Western Music History/Baroque Music

Introduction edit

The Baroque Period spans from early 1600 to 1750. During this time there were increases in commercial activity, leading to an increase of power in the middle class, which ultimately lead to the Industrial Revolution.

Opera was now emerging for the first time, with many opera houses being built. The two 'giants' of the Baroque era were Bach and Handel.

Bach's death in 1750 marked the end of the Baroque period. Other main composers of this period were Monteverdi, Purcell, Vivaldi, Corelli, Telemann, and Rameau.

The Baroque era is sub-divided into Early Baroque, Middle Baroque and Late Baroque. The Early Baroque period was between about 1600 and 1660. During this period came the invention of opera – a drama sung to an orchestral accompaniment - and homophonic texture was favored. The Middle Baroque period dates from about 1660 to 1710. Here church modes give way to major and minor chords. Instrumental music becomes very important, and the fully fledged orchestra is now developed. The Late Baroque begins about 1710 and ends circa 1750. Polyphony once more flourishes, most notably of all in the works of Bach.

Rhetoric and Symbolism edit

The art of clear, effective, and impactful communication is, and has been, a focus of all art forms for centuries. Ancient Greece explored rhetoric and dialectics, and in the centuries that followed, the principles of the two became central to countless aspects of day-to-day life. An approach informed by an understanding of individual rhetorical figures and the broader effects that the pieces contain must be utilized to explore baroque music and its rhetorical devices properly. Baroque composers, particularly German baroque composers, were fixated on the expression and communication of extra-musical ideas, and thus, the overall goal of baroque music “is defined by the composer's intent to objectively present a rationalized emotional state referred to as an affection.”[1] This goal thereby extends the concepts of the renaissance related to the topic. Bartel outlines that “to the Renaissance affectus exprimere the Baroque added affectus movere,”[1] or in other words, the goal of composers shifted from the simple and clear presentation of an emotion to the moving of the affections to alter the listener's emotional state. The common codes, being music-rhetorical figures, or figurenlehren, and their context allowed for effective and clear communication of extra-musical ideas and worked together with other musical elements to convey a more general affect.

Musica Poetica and Its Roots edit

Musica poetica, or musical-rhetorical thought, can be understood as a merging of elements of oratory and music. Classical rhetoric, as used in oratory, involves a “division of the art of verbal discourse”[2] containing the elements: inventio, dispositio, elocutio, decoratio, and pronuntiatio. Thus, orators would use the structures and rules of rhetoric to form a compelling argument and convince an audience of the validity of their viewpoint and simultaneously move, delight, and teach listeners. During the Enlightenment, the writings of Greek philosophers, such as Aristotle’s Rhetorica, fascinated society and pervaded many movements, and in the seventeenth century, rhetoric and musical thought became deeply interconnected. Understanding of topics and their proper rhetorical development for the conveyance of affects became a top priority, and “in 1739, […] Mattheson laid out a fully organized, rational plan of musical composition borrowed from those sections of rhetorical theory concerned with finding and presenting arguments,”[2] which while composers were certainly not expected to follow to this plan strictly, it could be used as a tool to help guide composition.

Figurenlehren: Musical-Rhetorical Figures edit

Musica poetica and specific rhetorical figures, called figurenlehren, worked together to emphasize an overarching affect, particularly in the German Lutheran musical tradition. The figures acted as a common code between the composer and the audience with the support of their context. Choice of mode, rhythms, and tone painting also had an impact on the affect but was more dependent on the supporting context than the figurenlehren. The figures were divided by Mattheson into seven overarching categories[3], being figures of (1) melodic repetition, (2) fugal imitation, (3) representation and depiction, (4) dissonance and displacement, (5) silence and interruption, (6) melodic and harmonic ornamentation, and (7) miscellaneous figures. Some of these figures were highly specific, while others had more general forms and shapes or were based on the general phrase direction.

Fig. 1 - "Et resurrexit", B Minor Mass - J.S. Bach

Figures of representation and depiction:[4] edit

Fig. 2 - Rosary Sonata X - H.I. Biber

The more specific figures were those of representation and depiction, as classified by Mattheson. These figures effectively worked together with the text or provided more extra-musical meaning in instrumental works.

The anabasis, also known as the ascensus, is a figure of ascension or exultation, utilizing an ascending musical passage. As in figure 1, this figure would frequently accompany theological texts about the ascension and resurrection but could also be easily utilized in secular or even instrumental works. As demonstrated in figure 1, it could also be understood as an example of emphasis, defined as a musical passage which heightens the meaning of the text.

The assimilatio, or homoiosis, is a musical representation of the extra-musical imagery, such as the figure of the cross or an illustration of fluttering wings. Figure 2 illustrates the symbol of the cross as it was used in the Catholic tradition. A straight line could be drawn from the top note[5] to the bottom, with the B and D in the middle for the smaller line of the cross.

Fig. 3 - Sound the Trumpet, Beat the Drum - H. Purcell
Fig. 4 - Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen - J.S. Bach

The circulatio figure is a series of notes, often eighth or sixteenth notes, in sine or waveform. Purcell used this figure extensively on words such as 'turn,' 'round,' or, as in figure 3, the word ‘flow’. Figure 3 also fits into the category of hypotyposis, which is a musical representation of an extra-musical idea, in this case, the flowing of the notes reinforcing the text. It is consistent throughout the work, as the word 'flow' is frequently set over a similar set of notes as in the above example.

The catabasis, or descensus, is a figure that follows a descending passage in order to "express descending, lowly, or negative affections."[6] This will often accompany topics of pain, worry, sorrow, or death in theological settings. In figure 4, Bach utilizes the catabasis on the text of ‘weinen, klagen, sorgen’[7] to emphasize the mournful affect of the passage.

