XML - Managing Data Exchange/Glossary

Previous Chapter Next Chapter
acord Contributors


0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Microsoft .NET Framework
Microsoft .NET Framework is a software component that is part of several Microsoft Windows operating systems. It has a large library of pre-coded solutions to common programming problems and manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework.
Association for Cooperative Operations Research and Development
ACORD is the insurance industry's nonprofit standards developer, a resource for information about object technology, EDI, XML and electronic commerce in the United States and abroad.
Among other things, ACORD governs an XML based data model to provide an easy way to exchange data between insurance companies, insurance brokers, other insurance related firms and governments.
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
AJAX is a group of inter-related web development techniques used for creating interactive web applications.
A primary characteristic is the increased responsiveness and interactivity of web pages achieved by exchanging small amounts of data with the server "behind the scenes" so that entire web pages do not have to be reloaded each time there is a need to get data from the server. This is intended to increase the web page's interactivity, speed, functionality and usability.
American National Standards Institute
ANSI is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. For example, standards make sure that people who own cameras can find the film they need for them anywhere around the globe.
Application Programming Interface
API is a source code interface that an operating system, library or service provides to support requests made by computer programs.
American Standard Code InformationInterchange
ASCII is a character encoding based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. Most modern character encodings — which support many more characters than did the original — have a historical basis in ASCII.
Analog Signal Processing
ASP means processing electronic signals that represent continuous variables by use of analog circuitry.
Advanced Stream Redirector
ASX format is a type of XML metafile designed to store a list of Windows Media files to play during a multimedia presentation.
It is used frequently on streaming video servers where multiple ASF files are to be played in succession. Both RTSP and MMS streaming protocols are supported, as well as HTTP.
Broadcast HyperText Markup Language
BHTML extends HTML by adding attributes for standardizing multimedia object descriptions within HTML OBJECT elements, using the SMIL SWITCH option and introducing an EVENT element to manage the actions to be taken when certain conditions are encountered.
Common Gateway Interface
CGI is a standard protocol for interfacing external application software with an information server, commonly a web server. The task of such an information server is to respond to requests (in the case of web servers, requests from client web browsers) by returning output. Each time a request is received, the server analyzes what the request asks for, and returns the appropriate output.
Chemical Markup Language
CML is a new approach to managing molecular information using tools such as XML and Java. It was the first domain specific implementation based strictly on XML, the most robust and widely used system for precise information management in many areas.
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CORBA is a standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG) that enables software components written in multiple computer languages and running on multiple computers to work together.
Cascading Style Sheets
CSS is a language that describes the presentation form of a structured document. An XML or an HTML based document does not have a set style, but it consists of structured text without style information. How the document will look when printed on paper and viewed in a browser or maybe a cellphone is determined by a style sheet.
Data Access Definition
A data access definition (DAD) file is used for both XML Column and XML Collection approaches to define the "mapping" between the database tables and the structure of the XML document.
DB2 is one of IBM's families of relational database management system (or, as IBM now calls it, data server) software products within IBM's broader Information Management Software line.
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an open organization engaged in the development of interoperable online metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models. DCMI's activities include work on architecture and modeling, discussions and collaborative work in DCMI Communities and DCMI Task Groups, annual conferences and workshops, standards liaison, and educational efforts to promote widespread acceptance of metadata standards and practices.
Distributed Component Object Model
DCOM is a proprietary Microsoft technology for communication among software components distributed across networked computers. DCOM, which originally was called "Network OLE", extends Microsoft's COM, and provides the communication substrate under Microsoft's COM+ application server infrastructure. It has been deprecated in favor of Microsoft .NET.
Dynamic HyperText Markup Language
DHTML is a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript), a presentation definition language (Cascading Style Sheets, CSS), and the Document Object Model.
Document Object Model
DOM is a platform- and language-independent standard object model for representing HTML or XML and related formats.
Document Style Semantics and Specification Language
DSSSL is a stylesheet language for both print and online rendering. It is mainly intended to work with SGML.
Document Type Definition
A DTD is the XML Document Type Definition contains or points to markup declarations that provide a grammar for a class of documents.
Dual Tone Multi Frequency
Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice-frequency band to the call switching center. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone (canceled March 13, 1984), and is standardized by ITU-T Recommendation Q.23. Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network.
Digital Visual Interface
European Computer Manufacturers Association Script
ECMAScript is a scripting language, standardized by Ecma International in the ECMA-262 specification. The language is widely used on the web, and is often referred to as JavaScript or JScript, after the two primary dialects of the specification.
