Beginners Guide to Ladino/Verbs in Ladino


  -ar verbs (avlar) -er verbs (komer) -ir verbs (bivir)
yo -o (avlo) -o (komo) (bivo)
tu -as (avlas) -es (komes) (bives)
el eya -a (avla) -e (kome) (bive)
mozotros -amos (avlamos) -emos (komemos) -imos (bivimos)
vozotros -ash (avlash) -ésh (komésh) -ísh (bivísh)
eyos -an (avlan) -en (komen) (biven)


In Ladino, the preterite indicates that an action taken once in the past was also completed at some point in the past. This is as opposed to the imperfect tense which refers to any continuous, habitual, unfinished or repetitive past action. Thus, "I ate falafel yesterday" would use the first-person preterite form of eat, comí, whereas "When I lived in Izmir, I ran five miles every evening" would use the first-person imperfect tense form, koría. Though some of the morphology has changed, usage is just as in normative Castilian.

Typical conjugation:

  -ar verbs (avlar) -er verbs (komer) and -ir verbs (bivir)
yo -í (avlí) -í (komí) (biví)
tu -ates (avlates) -ites (komites) (bivites)
el eya -ó (avló) -yó (komyó) (bivyó)
mozotros -amos (avlamos) -imos (komimos) (bivimos)
vozotros -atesh (avlatesh) -itesh (komitesh) (bivitesh)
eyos -aron (avlaron) -yeron (komyeron) (bivyeron)