Fig. 5 -  “Rejoice, Greatly,” Messiah – G.F. Handel
Fig. 6 - Rappresentatione de Anima - Cavalieri

The exclamatio is a musical exclamation, usually coinciding with an exclamation in the text. In the Messiah, by G.F. Handel, there are frequent examples of this, such as in the famous soprano aria, "Rejoice, Greatly," where there are frequent iterations of 'shout' and 'rejoice,' as in figure 5.

Fuga in alio sensu is a musical passage that vividly expresses fleeing or chasing. Often, this figure involves rapid subdivisions such as eighth or sixteenth notes. In figure 6, fuga in alio sensu is utilized, accompanying the word ‘fugge.’[8] Also demonstrated in the same figure is the interrogatio, a musical question. The interrogatio can be accomplished by pauses, a rising of pitch at the end of a phrase, or certain cadence types. In figure 6, it is accomplished by the rise of the melodic line that follows the rapid sixteenth notes.

Fig. 7 – ‘Crucifixus’ B Minor Mass – J.S. Bach

Finally, the pathopoeia expresses affections such as sorrow, terror, or fear through semitone motion beyond the standard harmony or a piece. One example is the lament bass figure in the ‘Crucifixus’ movement of J.S. Bach’s B Minor Mass, as shown in figure 7. This lament bass is a well-known figure falling under the larger category of pathopoeia and effectively supports the affection of sorrow and pain expressed throughout the movement.

Beyond Germany edit

While it was certainly prominent in German music, it was not exclusive to it by any means. In France, Mersenne asserted that “musicians were orators who must compose melodies as if they were orations”[2] and included all the sections, divisions, and periods appropriate to an oration in his Harmonie Universelle. Similarly, in Rome, Kircher titled a section of Musurgia Universalis, his encyclopedia on theory and music practice, Musurgia rhetorica, and in it, he emphasized the connection between rhetoric and music in their usage of inventio, dispositio and elocutio. In England, prominent composers such as Handel and Purcell are known to have made extensive use of rhetorical devices.

Thus, just as an orator had to determine their subject (inventio), composers needed to develop a musical subject or theme that could be expanded upon and explored in a composition. From here, composers could utilize tools and elements of rhetoric, such as the dispositio, elocutio, decoratio, pronunciatio, and more. However, unlike the more structured process that orators were to follow in the composition of their speech, composers were not held to such strict adherence; instead, the rhetorical structures were at the composer's disposal to use as needed and could be skipped or revisited in an order decided upon the composer. A composer, therefore, had more freedom in their creative process than an orator in this way.

Other Creations of Rhetoric edit

Tools of rhetoric pervaded musical compositions throughout the Western world, evident even in the structural forms. The da capo aria, with an ABA form that presents, develops and reviews a subject. Fugal compositions, such as those by J.S. Bach, have a sole focus of developing a subject, or thema, which is ultimately to fugue what the inventio is to orators. This is developed through tools of imitation, inversion, and more, as well as the structural arrangement into expositions and episodes, allowing for the effective development of the subject or subjects. These forms are just two of many that, much like how an orator writes a speech, guided composers and assisted in achieving coherency and understanding. Further, these compositional structures pervaded traditions in all the major Western musical centers.

Context and the Overall Affection edit

While the musical-rhetorical figures themselves do hold some individual significance and validity, the impact and full implications of these figures are determined by the context of the complete musical selection. Ornamentations in music, whether in harmony or melody, allows compositions to “depart from the simple method of composition, and with elegance assume and adopt a more ornate character,”[9] thus transforming simple phrases into elegant and complex musical statements. Thus, it can be inferred that the overarching ideas and affections guided the choices of figures and rhetorical devices used by composers. The context was important and to be considered by the composer as they made their rhetorical decisions so that the figures would support the content of a work and its text, as applicable. Thus, while detailed analysis is fascinating, it is vital to zoom out and appreciate the overall affect that is achieved by the composition.

Music in Society edit

Music was the main source of entertainment/diversion in the Baroque era. Aristocrats surrounded themselves with concert halls etc.... Music directors were employed by the aristocracy to oversee orchestras, choirs, instruments, music libraries etc... They were highly paid and prestigious positions in Baroque society. Music was a craft passed down over generations, a musician teaching the craft to his son, and he to his son. Commercial opera houses were about and flourishing.

Music and Power edit

Music In France under Absolutism edit

Baroque music in France always tended to sustain a conservative approach on the musical level. Unlike their European counterparts, such as the Italians, who were well-known for drawing out the intensity of the affects and emotions with their music, French baroque music aimed purposely for the quality of the sound itself. A well-developed scientific outlook on this can be attributed to Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), who published L’Harmonie Universelle in 1636, which describes the intricacies and the components of what makes certain sounds and harmonies “flattering to the ear”[10], according to his work. This research also parallels the ensemble of humanistic principles, for it unveils the reasoning and the experimental process to obtain the exquisite “French sound” in its total capacity.

France’s music during the totalitarian regime of Louis XIV (1638-1715) had a significant influence throughout the continent, especially in the way the courts would perform it. Court music in France was mainly played for entertainment and stature purposes, to display and affirm the monarchy’s authority towards the foreigners. The instrumental music would be used for the ballet de cour dances that the king would hold inside the court, which for the most part, were composed in accordance with the choreography of the ballets[11] . France depicted court dancing as an embodiment of their artistic identity, which expresses the absolute connection of the mind, soul, body, and spirit to the rest of the European continent. With their arts’ touch of grace and distinctive refinement, Europe would label France’s culture and aesthetic as an elegance and fashion pillar.

