies.
- I asked them not to set out.
- He was unable to persuade them to stay at home.
- Quis Caesarem iter facere iussit? Quis imperavit ut Caesar iter faceret?
- Perfidī explorātōrēs eī persuāserunt ut primā lucē proficīscerētur
- Ab eō petent nē supplicium sūmat.
- Postulāvit ut ad castra venīrent.
- Eōs monuit ut omnia narrārent.
§ 373, p. 161Edit
- Caesar feared that the punishment of prisoners would not be pleasing to the Gauls.
- The Romans themselves feared greatly that the Helvetii would travel through the province.
- They feared lest it would be possible to send enough grain supplies.
- I fear that I am unable to sustain the enemy's attack.
- He feared lest the baggage had been captured by the enemy.
- Caesar never feared that the legions would be defeated.
- The legionnaires were not afraid to fight.
- Verēmur ut veniant.
- Timēmus nē veniant.
- Veritī sumus / verēbāmur nē vēnissent.
- Timuīmus / timēbāmus ut vēnissent.
- Veritī sunt magnoprē ut castra defendi possit.
Verēbantur multum ut castra defendi possit.
- Ferē / paene omnēs castra relinquere timēbant.
§ 374, p. 162Edit
|stem||active participle||passive participle|
§ 375, p. 162/163Edit
|present active||future active||passive perfect||passive future|
§ 378, p. 164Edit
- A boy who was frightened fled in order that he would not be captured.
- The eagle, aroused with anger, had begun to kill the other birds.
- The soldiers who were hard pressed by the enemy were unable to throw (their) spears.
- Caesar, about to praise the 10th legion, has advanced to the first line of the march(ing army).
- The general, having encouraged the horsemen in order that they'd fight more bravely, gave the signal for battle.
- The soldiers, having pursued the enemy for eight miles, returned to the camp with many prisoners.
- By the sunrise many were killed. (The rising sun saw many killed.)
- The Romans, suspicious of the foolhardy plan, did not join themselves with the barbarians.
- A ship coming out of the port was in no danger.
- Exercitus itern in hostium fīnibus faciēns in maximō perīculō erat.
- Longitudine itineris territī domum dēsīderābant.
- Profecturī explōrātorēs clāmorēs victōriae audiverunt.
- Multōs diēs morātī aedificia incendimus profectīque sumus.
- Rōmae vīvēns multō meliorēs ōrātōrēs quam hos audīvī.
- Mīlitēs ultrā flūmen pugnāntēs nōbīs fortiōrēs nōn sunt.
§ 382, p. 166Edit
- You (sg.) prefer, you (sg.) are unwilling, you (pl.) are willing, we are unwilling.
- That he would be unwilling, that we would have been unwilling, that he would prefer.
- Be (sg.) unwilling, to be willing, to have been unwilling, to prefer.
- He is willing, that he would have been unwilling, be (pl.) unwilling.
- With the sun rising, the birds began to sing.
- Having heard loud calls, the barbarians refused to advance.
- With Caesar exhorting the legions, the soldiers fought a little more bravely.
- When these matters were known, the Helvetii persuades (their) neighbours to march with them.
- With the works being completed, the soldiers asked Caesar to give them rewards.
- When the assembly had been called together, the leaders responded accordingly.
- With the leader tarrying for many days in the enemy's country, he set fire to many villages.
- When the number of the Germans was known, some of the Romans were afraid.
- When the merchants were questioned, Caesar could not learn anything more.
- Nōlēbat, nē mālint, voluerunt.
- Māvīs, ut nōllent, volunt.
- Volīmus, māluerant, ut mālet.
- Caesar rūmore auditō imperāvit ut legiōnēs celeriter prōgrederentur.
- Caesare duce iter facere volēbant.
- Paucī, ā rūmōribus quōs audiverant territī, domī manere māluerunt.
- Iīs relictīs reliquī quam celerrime festinaverunt.
- Caesar negōtiō susceptō diūtius morāri nōlēbat.
§ 388, p. 168Edit
- He becomes, that he might become, we were becoming.
- I become, you (sg.) will become, that they might have become, to become, they become.
- You (pl.) become, that we might become, you (sg.) become, we will become.
- The soldiers were so slow that they did not arrive to the camp before night.
- The sun makes everything beautiful.
- Their methods were dangerous in order that no one might wish to depart.
- The enemy's horsemen fought with our cavalry; however, in every direction our troops were superior.
- The bravery of our soldiers caused that the enemy sustained not even one attack.
- The men were so foolhardy that they couldn't be kept together in any way.
- The distance was so small that the soldiers could not throw spears easily.
- When that battle was finished, the barbarians were so throughly terrified that from the furthest tribes ambassadors were sent to Caesar.
- That battle was fought in order that ambassadors would not be sent to Caesar.
- Fīet, fīēbant, ut fiat.
- Fit, fīet, fierī.
- Fīunt, fīēbāmus, nē fiat.
- Mīlitēs tam fortēs sunt ut superent.