Electronic Data Interchange
EDI is traditional data exchange standard for large organizations. It supports the electronic exchange of standard business documents and is currently the major data format for electronic commerce.
European Telecommunications Standards Institution
ETSI is an independent, non-for-profit, standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. It has been successful in standardizing the GSM cell phone system and the TETRA professional mobile radio system.
Formatting Objects
File Transfer Protocol
FTP is a file transfer protocol for exchanging files over any TCP/IP based network to manipulate files on another computer on that network regardless of which operating systems are involved (if the computers permit FTP access). There are many existing FTP client and server programs. FTP servers can be set up anywhere between game servers, voice servers, internet hosts, and other physical servers.
Graphics Interchange Format
GIF is an 8-bit-per-pixel bitmap image format that was introduced by CompuServe in 1987 and has since come into widespread usage on the World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability.
The format uses a palette of up to 256 distinct colors from the 24-bit RGB color space.
Geography Markup Language
GML is the XML grammar defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to express geographical features.
Global Unique Identifier
Globally Unique Identifiers are numbers assigned to a data object for use in a remote database. This identifier is assigned by the server.
Hypertext Markup Language
HTML is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document — by denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists, and so on — and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of tags, surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such as JavaScript) which can affect the behavior of Web browsers and other HTML processors.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTML is a communications protocol for the transfer of information on the intranet and the World Wide Web. Its original purpose was to provide a way to publish and retrieve hypertext pages over the Internet.
Integrated Development Environment
IDE is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of a source code editor, a compiler and/or interpreter, build automation tools, and (usually) a debugger. IDEs are designed to maximise programmer productivity by providing tightly-knit components with similar user interfaces, thus minimising the amount of mode switching the programmer must do comparing to loose, discrete collections of disparate development programs.
Interface Description Language
IDL is a specification language used to describe a software component's interface. IDLs describe an interface in a language-neutral way, enabling communication between software components that do not share a language – for example, between components written in C++ and components written in Java.
IDLs are commonly used in remote procedure call software. In these cases the machines at either end of the ""link"" may be using different operating systems and computer languages. IDLs offer a bridge between the two different systems.
Identifier REFerence
Interactive Financial Exchange
IFX is an XML specification for financial transactions such as bill presentment and payment, business to business and consumer to business banking (e.g.: balances, financial transaction information), payments and automated teller machine (ATM) communications.
International Mobile Equipment Identifier
IMEI is a number unique to every GSM and UMTS mobile phone. It is usually found printed on the phone underneath the battery.
The IMEI number is used by the GSM network to identify valid devices and therefore can be used to stop a stolen phone from accessing the network. For example, if a mobile phone is stolen, the owner can call his or her network provider and instruct them to ""ban"" the phone using its IMEI number. This renders the phone useless, regardless of whether the phone's SIM is changed.
International Organization for Standardization
ISO is an international-standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promulgates world-wide proprietary industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
Java EE
Java Platform Enterprise Edition
Java EE is a widely used platform for server programming in the Java programming language. The Java EE Platform differs from the Standard Edition (SE) of Java in that it adds libraries which provide functionality to deploy fault-tolerant, distributed, multi-tier Java software, based largely on modular components running on an application server.
Java ARchive
In computing, a JAR file is used for aggregating many files into one. It is generally used to distribute Java classes and associated metadata.
Java is a programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-level facilities. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture.
Java API for XML Processing
Java API for XML Processing is one of the Java XML programming APIs. It provides the capability of validating and parsing XML documents. The three basic parsing interfaces are the Document Object Model parsing interface (DOM interface), the Simple API for XML parsing interface (SAX interface) and the Streaming API for XML (StAX interface).
Java API for XML Registries (pronounced "jaks-p")
JAXR creates a layer of abstraction, so that it can be used with UDDI and other types of XML Registries, such as the ebXML Registry and Repository standard.
Java Community Process
JCP is a formalized process which allows interested parties to be involved in the definition of future versions and features of the Java platform.
Java DataBase Connectivity
JDBC is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. It provides methods for querying and updating data in a database. JDBC is oriented towards relational databases.
JDesktop Network Components
JDNC is a SwingLab subproject concerning contained components that allow to build easily Swing-based rich-client Java applications. The project is no more actively maintained. It has been replaced by Swing Application Framework (JSR 296)
Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPEG is a commonly used method of compression for photographic images. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG typically achieves 10 to 1 compression with little perceivable loss in image quality.