One specific and iconic musical ensemble in Louis XIV’s court was the Vingt-Quatre Violons du Roi[12] , led by Guillaume Dumanoir (1615-1697). This musical group included Michel Lambert (1610-1696), a singer and theorbist, and the Italian-born Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687), a master of the French baroque sound. Lully’s Italian background sculpted and deliberately influenced the French’s baroque sound, putting aside the passion-driven Italian music and leaning towards the reason field. His ballet compositions held the French taste through their rhythmic style but were heavily influenced by the Italian Bel-canto in his recits and airs[13] . Lully and the rest of the band would perform major concerts exclusively for important bureaucratic events to showcase the empire’s greatness. This approach to music performance eventually started raising competition all around Europe, mainly when the Versailles court was constructed. France’s musical objective began shifting from the stylistic, vogue approach to more political, cultural-identity-fixed artistic creations. This concept of competition that is starting to settle in the musical and artistic realms directly paved the way towards France’s, and consequently Europe’s, period of Enlightenment.

Musical Nationalism in England edit

The various political entanglements in the British empire significantly shaped the music in the baroque era, especially between reigns and periods. During the Stuart period (1603-1642), musical works, especially church music, did not attach any political signification to their sacred songs, not until the English Civil War (1642-1649), a time when music was used as one of the most reliable tools for propaganda publicity[14]. Both parties were associated with different religious affiliations, mainly the Calvinist and the Puritans opposing the Armenians and the Anglicans. Before the war, the Puritans were already altering the musical practices inside their churches to suit the congregational needs, such as cutting the choirs and the organs for monetary and maintenance purposes[15], which had no political connotation whatsoever around the 1580s. However, later, the tension between Charles I (1600-1649) and the Parliament grew bigger as Charles I would dissociate the Parliament by suppressing its members in order for him to maintain his political strength. Before that, Bishop of Canterbury William Laud (1573-1645) and the Anglican church were already systematically controlling the reforms and the religious writings of the Puritan church since the 1630s[16], causing more division between the social classes of each opposing church. Furthermore, publication licensing modifications around the 1640s allowed the churches to release uncensored musical works and pamphlets, which became an independent topic of publication when the English Civil War blew up, using those publications as means of political indoctrination, both in the cases of the Royalist faction of the Parliamentarian faction.

One of the first sacred works that vehicled propaganda publicity was published in 1641 called The Organs Echo, a musical work that depicted the organ as a political symbol, which was already settled as a topic that divided simply the socio-political ideologies between both parties. This ballad was arranged by an anonymous composer, which talks roughly about the Parliament favorably and ridicules the Arminians, William Laud, and the Anglican church. The political content is straightforward and described satirically, even from its subtitle, which reads “To the Tune of The Cathedrall Service”, making it unofficially a parody of a pre-existing, Royalist-affiliated-church tune. The topics of this piece would roughly portray how the organs can be seen as a distraction during the liturgical services, using simple descriptions such as loud and distracting so that the laypeople could comprehend and associate it more effectively with the intended target, the Royalist churches. Other more-developed diplomatic pamphlets and publications, such as The Organs Funerall (1642), were also created but would use a more subtle and intellectual approach to manipulate the audience through their subconscious level[17].

After the civil war, the Baroque English sound was heavily changed via minor yet cumulative factors and influences from the continent, from Italy in particular, as Henry Purcell (1659-1695) was a product of the substantial Italian effect. This Italian sound was brought by one of his teachers, Pelham Humphrey (1647-1674), a composer who had received his training in France and Italy and who picked up the Lullian dance rhythms, which are prominent in both his secular and sacred music, which Purcell introduced to his music consequently. Purcell is known for reviving the English baroque sound after the English Civil War, all with the societal limitations that were put on him, narrowing his possibilities as a composer[18]. His sacred music was often criticized pejoratively and seen as containing “superficial and secular traits in his [sacred] music” (Bukopzfer, 203) since the church’s music’s function was not aligned with Purcell’s compositional approach, leaving hints of secular features in his liturgical works. His sound was dominantly showing the Italian human Pathos and the French rhythmic pulse throughout his compositions; however, his dissonance treatment and his graceful melodic style are the factors that defined Henry’s authentic musical color[19]. In other words, his musical impact during the English Restoration can be expressed as the outcome of the various external social contacts that Henry Purcell went through during his shortly lived life.

Musical Consequences in Germany and Italy edit

Throughout Europe’s history, especially in Germany and Italy, politically driven events that fragmented the countries in question have caused tremendous changes in the arts domain, including in the musical field. Various extensive research shows a solid correlation between the political fragmentation and the artistic outcome of the concerning country, in this case, which is Baroque music. Philosopher and economist David Hume (1711-1776) explains in his book called Of The Rise And Progress Of The Arts And Sciences how creative freedom and interstate competition are crucial elements for artistic progress. He says as follows:

The next observation, which I shall make on this head, is, That nothing is more favourable to the rise of politeness and learning, than a number of neighbouring and independent states, connected together by commerce and policy. The emulation, which naturally arises among those neighbouring states, is an obvious source of improvement […] But the divisions into small states are favourable to learning, by stopping the progress of authority as well as that of power. Reputation is often as great a fascination upon men as sovereignty, and is equally destructive to the freedom of thought and examination. But where a number of neighbouring states have a great intercourse of arts and commerce, their mutual jealousy [competition] keeps them from receiving too lightly the law from each other, in matters of taste and of reasoning, and makes them examine every work of art with the greatest care and accuracy[20].”

In other words, Hume explains how the different provincial competition welcomes more diversity and comparisons. Indeed, the different dominions give room to different smaller courts instead of one single larger court, which offers more demand for music. Consequently, this greater demand bears more competition between composers and musicians, offering greater creative freedom, as Hume previously mentioned. This freedom led to a more significant number of experiments, which stimulated the Baroque development that we now know in today’s world.