- Mīlitēs fortēs sunt ut vincant.
- Mūnītiō ita valuda facta erat ut capī nōn posset.
- Mūnītiō tam furtis facta erat nē rapī nōn posset.
- Urbe capta oppidānī timēbant ut servī fierent.
- Quis cīvitās tam infirma est ut sēsē dēfendere nōlit.
§ 389, p. 169Edit
§ 394, p. 170Edit
- In the forests of Germany there are many kinds of wild beasts which are not seen in other places.
- There were two routes by which the Helvetii could depart their country.
- There was no band of men, no town, no garrison which could defend itself with arms.
- With all of grain seized, at home there was nothing to keep off death.
- The Romans made Galba (their) leader and marched with greatest haste.
- Neither was there in so large a crowd anyone who wished to tarry.
- These Germans were not those were afraid of Caesars approach.
- The consuls who wished to make him king were struck down.
- With the peace confirmed, there was no one who was unwilling to give up arms.
- Among Helvetii who was nobler than him?
- Rōmānī urbem suam Rōmām appellābant.
- Urbs ā Rōmānīs Rōmā vocāta est.
- Cīvēs bonī eum rēgem creāre cupiēbant. (The better parts of the society were bonī, not meliōrēs or optimī -- cf. Lewis & Short, for example.)
- Mīles fortis nōn erat vir quī fugeret.
- Nēmō erat quī mē amīcum appellāret.
- Illī non sunt virī quī amīcōs suōs trādant.
- Erant quī eum omnium fortissimum nōminārent.
§ 400, p. 172Edit
- At the time of our fathers the Helvetii had departed their country and they had put the consul's army to flight.
- When Caesar came to Gaul, the Helvetii were attacking other domains.
- Although Caesar was in the nearer (parts of) Gaul, yet he was kept informed of the plans of the Helvetii.
- Because the Helvetii were most notorious in war, Caesar refused to let them march through the province.
- When the lieutenant had heard this, he informed Caesar.
- Because the leaders exchanged hostages, the Romans prepared for a war.
- Caesar, when it was made known, hastened to depart from the city.
- In courage the Gauls were not at all equals to the Germans.
- Caesar was weak neither in body nor in spirit.
- That war begun when Caesar was a consul.
- Illud proelium fiēbat tum cum Rōmae eram.
- Equitēs cum numerō paucī essent, tamen terga nōn vertērunt.
Cum equitēs paucī multitūdine essent, tamen nōn sē recēpēre.
- Cum castra satis munita erant, hostēs domum revertērunt.
- Cum gentēs inter sē obsidēs dent, Caesarem dē eō certiōrem faciēmus.
- Germānī et Gallī linguā legibusque dissimilēs sunt.
§ 403, p. 174Edit
§ 411, p. 176Edit
- When Caesar was waging the war in Gaul, he favoured mostly the soldiers of the 10th legion because they were the most experienced in the matters of war.
- He employed the allies to take care of the grain supplies.
- The ambassadors came not only to listen but also to speak.
- The general ordered the scouts to find a spot suitable for fortifying.
- Recently these tribes were eager for a revolution; soon I will persuade them so that they surrender themselves and all their property to Caesar.
- To command is the queen's and to obey is the crowd's.
- The battle having been fought, some of the enemy came to ask for peace.
- There were (some) who were unwilling to give up arms.
- The enemy advanced so swiftly that no opportunity for throwing spears at them was given.
- There was no time neither for taking up arms nor for seeking of help.
- Haec ornāmenta Cornēliae sunt.
- Reī mīlitārīs perītissimī ad urbem capiendam missī sunt.
- Explōrātōrēs collem idōneum mūniendō proximē fluvium invenērunt.
- Mox equitātus commeatūs quaerendī causā veniet.
- Animus Gallōrum rēbus novīs bellīsque sūmendīs studet.
Mens Gallōrum novīs rēbus et bellum sūmere studet.
- Ducis est aciem dūcere.
- Cui negōtium reī frūmentariae cūrandae dabimus?
§ 422, p. 180Edit
- He goes, we go, go (pl.)!, to go.
- For the one going, to have gone, they will go, they go.
- Of going, that they would go, you (pl.) will go, you (sg.) go.
- Lest they would have gone, go (sg.)!, they were going, they had been going.
- Caesar learned through scouts that the Gauls have crossed the river.
- The Romans heard that the Germans will go forth from their territories at the beginning of summer.
- The ambassadors responded that no one before Caesar had visited that island.
- The leaders of the Gauls said that they will not begin any plan against Caesar's command.
- We think that the power of the queen is greater than citizens'.
- The Romans deny that they will take away freedom of the Gauls.
- These things having been known, we felt that the ambassadors hadn't come to seek peace.
- The Helvetii know that the Romans remember the previous victories.
- When the allies perceived that many were wounded, they decided to return to their own territory.
- Someone announced that Marcus had been made a consul.
- Puer tardus est. Dicit puerum tardum esse, fuisse, futūrum esse.