JPEG is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices, and is the most common format for storing and transmitting photographic images on the World Wide Web.
JavaServer Pages
JSP is a Java technology that allows software developers to dynamically generate HTML, XML or other types of documents in response to a Web client request. The technology allows Java code and certain pre-defined actions to be embedded into static content.
The JSP syntax adds additional XML-like tags, called JSP actions, to be used to invoke built-in functionality. Additionally, the technology allows for the creation of JSP tag libraries that act as extensions to the standard HTML or XML tags. Tag libraries provide a platform independent way of extending the capabilities of a Web server.
JSP-page in XML-notation
JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library
A collection of four custom-tag libraries which extend the JSP specification. As a component it is allocated in the Java EE Web application development platform.
Keyhole Markup Language
KML is an XML-based Markup language for managing the display of three-dimensional geospatial data in the programs Google Earth, Google Maps, Google Mobile, ArcGIS Explorer and World Wind.
KMZ files
Data compression / zipped KML file
Local Unique Identifier
Locally Unique Identifiers (LUID) are numbers assigned by the client to a data object in a local database (like a field or a row). They are non-reusable numbers assigned to these objects by the SyncML client.
Message-Digest algorithm 5
In cryptography, MD5 is a widely used, partially insecure cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. As an Internet standard, MD5 has been employed in a wide variety of security applications, and is also commonly used to check the integrity of files. An MD5 hash is typically expressed as a 32 digit hexadecimal number.
Maker Interchange Format
MIF is a proprietary markup language associated with Adobe Systems' FrameMaker product for technical document preparation.
While MIF is essentially specific to a single program (FrameMaker), it was widely used in the complex document workflows of small enterprises, especially in the industrial and manufacturing sector.
MIME type
An Internet media type, originally called a MIME type after MIME and sometimes a Content-type after the name of a header in several protocols whose value is such a type, is a two-part identifier for file formats on the Internet. The identifiers were originally defined in RFC 2046 for use in e-mail sent through SMTP, but their use has expanded to other protocols such as HTTP and SIP.
A media type is composed of at least two parts: a type, a subtype, and one or more optional parameters. For example, subtypes of text type have an optional charset parameter that can be included to indicate the character encoding, and subtypes of multipart type often define a boundary between parts.
Markup Language
A markup language is an artificial language using a set of annotations to text that describe how text is to be structured, laid out, or formatted.
Multimedia Messaging Service
MMS is a standard for telephone messaging systems that allows sending messages that include multimedia objects (images, audio, video, rich text) and not just text as in Short Message Service (SMS). It is mainly deployed in cellular networks along with other messaging systems like SMS, Mobile Instant Messaging and Mobile E-mail.
Moving Picture Experts Group
Moving Picture Experts Group, commonly referred to as simply MPEG, is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. MPEG has standardized a variety of compression formats and ancillary standards.
MySQL is an open source relational database that supports XML. You can use the MySQL command line or a programming language of your choice to convert your MySQL databases and or tables to a well formed XML document.
API Open DataBase Connectivity
In computing, Open Database Connectivity provides a standard software API method for using database management systems (DBMS). The designers of ODBC aimed to make it independent of programming languages, database systems, and operating systems.
OpenGIS Consortium
Open Geospatial Consortium
The Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. is a non-profit, international, voluntary consensus standards organization that is leading the development of standards for geospatial and location based services.
OpenOffice.org is exactly what its title suggests: an open source office applications suite. It is based on the source of Sun Microsystems' StarOffice, which was donated to the open source community in 2000. OpenOffice.org will read and save files in several formats used by other office applications, but its default format is OpenDocument, which is an XML format standardized by OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards).
Personal Digital Assistants
PDA a handheld computer, also known as small or palmtop computers.
Portable Document Format
PDF is a fixed-layout format used for representing two-dimensional documents in a manner independent of the application software, hardware, and operating system. Each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a 2-D document (and, with Acrobat 3-D, embedded 3-D documents) that includes the text, fonts, images, and 2-D vector graphics that compose the documents.
Hypertext Preprocessor
PHP is a computer scripting language, originally designed for producing dynamic web pages. It is for server-side scripting, but can be used from a command line interface or in standalone graphical applications.
Phone Markup Language
Portable Network Graphics
PNG is a bitmapped image format that employs lossless data compression. PNG was created to improve upon and replace the GIF format, as an image-file format not requiring a patent license.