A more modern publication that explains this concept in a very elaborated way is Roland Vaubel’s essay (1948-present day), called The Role of Competition in the Rise of Baroque and Renaissance Music, revealing the direct relationship between the fragmented countries and their social impact on the musical progress in the Baroque period. He collected different data from composers of the Baroque period and their compositions in his redaction. He classed them according to various constituents, such as nationalities, age, employees, and so forth[21], to prove his hypothesis about the impact of political fragmentation on music development. He also explains how the court’s prince’s competitive demands for composers and musicians raised their wealth and reputation[22]. He also mentions how court music was more profitable for the musicians, as they would be paid by the courts in more significant amounts than the churches, maintaining this vigorous competition between the interstate courts[23]. In other words, the concept of inter-dominion competition, brought by political fragmentation, is a crucial cause for the development of Baroque music in the countries of Europe in question, which are Germany and Italy, according to Vaubel[24]. In other terms, the political fragmentation of Germany and Italy reconstructed, paved, and developed their music during the Baroque era.

One concrete historical example of this phenomenon is Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672), a German composer whose country’s political state altered his music drastically. The difficult conditions that the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) has brought to Schütz’s domiciliary city, Dresden, forced him to move back to Venice, where he previously had lived and studied under Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-1612). This return to Venice allowed Schütz to become acquainted with Claudio Monteverdi[25], which would have never happened if the collateral damage of the war didn’t occur. Besides the physical deterioration of the country, the war had also deprived Heinrich of his singers, as they were drafted for the war[26], not allowing him to compose larger choral works anymore. Consequently, his music became much leaner and with more simple textures, which can be seen in his collections of miniature-sized concertos called Kleine Geistliche Conzerte (1636, 1639), which uses only up to five solo vocal lines and an organ continuo. These works explore dissonances and contain mournful lyrics, a direct connotation of the Thirty Years’ War, which will categorically mark the beginning of the climactic musical apex of the Baroque period.

Musical Styles in the Baroque Era edit

Mood edit

A Baroque piece expresses only one basic mood, and follows what is termed the ‘doctrine of affect’. Composers used musical language to depict particular affective states, specific rhythms and melodic patterns being associated with each. Word-painting was especially used to associate what one was playing to certain texts of music, for example, "Primavera" (Spring) within Vivaldi's "Four Seasons." The sonnet that precedes each movement describes what the music will be representing (i.e. violins emulating birds, thunderstorms, dogs, etc).

Rhythm edit

Unity is achieved through rhythmic continuity. The same rhythmic patterns are repeated throughout a Baroque piece of music. Some might think that this repetition would become tedious, but this, however, has the opposite effect, propelling the music forward. The beat is emphasized very strongly, which is a huge leap from the rhythmically free nature of the Medieval Gregorian Chant.

Melody edit

The Baroque melodies also create a feeling of continuity. The melody was also repeated in the same way as the rhythm. An unraveling, unwinding and expansion of the melody was gradually created as the piece goes along. As a result, melodies of this era tend to lack the kind of symmetry and balance associated with Classical era melodies.

Dynamics edit

Baroque music uses terraced dynamics. This means that the volume stays the same for a period of time, then there is a sudden shift to a different dynamic level. There are no gradual changes in dynamics (such as a crescendo or decrescendo). Terraced dynamics were used as the main keyboard instrument was the harpsichord, which could only be played in two modes, either loud (forte) or soft (piano), precluding the ability to accomplish crescendos or decrescendos.

Texture edit

Textures used in the Baroque period, especially in the early part (c. 1600-1660), were predominantly homophonic, or melody with basso continuo, typical of Baroque music. In the late Baroque era, German composers such as Telemann, Bach, and Handel experimented with counterpoint and helped to create, in no small degree, Baroque polyphonic music.

Harmony edit

Chords became increasingly important in the Baroque period. Before then, composers were concerned with the individual beauty of melodic lines, rather than with chords. Chords were previously a mere by-product of the motion of several simultaneously sounding melodic lines. In Baroque, chords become significant in themselves, due to the emphasis on the Bass Voice. The entire structure of the Baroque piece rested on the Bass Voice. This new emphasis on chords and the Bass part results in the most characteristic feature of all Baroque music – the Basso Continuo (alternatively translated as Thoroughbass or Figured Bass).

The Basso Continuo consists of a bass part together with numbers below each note which specify the chord to be played above it. It is played by at least two instruments, usually the organ or harpsichord (to produce the chords) reinforced by a cello or bassoon. The performer was given a great deal of freedom with regards the realization of the figured bass. The Basso Continuo was also used in the early classical period, particularly in some works by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, who will be covered in the next chapter.

Words and Music edit

Word painting was still important, and composers emphasized words through their music.

Orchestra edit

The orchestra was based on the string instruments, and usually consisted of 10 to 40 instruments. However, there was a very flexible arrangement of instruments. At its nucleus were the basso continuo and upper strings. The use of woodwinds, brass and percussion was variable.


Compositions include sets of movements/pieces. A movement is considered an independent piece. The musical genres used during the Baroque era include: opera, oratorio, cantata, suite, sonata, mass, concerto and fugue.

Important Figures edit

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) edit

Life edit

Bach came from a very long line of musicians. Each generation learned the musical craft from the previous generation. Bach had twenty children, although only nine survived; of those nine, four became composers. When he was 18 years old he became an organist. The church complained about his dense polyphony and questioned his strange meeting with a maiden in the church (which happened to be his cousin, who he then married). He then started working for the Duke of Weinstad and was promoted, but did not want the promotion, so he was put in jail for a month. He then moved to Cöthen, where he wrote the Brandenburg concertos. He then moved to Leipzig and became municipal director of all four churches. He sent his children to the local university to study. He was completely blind towards the end of his life, only to have regained his sight briefly before his death.

Music edit

Bach created masterpieces in every Baroque genre except opera. Instrumental music - especially keyboard works - were prominent in his output. It was also during the Baroque period that the public witnessed the emergence of the orchestra. Bach used dense polyphonic textures and rich harmonies. His harmony and counterpoint is still used as a model for music students today. His 'Art of Fugue' displays all resources of fugal writing.