- Equus validus est, fuit, erit. Iūdicāvit equum fortem esse, fuisse, futūrum esse.
- Arbitrāmur exercitum dē castrīs initā aestāte exitūrum esse.
- Postrīdiē eius diēī per explōrātōrēs cognōvimus oppidum hostium passuum decem milia abesse.
Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar mentions: "With abesse and distare, an abl. of measure may also be used[.]"
- Rex respondit ornāmenta rēgīnae esse.
§ 428, p. 182Edit
- Carry (sg.)!, they will carry, that they'd carry, they are carrying.
- Carry (pl.)!, that they'd have carried, to have carried, they had carried.
- We carried, carrying, to have been carried, to carry.
- When the ships were approaching the island, the barbarians, stirred by fear, began to retreat.
- The Gauls were annoyed of the Romans laying waste their fields.
- Caesar ordered (his) allies not to make war upon their neighbours.
- The scouts, who ran up to Caesar, told that the enemy's army, exhausted because of the wounded, had gathered to another location.
- The enemy knew that the Romans lacked grain and that this matter would put Caesar in great peril.
- With the baggage being gathered in one place, other soldiers no longer were able to cross the river.
- This king exhorted that they'd go to the oracle and report back with things heard (there).
- Whom did the general put in command of this legion? Publius was put in the charge of the legion.
- When Caesar was in Cisalpine Gaul, numerous reports were brought to him that the Gauls were exchanging hostages among themselves, and with letters too was he informed (about this matter).
- Gallī sociīs Caesaris bellum īnferent.
- Gallōs audīvimus sociīs Caesaris bellum īnlāturōs esse.
- Publius illō proeliō nōn interfuit.
- Certiōrēs factī sumus Publium illō proeliō nōn interfuisse.
- Ille vir, qui exercitātui praeerat, vulneratus est et pedem referre incēpit.
- Caesar ad calamitātem exercitui īnferendum te illī cohortī nōn praefēcit.
§ 434, p. 184Edit
- The king asked what the ambassadors desire and why they had come.
- He too asked didn't they remember the recent injuries and the uncertain friendship of the Romans.
- Do you see which town the enemy has besieged?
- Don't you know why the Gauls united their troops at the foot of the mountain?
- We heard that the Germans had inflicted injuries upon you.
- About the third watch the general sent men who were to find out the mountain's character.
- The orator spoke on behalf of them and asked why the consuls would wish to send ships to a place of numerous, grave hazards.
- The ambassadors having been called together, he showed what he wished to be done.
- A messenger reported back what was said about giving up arms at the Gauls' meeting.
- I advice lest you'd lead the foot soldiers and the cavalry across the river in the future.
- Quem collem occupāvērunt? Videō quem collem occupāvērint.
- Quis hās iniūriās clientibus nostrīs īntulit?
- Quaesīvērunt quis illās iniūriās clientibus suīs īntulissent.
- Quō dē tertiā vigiliā ībās? Scis quō ierim.
- Quō tempore puerī domum rediērunt? Quaeram quō tempore puerī domum redierint.
There is nothing wrong using quotā hōrā but the Beginner's Latin doesn't introduce that idiom.
§ 439, p. 186Edit
- He asked why these troops were left behind. They responded that the(se) troops are for protection of the camp.
- Caesar sent scouts to choose a place for a camp.
- Everyone reckoned that just the name of Caesar will be a great dread for the Gauls.
- At the daybreak the same army swiftly joined the battle, but their gravely wounded were of great trouble for the general.
- The king replied that the friendship of (the people of) Rome ought to be a badge of honour and aid for himself.
- Who had the charge of the cavalry which the allies sent for aid to Caesar?
- To some prosperity is for the greatest disaster and misfortune of a great advantage.
- (Having) to fight was for a great hindrance for the Gauls because the cavalry were pressing hard on the(ir) right flank.
- For us the memory of recent victories were no less useful than the enemy's fear.
- The forest was so thick that they could not advance.
- Tibi suadeō ut cōnsilium bellī gerendī cum Gallīs fortibus omittās.
- Scīsne ubi equitātus locum castrīs dēlegerit?
- Metus hostium magnō tibi ūsuī erit.
- Caesar trēs cohortēs praesidiō impedīmentīs relīquit.
- Hieme fluctūs lacūs tam magnī sunt ut magnō impedīmentō navibus sint.
- Caesar dē eīs quī aedificia publica incenderunt gravia supplicia sumpsit.
§ 447, p. 188Edit
- The soldiers built a ditch ten feet deep through their territory.
- The leader of the Helvetians, a man of greatest courage, gave his sisters in marriage to leaders of the neighbouring tribes.
- He wished to strengthen the alliance of those, in order that they'd more easily make war upon the Romans.
- The Germans and the Gauls weren't of the same tribe.
- Nearly all Germans were men with large bodies.
- The Gauls, who were defending the town bravely, were throwing large rocks down from the city walls.
- When Caesar asked from the scouts who inhabited that town, the scouts responded that the inhabitants were men of highest courage and great determination.