Resource Description Framework
RDF is an international-standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promulgates world-wide proprietary industrial and commercial standards. It is headquarter
Resource Description Framework Schema
RDFS is an international-standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promulgates world-wide proprietary industrial and commercial standards.
Remote Procedure Call
RPC is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one host to cause code to be executed on another host without the programmer needing to explicitly code for this. An RPC is initiated by the caller (client) sending a request message to a remote system (the server) to execute a certain procedure using arguments supplied. A result message is returned to the caller. There are many variations and subtleties in various implementations, resulting in a variety of different (incompatible) RPC protocols.
RDF Site Summary
RSS is a simple XML format used to syndicate headlines. It is now popularly used by websites that publish new content regularly and provide a list of headlines with links to their latest content. Content such as news feeds, events listings, project updates, blogger and most recently podcasting, video and image distribution can all be distributed by RSS.
Rich Text Format
RTF is a free document file format developed by Microsoft in 1987 for cross-platform document interchange. Most word processors are able to read and write RTF documents.
Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange
Microsoft's proprietary alternative to SMIL.
Simple API for XML
The SAX classes provide an interface between the input streams from which XML documents are read and the client software which receives the data made available by the parser. The parser browses through the whole document and fires events every time it recognizes an XML construct.
Secure File Transfer Protocol
SFTP is a program that uses SSH to transfer files. Unlike standard FTP, it encrypts both commands and data, preventing passwords and sensitive information from being transmitted in the clear over the network.
Standard Generalized Markup Language
The Standard Generalized Markup Language is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents.
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (pronounced "smile")
SMIL is a specialized language to describe the presentation of media objects. It enables simple authoring of interactive audiovisual presentations. SMIL is a XML based language and typically used for "rich media"/multimedia presentations which integrate streaming audio and video with images, text or any other media type.
Simple Object Access Protocol
SOAP is a method for sending information to and from Web Services in an extensible format. SOAP can be used to send information or remote procedure calls encoded as XML. Essentially, SOAP serves as a universally accepted method of communication with web services. Businesses adhere to the SOAP conventions in order to simplify the process of interacting with Web Services.
Standard Query Language
SQL is a database computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database management systems, database schema creation and modification, and database object access and control management.
Speech Recognition Grammar Specification
Synthesized Speech Markup Language
There is an existing set of XML tags for Voice XML, called SSML. This set enables control of enough aspects of speech generation that a personable voice can be generated and manipulated by a user. A Text-to-Speech system uses the tags to take a text file and generate audible text in a voice.
Scalable Vector Graphics
SVG is a XML based, open-standard vector graphics file format and Web development language created by the W3C, and has been designed to be compatible with other W3C standards such as DOM, CSS, XML, XSLT, XSL, SMIL, HTML, and XHTML. It enables the creation of dynamically generated, high-quality graphics from real-time data. SVG allows you to design high-resolution graphics that can include elements such as gradients, embedded fonts, transparency, animation, and filter effects.
SyncML for Java
Synthesized Speech Markup Language
There is an existing set of XML tags for Voice XML, called SSML. This set enables control of enough aspects of speech generation that a personable voice can be generated and manipulated by a user. A Text-to-Speech system uses the tags to take a text file and generate audible text in a voice.
Transport Layer Security and Secure Socket Layer
TLS/SSL is a very secure and reliable protocol that provides end-to-end security sessions between two parties. XML adds an extra layer of security to TLS/SSL by encrypting part or all of the data being exchanged and by allowing for secure sessions between more than two parties.
Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
UDDI defines registries in which services can be published and found. The UDDI specification was creaed by Microsoft, Ariba, and IBM and defines a data structure and Application Programming Interface (API).
United Nations/Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce, and Transport
UN/EDIFACT is the international EDI standard developed under the United Nations.
Uniform Resource Identifier
URI is a compact string of characters used to identify or name a resource. The main purpose of this identification is to enable interaction with representations of the resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web, using specific protocols. URIs are defined in schemes defining a specific syntax and associated protocols.
Uniform Resource Locator
URL is a technical, web-related term used in two distinct meanings: In popular usage and many technical documents, it is a synonym for URI. In popular usage, it means a web page address. Strictly it is a compact string of characters for a resource available via the Internet.