Fugues edit

Bach wrote fugues for solo instruments (mainly for keyboard instruments). The fugue is NOT a form, but rather a compositional device, much like a canon or round. A fugue consists of two items: a subject, or main theme, and an answer. The answer can be either an exact, or real, repeat of the subject, or it can be a tonal repeat, in which the answer is modulated to another key center (usually the dominant) and contains intervallic modifications in order to make it fit into the new key.

Several methods can be used to modify a fugue subject: AUGMENTATION (Lengthening the values of the notes), DIMINUTION (Shortening the values of the notes), INVERSION (Inverting the intervals), RETROGRADE (the theme backwards) and STRETTO (Overlapping of voices).

Another often encountered feature is pedal-point, where the tonic or dominant note (usually in the bass part)is held for long periods of time. One subject is exhaustively exploited.

Cantatas edit

The cantata was the principal means of musical expression of the Lutheran service. Most usually it was written for chorus, vocal soloists, organ and small orchestra, and set to a German religious text based on the bible. It was used to reinforced the minister’s sermon, and was generally around 25 minutes in length. It consists of several movements, including choruses, chorales (hymns), recitatives (sections consisting of melodically intoned narrative), arias and duets. Bach wrote a total of 295 cantatas in his lifetime. While the opera, which also blossomed during the Baroque era, was a dramatic SECULAR work employing an orchestra along with stage actors, the cantata featured all the opera's elements except that the cantata was sacred.

Bach's most famous Cantata: Cantata no 140 – “Wachet Auf”. It was based on a chorale tune, written 130 years earlier. This hymn has 3 movements. Bach uses hymn melody in 3 of the 7 movements.

1st Movement Opens with orchestral introduction. Uses dotted rhythms, syncopation and rising scale passages. Sopranos enter, sing chorale notes in long note values. There are three layers of sound: 1. Chorale melody in long notes in Soprano voice. 2. Imitative dialogue in shorter notes in lower voices. 3. orchestral accompaniment .

4th Movement This is the most famous movement. Arranged as a chorale prelude for organ later on in Bach’s life. Thee are two contrasting melodies against each other. Chorale tune moves in faster rhythmic values than in the 1st movement, sung against the string’s counter-melody.

7th Movement This movement rounds off the cantata. For first time, all voices and instruments are used. The chorale is set in a homophonic texture for four voices with the instruments doubling. The chorale is presented as a continuous melody with full harmony and regular rhythms.

Concerto Grosso edit

The Concerto Grosso was an very important genre in late Baroque in orchestral form. It was written for small groups of soloists (between two and four) put against the orchestra – called the tutti. It standardly comprises three movements : 1st: fast (dramatic); 2nd: slow (lyrical); 3rd: dance-like; 1st and 3rd movements use ritornello form, which is based on alternation between tutti and solo sections.

The main theme is always presented by the tutti. It returns in different keys (possibly only fragments). Bach wrote many Concerti Grossi, e.g., the six Brandenburg Concertos.

Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BWV 1048 edit

This is arguably the most famous of all the Brandenburg concertos. This is with out a doubt a great piece for an intermediate orchestra. The outer of the three movements are in ritornello form. The concerto's first movement is easily recognizable and associated with Bach. Surprisingly, the second movement consists of only two chords that make up a cadence, which leads to the final movement in 3/4 meter.

Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, BWV 1050 edit

The Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 uses a string orchestra and group of soloists, which are the flute, violin, and harpsichord. It comprises three movements: The 1st movement - Allegro (lively) - makes use of a continuous flow of rapid notes, alternating between soloists and tutti. The recurring tutti section is louder and longer than the intervening soloist sections, which are mainly marked piano and use the flute to add a new tone-color (timbre). Their music is brilliant and more polyphonic than the tutti refrain, and new material is presented in them. Tension is built up during each soloist section, which anticipates the tutti’s next return. There is a vast cadenza for solo harpsichord towards the end, demonstrating this tension-building and eventual relief, and thus the formal scheme of the concerto grosso, as a tour de force.

Note : A Cadenza is a passage which displays virtuoso brilliance.

The 2nd movement is slow, in the relative minor (B minor) and much quieter. It uses only the three solo instruments, and a cello, which duplicates the bass line of the harpsichord. The harpsichord has both an accompanying role as well as a solo role. There is a serious mood throughout. The 3rd movement is dance-like and makes use of an ABA form (maj|min|maj – ternary form). It opens like a fugue, with plentiful contrapuntal imitation. The main theme is introduced by violins and imitated by the flutes and harpsichord. In the B section, a new, lyrical theme is introduced.

Numerical Symbolism the works of J.S. Bach edit

In the work of J.S. Bach, there has been speculation and evidence suggesting the presence of numerical symbolism and references. According to Timothy Smith, "there are two ways that number symbols can be put into music or text. First, each letter of the alphabet and each pitch of the musical scale can be given a number. […] The second way that numbers are made into symbols is by association."[27] The first technique is known as gematria. In the association method, the number five is particularly notable as it is a symbol of the stigmata and the cross. In the St. Matthew Passion, the chorale “O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden” is repeated five times. This is the Passion Chorale, making this presence of the number five significant. Additionally, there are instances of other forms of associative symbolism and gematria. The key signature is altered with each re-iteration, moving from four sharps to three flats, two sharps, one flat, and finally, no sharps and no flats. With this information, it can be found that the sum of all the flats and sharps is ten. Ten, in this instance, can be seen as a multiple of two and five, with two symbolizing Christ[28], and five symbolizing the Passion, as before established. Moreover, the number of chromatic alterations involved results in the number seventy-four, which, using gematria, is the same number as C+H+R+I+S+T.