- On the right side ramparts twenty feet high and on the left side a river of great depth protected the town.
- When Caesar had arrived to Gaul, there were rumours that the Helvetii intend to march through the Roman province.
- Caesar, in order that could keep them away from the Roman territories, constructed walls many miles long.
- Caesar imperātor multae cōnsilī magnaeque audāciae erat, atque reī mīlitāris perītissimus.
- Germanī magnīs corporibus erant et Rōmānōs nūllam potestātem habēre putābant.
- Virī summā virtūte in castrīs praesidiō impedīmentīs relictī sunt.
- Fīlia rēgis, quae prīncipī cīvitātis fīnitimae in mātrimōnium data est, mulier pulcherrimae speciēi erat.
- Mīlitēs fossam novem pedum circum castra facient.
- Flūmen ingente lātitūdine inter nōs et hostēs erant.
§ 452, p. 190Edit
- The soldiers, whom we saw, said that the command of war was Caesar's, the general's.
- The Helvetii decided to collect as many horses and carts as possible.
- Of all Gauls The Helvetii were the strongest.
- Fighting went of fiercely for many hours, and no one was able to see the enemy fleeing.
- The very brave men pursued the enemy for ten miles.
- Caesar persuaded the people to make him a consul.
- A victory of the army was always most pleasing to the general.
- They marched for three days and reached Geneva, a town of the enemy.
- Caesar heard that the Germans had made war upon the Gauls.
- The soldiers were of great advantage to Caesar because they had been employed in prior battles by himself.
- Ūnus ē fīliīs regis multīque hominēs eius captī sunt.
- Nēmō erat qūi illam rēgīnam creāre vellet.
- Rēs frūmentāria Caesarī imperātōrī semper cūrae erat.
- Castra existimō decem milibus passuum abesse.
- Iter per silvam densissimam trēs hōrās fēcimus.
- Cōnsilium bellī sociīs īnferendī regī nōn grātum erat.
- Cum collem pervēnit eum vallō duodecim pedum mūnīvit.
§ 454, p. 191Edit
- The Gauls, having occupied the higher ground, tried to keep the army from marching.
- All townsfolk, having came out from the town, began to seek safety with flight.
- Caesar himself shows that the soldiers are more dear (to him) than the keeping of his own life safe.
- Since he had arrived by everyone's opinion swiftly, the enemies sent hostages to him.
- The village, situated in the valley, is protected with very high mountains in every direction.
- This tribe excels many tribes among Gauls in bravery and in the number of men.
- The second watch left the camp neither in proper order or by an order.
- Having left two legions in Geneva, he set out to home with the rest.
- There were two routes which the Helvetii could set out from their lands.
- The king was very bold and (his) influence among the people great.
- The Gauls, stirred by the fear of slavery, were getting ready for war.
- Caesar advised the lieutenants to restrain the soldiers, lest they'd advance too far because of their eagerness to fight or because of the hope of plunder.
- The war with the Gauls was waged most swiftly by Caesar.
- Legātus monte occupatō suōs proeliō continuit.
- Omnēs Gallī inter sē legibus differēbant.
- Haec gēns reliquōs virtūte valēbat.
- Ea via decem mīlibus passuum brevior istā est.
- Caesar bellum in Galliā aestāte gessit, hieme in Itāliam revertit.
- Mediā nocte imperātor cum tribus legiōnibus ā castrīs profectus est.
- Vereor ut āb hostibus tē dēfendere possis.
- Hōc proeliō cōnfectō, omnēs Gallī pacem cōnfīrmavērunt.
Hōc proeliō cōnfectō, pax ā omnibus Gallīs facta est.
§ 459, p. 193Edit
- Caesar, when he had arrived, encouraged the soldiers lest they would give up the plan of seizing the town.
- The king, with the camp had been pitched near the town, sent scouts in order that they'd learn where the army of the Romans were.
- No one, who was able to bear arms, was left behind.
- The messengers saw that a vast number of armour had been thrown down from the walls into the trench.
- The commander ordered his men to cross the river. However, the crossing of the river was most difficult.
- Though the Romans were annoyed by this defeat, they refused to flee.
- When this rumour was heard, so great terror seized everyone's mind that they indeed weren't willing to join the battle very heartily.
- There were those who reckoned that the time of the year was not suitable for marching.
- So fiercely were they engaged from both flanks that many thousand men were killed.
- What do you fear? I fear that the Romans plan to subdue all of Gaul and to inflict wrongs upon us.
- Vidēsne quis in mūro stet?
- Audīmus cōnsilium oppidī capiendī ōmissum esse.
- Germānīs cum in animō sit Rōmānōs Rhēnum trānsīre nōn posse, Caesar pontem aedificārī iussit.
- Ponte confectō, barbarī tam perterritī erant ut sēsē abderent.
- Veritī sunt nē Caesar eōs cōnsequeretur.
- Caesar ā mercātōribus quaesivit quae magnitūdo īnsulae esset.
- Mercātōrēs eī suāserunt nē marem trānsīret.