Speaking web data
VoiceXML is created to generate audio dialogs that allows the use of synthesized speech, digitized audio, recognition of spoken and DTMF(Dual Tone Multi-Frequency Touch-tone or push-button dialing.) In other words, VoiceXML allows the use of computer speech, recorded audio, human speech, and telephones as input and output devices.
World Wide Web Consortium
W3C is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
Wireless Application Protocol
WAP Binary XML
WAP Binary XML (WBXML) is a form of XML whereby the XML tags are abbreviated in order to shorten the markup for transmission to mobile devices, which commonly have bandwidth and memory limitations. The XML tags are encoded into a binary shorthand to save space.
Wide-band Code-Division Multiple Access
Web Distributed Data eXchange
WDDX was created by Allaire, now known as Macromedia, to solve the problem of exchanging data between different web applications. This XML-based technology enables complex data to be exchanged between totally different Web programming languages by creating 'Web Syndicate Networks.'
Windows Media Player
Wireless Markup Language
Web Service Description Language (pronounced "wiz-dal")
WSDL is an XML-based language that provides a model for describing Web services.
World Wide Web (also W3)
ASC X12 (also known as ANSI ASC X12)
X.12 the official designation of the U.S. national standards body for the development and maintenance of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards.
XALAN is a XSLT processor for transforming XML documents into HTML.
XML Binding Language
XBL describes the ability to associate elements in a document with script, event handlers, CSS and more complex content models, which can be stored in another document.
eXtensible Business Reporting Language
XForms are the next generation of HTML forms and is richer and more flexible than HTML forms.
XForms uses XML for data definition and HTML or XHTML for data display. XForms separates the data logic of a form from its presentation. Separating data from presentation makes XForms device independent, because the data model can be used for all devices.
eXtensible HyperText Markup Language
XHTML is a cross between HTML and XML.
A XLink allows elements to be inserted into XML documents that create links between resources such as documents, images, files and other pages. It is similar in concept to an HTML hyperlink, but is more powerful and flexible.
eXtensible Markup Language
XML is a technology for managing data exchange.
XML is a general-purpose specification for creating custom markup languages. It is classified as an extensible language because it allows its users to define their own elements. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of structured data across different information systems, particularly via the Internet, and it is used both to encode documents and to serialize data.
XML document
A XML document is a XML file containing XML code.
XML schema
A XML Schema is a XML file that describes the structure of a document and its tags.
XML stylesheet
An XML file containing formatting instructions for an XML file.
XML-RPC is a remote procedure call protocol, which uses XML to encode its calls and HTTP as a transport mechanism. It is a very simple protocol, defining only a handful of data types and commands, and the entire description can be printed on two pages of paper.
eXtensible Metadata Platform
The XMP is a specification describing RDF-based data and storage models for metadata about documents in any format. XMP can be included in text files such as HTML or SVG, image formats such as JPEG or GIF and Adobe's own formats like Photoshop or Acrobat.
XPath is a language for finding information in an XML document. XPath is used to navigate through elements and attributes in an XML document.
eXtensible Query Language
XQL is a query language designed specifically for XML. In the same sense that SQL is a query language for relational tables and OQL is a query language for objects stored in an object database, XQL is a query language for XML documents.
XQuery is a query language under development by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The ambitious task is to develop the first world standard for querying Web documents. XQuery is a versatile markup language, capable of labeling the information content of diverse data sources including structured and semi-structured documents, relational databases, and object repositories.
XML Stylesheet Language
eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations
XSLT is an XML-based language used for the transformation of XML documents into other XML or "human-readable" documents.
eXtensible Server Pages
XML SQL Utility
Oracle's XML SQL Utility uses a schematic mapping that defines how to map tables and views, including object-relational features, to XML documents. Oracle translates the chain of object references from the database into the hierarchical structure of XML elements.
eXtensible User Interface Language
XUL is an XML-based user interface language originally developed for use in the Netscape browser. It is now maintained by Mozilla. Like HTML, in XUL you can create an interface using a relatively simple markup language, define the appearance with CSS style sheets, and use JavaScript to manipulate behavior. Unlike HTML, however, XUL provides a rich set of user interface widgets to create, for example, menus, toolbars and tabbed panels.
The XULRunner is a Mozilla runtime package that can be used to bootstrap XUL+XPCOM applications that are as rich as Firefox and Thunderbird. It will provide mechanisms for installing, upgrading, and uninstalling these applications. XULRunner will also provide libxul, a solution, which allows the embedding of Mozilla technologies in other projects and products.