In Bach's B Minor Mass, similar symbolism has been found. The number five is again a symbol used in the Credo[29], specifically, the "Crucifixus" movement. This is clearly significant because of the association of the number five with the wounds of the cross (stigmata) and the cross itself, as it has five points (including the intersection point). Bach altered the Credo to accomplish this: the 'Crucifixus" would have been the fourth movement in its original structure. When the Credo was re-worked, the number of measures involved in each movement was carefully thought out. If the first four are added together in pairs, the sums created are both 129. The significance of this number is found in its factors of forty-three and three. Forty-three is the gematria symbol for the Credo, so when combined with 3, it is asserted by Friedrich Smend that it is the numerical way of stating, "I believe in the Trinitarian God."[30]

Thus, based on the consistent presence of numerical symbolism and knowledge of Bach's highly meticulous and purposeful method, this form of extra-musical symbolism is considered valid by many scholars. Unlike other forms of symbolism in the Baroque period, numerical symbolism is less apparent – and often wholly unidentifiable aurally – making it problematic at times. However, from an analytical perspective, hidden numerical references and symbols are undeniable, and discovering such symbols adds a layer of meaning to the music for academics and musicians who choose to explore the field.

Antonio Vivaldi (1678 – 1741) edit

Vivaldi was an Italian composer born in Venice. His father was a violinist in St. Marks’s cathedral. Vivaldi is best known for his 400 concerto grossi and solo concerti. In particular, he exploited the resources of the violin. His solo concertos include instruments like piccolo, flute, cello, bassoon, and mandolin. He also composed many operas, many of them lost. Despite being known for his concerti today, in his own time he was known largely for his operas (indeed, he was the most performed composer in Venetian theaters from 1713 to 1719).

The Four Seasons edit

His most famous work is a set of concertos for solo violin with string orchestra. Each concerto depicts a season, and each concerto is prefaced by a sonnet. These concerti are programmatic / narrative in nature. The “Spring” concerto is arguably the most famous of the Four Seasons. It consists of three movements (fast | slow | fast), and makes use of terraced dynamics and tone painting; e.g. high trills to imitate bird chirps, tremolos to depict thunder and lightning, and soft running notes depict a stream. There is a Ritornello theme.

Opera in the early Baroque Era edit

The Baroque era invented opera. "Opera" can be simply defined as a drama, set to an orchestral accompaniment. It originated in the courts of kings and princes, and does not deal with the ordinary and mundane, but rather deals with the spectacular and the wonderful. An opera is the joint effort between a composer and a librettist (dramatist). The Libretto is the text, which is set to music by composer(s). Some operas are serious, comic or a mixture of both, and may contain spoken dialog, but most are sung entirely. They can consist of one to five acts subdivided into scenes. The main attraction is the aria, which is a song for solo voice set to orchestral accompaniment. The Opera may include recitatives, where the vocal line imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuation of speech. Words are sung quickly on repeated notes, and are not melodic. Also, duets, trios, quintets etc... are used. The Chorus is important, as it generates atmosphere, and makes comments on the actions. Dance may be included. Most operas open with an overture or prelude, which is purely an orchestral composition.

Opera was born in Italy. Prepared by musical discussions between a group of nobles, poets and composers, which met regularly in Florence around 1575, and were known as the Camerata (Translated : “Fellowship” or “Committee”). They included Vincenzo Galilei, the father of Galileo. The Camerata wanted a new vocal style based on the music of ancient Greek tragedy. These Grecian dramas were sung in a style midway between melody and speech. They wanted vocal lines to be speech-like. This speech-like style became known as recitative. The earliest opera that has survived is “Euridice” by Jacopo Peri (1561-1633). The first-known great opera is “Orfeo” by Monteverdi. It was written for the court of the Gonzago family in Mantua and based on Greek myth. The first commercial opera house, opened in Venice in 1637, which was one of the factors which caused Venice to became a major tourist attraction.

Claudio Monteverdi (1567 – 1643) edit

Monteverdi was an Italian composer of the Early Baroque, who initially worked for 21 years in the service of the Gonzagas, the ruling family of Mantua. He was later positioned as the director of music at St. Marks in Venice. All of his works involve voices, and include operas, madrigals and church music. He makes use of the basso continuo and other instruments. He wrote 12 operas, of which only 3 are preserved. He is one of the key composers in the transition from Renaissance to Baroque.

Orfeo edit

Generally considered to be the first large-scale opera ever composed, 'Orfeo' was written in 1607 by Monteverdi for the Mantuan court. It was a lavish production, including soloists, dancers, chorus and large orchestra of 40 players. Beginning with an orchestral overture, it uses recitatives, arias, duets, choruses and instrumental interludes.

Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677) edit

Supposed portrait of Barbara Strozzi by Bernardo Strozzi

Barbara Strozzi was born in Venice and lived her entire life there. She was either the illegitimate or adopted daughter of Guilio Strozzi and Isabella Gorzoni, Guilio Strozzi’s longtime servant. Because Barbara Strozzi’s name is originally documented as Barbara Valle her exact relationship to Guilio Strozzi is unclear. By 1638 her name appears in print as Barbara Strozzi and before this title, she was known publicly as “la virtuosissima cantatrice” of Guilio Strozzi [31]. Though the exact relation is unknown, because Guilio Strozzi lists Barbara as his heir, it is accepted that she was likely his illegitimate daughter. It is because of her relationship with Guilio Strozzi that she succeeded as a composer of the Baroque era.

Guilio Strozzi was a respected member of Venetian society. He did considerable work as a poet and dramatist, supported music and theatre in public and private circles, and collaborated with many composers of Venetian opera as a librettist. His most recognized contribution was his work as a librettist for Monteverdi himself (Rosand 1978, 243). Because Barbara had such close ties to a man in the circle of the musical elite, Barbara had access to an environment where her musical talent could flourish; something that other members of her sex lacked.