- Explōrātōrēs ad locum castrīs dēligendum praemīsit.
§ 502, p. 265Edit
§ 503, p. 266Edit
§ 504, p. 266Edit
- A Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels and dipthongs.
- Latin words are divided into syllables as follows:
- A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second (e.g. fa-ci-li-us).
- In a combination of two or more consonants a consonant followed by a liquid (l or r) goes with the liquid (e.g. pu-bli-cus, pe-re-gri-nus) unless the combination contains a prepositional compound or a double liquid (ll or rr); otherwise the first consonant of the combination goes with the preceding vowel (e.g. ab-rum-po, hos-tis, fer-rum).
- The ultima is the last syllable of a word (e.g. cus in ba-si-lis-cus is the ultima).
- The penultima is next to the last syllable of a word (e.g. lis in ba-si-lis-cus is the penultima).
- The antepenultima is the syllable before the penultima (e.g. si in ba-si-lis-cus is the antepenultima).
- A syllable is short if it ends with a short vowel.
- A syllable is long if it contains either a dipthong or a long vowel (e.g. poe in poe-ta is a long syllable and tā in aes-tā-te is a long syllable), or if it ends with a consonant followed by another consonant (e.g. lis in ba-si-lis-cus is a long syllable).
- Words with less than three syllables are accented on the first syllable, and the words with more than two syllables are accented on the penultima if it is long, otherwise the accent rests on the antepenultima.
- The subject is a noun about which something is said.
- The predicate is what is said about the subject, and it contains at least a verb and possibly modifiers of the verb.
- The object is the what is being acted upon or affected by the subject.
- The copula -- ie. the verb to be -- is a verb which connects the subject of a sentence with one or more modifiers.
- Inflection is the change of forms of words indicating a change in meaning or sense.
- Declension is inflection of nouns.
- Conjugation is inflection of verbs.
- -t, -nt
- The form of a noun shows the number and case.
- The cases of Latin are: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, and vocative (a few exceptions have the locative case).
- For the subject the nominative case is used.
- For the direct object the accusative case is used.
- For the possessor the dative case (the dative of possessor) is used.
- By the dative case is expressed the relations conveyed by the English prepositions to, towards, and for when the relation is not one of physical motion (e.g. she was pleasant to the horse would be expressed by the dative case in Latin).
- The indirect object of a verb is in the dative case.
- Questions are answered by repeating the verb (and other essential words) in the answer.
- A predicative adjective is an adjective which is part of the predicate of a sentence ie. a predicative adjective is linked with the noun it describes by a verb (e.g. magna in nāvis magna est is a predicative adjective).
- An attributive adjective is an adjective directly related to a noun, without a connecting verb (e.g. magna in nāvis magna natat is an attributive adjective).
- Words are in agreement when they agree in one or more grammatical aspects. For example, a verb agrees with its subject: nautae pugnant -- sailors fight, nauta pugnat -- a sailor fights.
- The adjectives agree in gender, number, and case with the nouns they describe.
- The ablative case of Latin expresses the same relations as the English prepositions from, with or by, and in or at.
- A possessive pronoun usually follows the noun it describes (e.g. fīlia mea -- my daughter), and when it doesn't this means the possession is meant to be more emphatic in the sentence (e.g. mea fīlia -- my daughter).
- A modifying genitive usually follows the noun it describes (e.g. fīlia rēgīnae); when placed in front of the noun a modifying genitive becomes more emphatic (e.g. rēgīnae fīlia)
- A modifying adjective usually follows the noun it describes, unless a more emphasis is desired (e.g. normally fīlia bona instad of the more emphatic bona fīlia).
- The base is the part of a word which does not change when the word is inflected.
- The grammatical gender is a gender ascribed to a noun apart from the real sex or gender (e.g. poeta, a poet, is a masculine noun, regardless of the gender or a sex of the person writing or performing a poem).
- Nouns belonging to the first declension are feminine unless they denote males. E.g. alga (seaweed) is feminine, but nauta, sailor is masculine.
- The general principles of the Latin word order is to put the most important word or words, usually the subject, at the beginning of a sentence, followed by its modifiers, an indirect object, a direct object, and at the end of a sentence an adverb, if any, and the (main) predicate verb. Often the Latin word order is subject - modifiers of the subject - indirect object - object - adverb - verb.
§ 505, p. 267Edit
§ 506, p. 267Edit
§ 507, p. 268Edit
§ 508, p. 268Edit
- Latin has five declensions.
- The (grammatical) gender, number, and case of a noun has to be known before it can be declined.
- The nominative, accusative, and vocative cases of neuter nouns are alike, and in plural they end with -a.
- The plural dative and accusative cases of all nouns are alike.
- In the singular of the second declension when the nominative ends with -us.
- A predicate noun is a noun used in the predicate of a sentece. E.g. "husband" in "Mark is a husband", "conjunx" in "Mārcus conjunx est".
- The predicate noun agrees with the subject.