In 1637, Guilio Strozzi created the Accademia degli Unisoni (Academy for the Like-Minded) in order to highlight his daughter's talent. Barbara was a crucial part of the academy. She chose topics for discourse, judged debates, awarded prizes, and of course performed. There is one occasion where Barbara read the debate of two academy members concerning love. The argument was about whether tears or song were a greater weapon in love. The story of Daphne and Apollo, inspired by the Baroque sculpture Apollo and Daphne by Bernini, was brought up on both sides of the debate, saying Apollo’s tears were a sign of love when he cried to water the laurel tree. It was argued that these tears were not tears of love, but reproach for Daphne’s leaving him. This debate was an important one that greatly influenced the subject of Barbara Strozzi’s compositions and the style of her lamenti[32].

Statue by Lorenzo Bernini that was referenced in the Love or Tears debate

Though the academy was a blessing for Strozzi, it also brought her some humiliation. As she was publicly known as the host of the academy, her virtue was questioned. A satirical manuscript was published that mocked the academy. One comment suggests the only reason Barbara was not pregnant was due to her having a relationship with a castrato. These types of comments come from a long history of associating aspects of music with sex, as seen in the Renaissance, and also the view that respectable women do not belong in the music industry, especially seen with the development of opera. Though historians are not sure, it is possible Barbara could have been a courtesan, especially based on the themes of her music, mostly centred around love. Even so, it is unfair for historians to comment with surety on her virtues without any supporting evidence[31].

Even with the questionable virtue, Strozzi’s music and talent were highly praised. In notes from the academy meetings, her voice is likened to that of Amphion, great musician and son of Zeus, and Orpheus, who could sing so beautifully all of creation, even rocks and trees would dance. Though her talent as a performer is praised, there is very little recognition of her work as a composer. In reviews of the academy meetings, the music that is performed is praised with no credit to any composer. Likely many of these compositions would have been Strozzi’s work. Her standing as a brilliant Baroque composer mainly comes from her surviving music[31].

The fact that Strozzi’s compositions were preserved at all is of amazing credit to her character and her relationship with Guilio Strozzi. Although there are other female musicians from that time period, many of whom are documented as the highest skilled singers, none of them have the same music output as Strozzi. Very few female compositions exist. Though famous Baroque singers were most likely composing music, the difficulty of publishing it as women stopped them from having the same lasting legacy as male musicians. References to female compositions are better preserved than the compositions themselves[31]. It would have taken a great determination on Strozzi’s part to have her work published. Throughout Strozzi’s own works the listener is made aware of her self-perception as a female composer in the world of men. In Op. 1 she apologies for publishing her music “too boldly, as a woman” and in Op. 2, she refers to the “poor wit” of a woman’s mind. By Op. 5, she comments that being a woman does not affect her abilities as a composer, and in the last three volumes, Strozzi does not refer to gender at all[33]. Through these comments, the listener is made aware of Strozzi’s own growth in how she perceived her work.

Strozzi was able to publish eight volumes of vocal music between 1644 and 1664, including over 80 arias and cantatas. Her oeuvre contains only one sacred work with the other seven volumes being secular. It is because of her numerous works that she is recognized as the most prolific composer of secular vocal music in the mid-seventeenth century. Her focus on works for the solo-soprano made Strozzi a very limited composer. While most other composers vocal chamber music composers also included music for the theatre and church. Strozzi not only avoids other musical genres but all of her texts are primarily centred on the same theme: suffering caused by unrequited love. Because of the restricted content of her music, the content itself is taken to be a defining characteristic of Strozzi’s style (Rosand 1978, 262). Another unique thing about her compositions was having them published in single-composer volumes. Something that even male composers at the time were usually incapable of doing, publishing their works in joint-composer collections[34].

Strozzi likely lived off of the money from her publications and enjoyed financial independence. She was self-sufficient and well off enough to loan money to other noble families in Venice. Her financial interactions were just another way Barbara made connections with the high Venetian Society.

Her writing style is decidedly vocal, with compositions that highlight the beauty of the voice and the obvious talent and control she had personally, as a musician. With long melismatic passages, the focus is often not on the text at all, but on the tone and agility with which the passages are presented. Barbara’s music highlights both the upper and lower registers of the voice and many of her works can be understood in terms of modern major and minor modes, even though that concept was not fully developed until the 18th century[34].

Another feature of Strozzi’s music is the decidedly different voices of the composer versus the poet. The poets for her works were male. This sometimes creates interesting relationships between the text and how it would have been performed by a woman. For example, all three of her laments are sung from the perspective of a man. In Apresso ai molli argenti, Fileno, the shepherd, cannot see his love and laments the separation. Going back to the famous Love or Tears debate from the academy, each lament focuses on the weeping or singing of a male character, but Strozzi creates an unusual perspective as both the performer and creator were female. Another work where Strozzi use of text is ironic, is found in Op. 3 with “Moralità amorosa” (“Loving Morality”). In this work, the poem starts with the description of the beloved in the morning. It talks about how she carefully arranges her hair and purposefully highlights her own beauty, trapping a man’s heart. The poem ends by saying the carefully crafted beauty is but dust and vanishes. Through this text, the poem is not only commenting on the fleeting quality of beauty but also specifically of hair as a form of self-ornamentation. This was another popular issue among the academies. It was thought that a woman should not resort to such female luxuries to distract men from their duties[34]. It is with this issue in mind that the irony of a female composer and performer evolves. Having a female singing about the distraction and fleetingness of female beauty, while she was most likely highlighting her own beauty and affecting male audiences is comical.

Opus 7 edit

Many scholars refer to Op. 7 as the signature volume of Strozzi’s career[33]. The work was dedicated to Nicolo Sagredo, a well-off figure in the arts and a high-standing individual in Venetian politics. The texts of the work are written by well-known poets, with three of the texts containing “barbara-barbaro” suggesting that the poems were written for Strozzi specifically.