- An appositive is a noun which explains or names another noun. E.g. "husband" in "Mark, the husband, is treacherous.", "conjunx" in "Mārcus conjunx perfidus est".
- The appositive agrees with the noun it explains.
- Whether a noun in -er is declined like puer or ager is determined by looking at the genitive singular form, which displays the base.
- To determine whether an adjective in -er is declined like līber or pulcher is determined by looking at the nominative singular of the feminine, which shows the base.
- In nauta bonus the adjective agrees in (grammatical) gender, number, and case with the noun, whereas in nauta bona the adjective does not agree in (grammatical) gender with the noun it describes.
- The Latin possessive pronouns are: meus, tuus, suus, noster, and vester.
- The Latin possessive pronouns are declined like the adjectives in the first and second declension.
- The possessive pronouns agree with the thing possessed in (grammatical) gender, number, and case.
- Vester is used when there are multiple possessors, and tuus is used when there is only one possessor.
- Because suus regularly refers back to the subject.
- The non-reflexive possessive of the third person is the genitive of is; in singular eius and in plural eorum/earum/eorum.
- In Latin possessives are omitted when the meaning of a sentence is clear without them. When a possessive is used in a sentence, it's often meant for added emphasis. E.g. Mārcus servum flagellāvit. when Mark is teaching a slave to behave, and Mārcus servum suum flagellāvit. when Mark is flogging a slave he owns (e.g. after finding out he's not the only perfidious party in his marriage).
- The four uses of the ablative case corresponding the use of "with" in English are: Denoting causality, means, accompaniment, and manner.
- An example of the ablative of manner: Mārcus magnō cum studiō cucurrit. or Mārcus magnō studiō cucurrit. (Mark's wife preferred the flogged slave over Mark, and she gave him his sword too.)
- An example of the ablative of cause: Mārcus dēfessus inopiā aquā est. (Running left Mark quite exhausted because he had nothing to drink.)
- An example of the ablative of means: Mārcus pedibus suis cucurrit. (Lacking a horse, Mark had no other option but to run with his own feet.)
- An example of the ablative of accompaniment: Marīta Mārcī cum servō habitat. (Since Mark didn't dare to return, his wife can lives happily in marriage with the freedman who once got flogged.)
- The ablative of accompaniment regularly has cum.
- The ablative of manner sometimes has cum.
- The ablative of cause and the ablative of means never have cum.
- The nine pronominal adjectives are: alius/alia/aliud (other of many), alter/altera/alterum (other of two), neuter/neutra/neutrum (neither of two), nūllus/nūlla/nūllum (none), sōlus/sōla/sōlum (only), tōtus/tōta/tōtum (every), ūllus/ūlla/ūllum (any), ūnus/ūna/ūnum (one), uter/utra/utrum (which of two).
- Is as a demonstrative adjective or pronoun is used for the English personal pronoun he/she/it.
- Is is also used, in the genitive case, as the third person possessive pronoun.
§ 509, p. 269Edit
§ 510, p. 269Edit
§ 511, p. 270Edit
§ 512, p. 270Edit
- A mood indicates the manner of the action of a verb. For example, something may be stated as a fact or as a wish.
- Indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive.
- The indicative mood is used when making a statements of fact or asking questions about something assumed as a fact.
- Present, future, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.
- The personal endings of verbs indicate the person and number of a verb, whereas in English this is usually indicated with a noun or a personal pronoun. E.g. Nautae pugnant. vs. The sailors are happy and they fight.
- -m/-ō, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt.
- Sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt; Eram, erās, erat, erāmus, erātis, erant; Erō, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erunt.
- In Latin there are four regular conjugations.
- Each of the conjugations have a distinguishing vowel, which is easiest to spot from the present infinitive. E.g. the present infinitive of the first conjugation has the ending -āre, the second conjugation the ending -ēre, etc.
- The present stem is found by dropping -re from the present infinitive.
- The present, future, and imperfect tenses.
- The tense sign of the imperfect is -bā-.
- The imperfect is used when describing habitual or continuous action in the past or when describing conditions of affairs or situations in the past.
- The tense sign of the future in the first two conjugations is -bi-.
- The tense sign of the future in the third and fourth conjugation is -e-.
- A vowel is always short before -nt and a final -m/-t.
- I fight, I am fighting, I do fight.
- The present indicative 1st person singular, the present indicative 3rd person plural, and all forms of the imperfect and the future.
- All the rest (see the previous answer).
- The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. E.g. equus grātus est puerō.
- Crēdo, crēdere, crēdidī, creditum; faveō, favēre, fāvī, fautum; noceō, nocēre, nocuī, nocitum; pāreō, pārēre, pāruī, pāritum; persuādeō, persuādēre, persuāsī, persuāsum; resistō, resistēre, restitī, -; studeō, studēre, studuī, -.
- The imperative mood expresses commands.
- The present active imperative in singular is identical to the present stem.
- The present active imperative in plural is formed by adding -te to the present stem.
- Dīcō: dīc; Dūcō: dūc; Faciō: fāc;
- Portō: portā, portāte; Dēleō: dēlē, dēlēte; Agō: age, agete; Faciō: fāc, facete; Mūniō: mūnī, mūnīte.
§ 513, p. 271Edit
§ 514, p. 272Edit
§ 515, p. 272Edit
§ 516, p. 273Edit
- -r, -ris, -tur, -mur, -minī, -ntur.
- The -r is sometimes called the passive sign because it occurs in all but one of the personal endings of the passive voice.
- -ā, -ē, -e, -ī.
- The principal parts of a verb are the present infinitive first person singular, the present active infinitive, the perfect active indicative first person singular, and the perfect passive participle.
- The three conjugation stems are the present stem, the perfect stem, and the participial stem.
- The present stem can be found by dropping -re from the present active infinitive; the perfect stem can be found by dropping -ī from the perfect active indicative first person singular; and the participial stem can be found by dropping -us from the perfect passive participle.
- The tenses of the indicative are present, future, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.
- The tenses of the infinitive are present, future, and perfect.
- The present.
- From the present stem the following forms are built: present active indicative, imperfect active indicative, future active indicative, present passive indicative, imperfect passive indicative, and future passive indicative.
- From the perfect stem the following forms are built: perfect active indicative, pluperfect active indicative, and future perfect active indicative.
- From the participial stem the following forms are built: perfect passive indicative, pluperfect passive indicative, and future perfect passive indicative.
- The personal endings of the perfect active indicative are: -ī, -istī, -it, -imus, -istis, -ērunt (-ēre)
- The tense sign for pluperfect active indicative is -erā-.
- The tense sign for future perfect active indicative is -eri- (1st person singular -erō).
- The present active infinitive is the second of the principal parts of a verb.
- The present passive infinitive is formed from the present stem by adding -rī.
- The present active imperative in singular is the present stem and in plural it's formed by adding -te to the present stem.
- The present passive imperative in singular is formed by adding -re to the present stem and in plural it's formed by adding -minī to the present stem.
- The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding -isse to the present stem, e.g. laudāvisse.
- The perfect passive infinitive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with the infinitive of sum, e.g. laudātus esse.
- The future active infinitive is formed by combining the participial stem with the future active participle with the infinitive of sum, e.g. laudātūrus esse.
- A participle is partly verb and partly adjective, thus it has a tense and voice, yet it is declined and agrees with it's main word in number, gender and case.
- The participles in -us are declined like the adjectives of the second declension-
- The participle agrees with the noun it modifies in case, gender, and number, e.g. laudātī nautae - the praised sailors.
- The passive forms of the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect are formed by using sum as an auxiliary verb with the perfect passive participle.
- The separative ablative is used with verbs expressing separation or deprivation.
- The place from which is expressed in Latin with ā/ab, dē, ē/ex and ablative, e.g. nautae ab oppidō veniunt.
- Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning.
- The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition ā/ab.
- The ablative of means is never accompanied by a preposition where as the ablative of personal agent is always accompanied with the preposition ā/ab.
- The perfect definite denotes a completed action at a definite point in time.
- The perfect indefinite denotes a completed action at some, but not definite, point in time.
- The difference between the imperfect and the perfect indefinite is that the imperfect describes situations and circumstances in a narrative whereas the perfect indefinite marks forward steps in a narrative.
- The accusative and the ablative can be governed by a preposition in Latin.
- The prepositions governing the ablative: ā/ab, cum, ē/ex, dē, in, prō, sine.
- When governing the ablative, the preposition in means in or on, e.g. in mensā - on the table, in casā - in the hut.
- When governing the accusative, the preposition in means to, into or against, e.g. in casam - into the hut.
- The three interrogatives used to introduce yes-and-no questions are: -ne, nōnne, and num.
- Questions introduced with -ne makes no assumptions about the answer, nōnne expects the answer yes, and num expects the answer no.
- An affirmative answer may simply repeat the main verb of the question or use ita, vērō, certē (e.g.) for yes and nōn, minimē (e.g.) for no.
- Ubi can be used as an interrogative pronoun for where or when, and it can also be used as a relative pronoun for where or when.
§ 517, p. 273Edit
§ 518, p. 274Edit
§ 519, p. 275Edit
- An infinitive is a verbal noun.
- In Latin the infinitive is used, like in English,
- to form an object clause to complement certain verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, etc. (e.g. She is forbidden to walk.);
- as a complementary infinitive to complete the meaning of verbs of incomplete predication (e.g. She is able to run.); and
- as a proper noun, when used in as the subject of a sentence or as a predicative nominative (e.g. She loves to run.)
- The case of the subject of the infinitive in Latin is accusative.
- Certain verbs, verbs of incomplete predication, don't express a predication without a complementary verb, and such verbs require a complementary infinitive to complete their meaning. E.g. Cornelia currere potest, without currere the sentence would lack meaning.
- The case of happy in the sentence "The bad boy cannot be happy." (Malus puer esse bonus non potest.) is nominative.
- A predicative adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb.
- A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number, but it's case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause.
- The interrogative can be used as an interrogative pronoun or as an interrogative adjective.
- The base of a noun is the part to which the case endings are added.
- The stem of a noun is formed from the base by adding the stem vowel, e.g. rīpa has the base of rīp' and the stem of rīpā, catulus has the base of catul and the stem of catulo.
- Yes, the stem and the base of a noun can be identical. The consonant stems in the third declension have identical bases and stems, e.g. cōnsul is the base and the stem.
- In Latin there are five declensions of nouns.
- The Latin declensions are:
- The first or ā-declension.
- The second or o-declension.
- The third or i-declension.
- The fourth or u-declension.
- The fifth or ē-declension.
- The nouns of the third declension have either an i-stem and a consonant stem.
- The consonant stems are divided into stems which add -s to the base when forming the nominative singular and the stems which add no termination to the nominative singular.
- The stem lapid yields the base lapis because a final -d or -t of the stem is dropped before -s; the stem mīlit results the base mīles because a final -t is dropped before -s and the -i is changed to -e in the nominative; the stem rēg produces the base rēx because a final -c or -g unites with a final -s, forming -x instead.
- Nouns in -ēs, -is, -ns, -rs, -e, -al, and -ar have i-stems.
- The peculiarities of the i-stems in the third declension are: Masculines and feminines end with -ium in the genitive plural and with -īs, instead of -ēs, in the accusative plural; the neuters end with -ī in the ablative singular and have -i- in each of their plural forms.
- Caedēs, cliēns, hostis, turris, urbs.
- Turris, turris, turrī, turrem, turre (turrī); turrēs, turrium, turribus, turrīs, turribus.
- The rules for gender in the third declension:
- Words denoting males are masculine and words denoting female are feminine as usual.
- Nouns in -or, -ōs, -er, and -es are masculine; except arbor (f.) and iter (n.).
- Nouns in -ō, -is, -x, and -s preceded by a consonant or any long vowel except -ō are feminine; except masculines collis, lapis, mēnsis, ōrdō, and pēs; the four monosyllables dēns, fōns, mōns, and pōns; and nouns in -nis and -guis (e.g. ignis, sanguis).
- Nouns in -e, -al, -ar, -n, -ur, and -us are neuter; caput is also neuter.
§ 520, p. 275Edit
§ 521, p. 275Edit
§ 522, p. 277Edit
§ 523, p. 277Edit
- Latin adjectives are declined by the first, second, and third declension.
- Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems.
- Adjectives of the third declension are divided into:
- Adjectives of three endings,
- adjectives of two endings, and
- adjectives of one ending.
- Adjectives in -er have three endings, those in -is have two endings, and the rest have one ending.
- The nominative endings in the fourth declension is -us for masculines and -ū for neuters.
- By exception feminines are domus, manus, and a handful of others.
- The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative; the place from which is expressed by ā/ab, dē, ē/ex with the (separative) ablative; the place in which is expressed by in with the ablative.
- The names of towns and small islands as well as rūs all omit the prepositions in expressions of place. E.g. Agamemnon Spartam properat. -- Agamemnon hurries to Sparta; Ulixes Ilio Aeaeae maturat. -- Odysseus hurries from Troy to the island Aeaea.
- The locative case expressed the place relation -- expressed in English by the prepositions at and in -- formerly in Latin.
- The singular of names of towns and small islands belonging to the first or second declension have a locative case.
- The form of locative case is identical to the genitive singular.
- Galba domī habitat., Galba Rōmae habitat., Galba Pompēiīs habitat.
- The gender of nouns of the fifth declension is feminine, except for diēs and merīdiēs.
- Diēs, diēī, diēī, diem, diē, diēs, diērum, diēs, diēbus, diēbus; rēs, rēī, rēī, rem, rē, rēs, rērum, rēs, rēbus, rēbus.
- A long ē is shortened before m.
- Most nouns of the fifth declension lack the plural forms, except diēs and rēs which have the plural forms too.
- The time when is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.
- The pronouns are classified as follows:
- Personal pronouns express the person spoken to or spoken of;
- possessive pronouns denote possession;
- reflexive pronouns refer back to the subject;
- intensive pronouns emphasise a noun;
- demonstrative pronouns point out things or persons;
- relative pronouns connect subordinate adjective clauses with an antecedent;
- interrogative pronouns ask questions; and
- indefinite pronouns point out indefinitely.
- For the first person the personal pronoun ego and for the second person the personal pronoun tū are used as reflexive pronouns as well.
- The reflexive pronoun for the third preson is suus/sua/suum.
- Mē videō./Sē videt./Eum videt.
- Ipse is used to emphasise a noun or a pronoun.
- Īdem is used as a demonstrative pronoun denoting that two (or more) objects are in fact the same object; hic is used to denote a definite object near the speaker, ille is used to denote a definite object not near the speaker nor the listener, and iste is used to denote a definite object near the listener.
- Aliquis -- some; quis -- some one, any one; quīdam -- a certain; quisquam -- any one (at all); quisque -- each, every.