Cover page of Op. 7, dedicated to Nicolo Sagredo

Op. 7 contains Apresso ai molli argenti which is labelled as a lamento. There is speculation that Strozzi’s interest in songs of mourning came from the debate in the Accademia degli Unisoni about tears and song and their effect on love. Through her lamenti Barbara is able to express and explore different aspects of love while using both of the greatest factors that spark love itself. Barbara is able to create beautiful expressions of mourning and tears, while maintaining the sought-after grace and beauty of the female voice. Baroque laments are usually expressed in two ways: recitative, popular in Monteverdi’s Lamento d’Arianna and aria, developed in the 1620s-1630s and again popularized by Monteverdi. The lament arias are slow triple time arias that feature lyrical melodies above a lament bass (descending tetrachord). The lament bass was a sign of mourning well-known to educated listeners. It would have been recognized even through rich, ornamented textures. Strozzi uses both recitative and aria to express lament in this work. The story follows a shepherd who is separate from his beloved. The piece is divided into two halves. The first half, “Apresso ai molli argenti” (“By the silver banks”) is based on the older style of lament that is recitative, but it includes many shifts to more arioso passages. In this half, Fileno, the shepherd, is focusing on his separation from his love. His grief is strong and Strozzi expresses this mourning through the use of chromaticism, dissonance, and rich word-painting. The aggressive word-painting is seen right from the beginning of the piece, with images of murmuring streams where the vocal line “murmurs” around a central pitch, and searing flames, where dramatic sixteenth note runs emulate the intensity of an actual fire. The passages with more chromaticism or dissonance are at points in the narrative where Fileno is most distressed. Strozzi also places extra emphasis on unpleasant words by highlighting them with descending chromatic movement and rhythmic stress, usually, a sixteenth note followed by an eighth note (short-long). She uses these strategies, particularly on words like pain, laments, plaints, dying, sighing, and crying[33].

In the second half, called “Appresso il caro bene” (“When I was near my love”), Strozzi abandons the recitative style and shifts to the slow, triple-time aria. This half is divided into two halves itself, each section being a complete aria, and containing the lament bass figure the entire way through. Here, the listener finds Fileno reminiscing on the times he spent with his lover, instead of focusing so much on the grief of being away from her. By focusing on the sweet times he had with her, he slowly appeases his mourning. This change in demeanour is reflected in the music. As Fileno becomes less distressed, the lament bass figure becomes less obvious. In the second aria, Strozzi softens the lament bass by transposition, elaboration, inversion and rhythmic diminution. This half also abandons the excessive drama in vocal gestures of grief and turns sweeter. Fileno is able to appease his grief through reminiscence. Where the first half of the piece emphasized negative words with dissonance, this section, emphasizes the positive words. Strozzi does this by putting long, expressive melismas on words like song, express, and pleasing[33].

Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632 - 1687) edit

Introduction edit

Jean Baptiste Lully has been referred to as “the patron saint of French music.” He was responsible for developing a distinctively French opera style since most of the operatic output in the early seventeenth century came from Italy. Despite the diaspora of Italian music, the form failed to thrive in France. French opera developed to “accommodate national prejudices, court traditions and royal prerogatives” as it was common opinion that music and drama “simply would not mix”. France had a longstanding tradition of spoken theatre and an established genre of stage production called ballet de cour. The established language of opera was Italian, and that presented a challenge in France, especially since there was so much emphasis and importance on the spoken word and its comprehension

One distinct characteristic of French opera was its ties with political power, which is felt throughout the development of the genre. Cardinal Marzarin tried to bring Italian opera to France, but he was unpopular in French society due to his role in strengthening the centralized government. Thus, his attempts to promote Italian opera were not well received. The fact that he was unable to do so shows that the centralization of power successfully created a truly ‘French’ France, as the people would not accept music that was not in a language and culture that reflected France. His death signified the death of Italian music’s “most powerful champion”. After Marzarin’s death, Louis XIV centralized the government under one ruler and established a system of “privileges” that required government licensing for everything, including music.

Jean-Baptiste Lully edit

Portrait of Jean Baptiste Lully

Giovanni Battista Lulli was born in Florence, Italy, on November 28th, 1632. Lulli came from modest roots; His father was a poor miller. Little is known about Lulli’s early life, but it is probable that he received his musical education from a Franciscan monk. He learned the Italian style and theory, which heavily influenced his later compositions in France. Roger de Lorraine, chevalier de Guise, spotted him performing and consequently hired him to serve as an Italian language tutor for his niece Anne-Marie-Louise d’Orléans, the Duchesse de Montpensier d’Orleans, who was the first cousin of Louis the XIV and was known as the ‘Grande Mademoiselle.’ While in Paris, Lulli received musical training in harpsichord and violin and was instructed as a dancer. Lulli wrote music for court ballets, and in addition to being an avid performer, he quickly made a name for himself as a dancer and composer. In 1652, after the Grande Mademoiselle was exiled because of her involvement with the rebels in the Fronde uprisings. Lulli left her service and entered the service of the king. He began his role as a dancer at the Ballet Royal de la Nuit. He excelled at performing mime and comedy, and his abilities in dance soon had him performing with the young king. The king would become one of the most influential patrons and supporters of Lulli’s music, and this relationship was crucial throughout Lulli’s career.

1660 and the subsequent decade were an incredibly important period in Lulli’s life. From 1660 to 1662, he collaborated with Italian composer Francesco Cavalli, which resulted in a French production of Xerse and Ercole Amante. More importantly, in 1661, Louis XIV appointed Lully to “the highest office to which he could aspire…the surintendant de la musique de la chambre du roi.” To carry out the duties of his new role, Lulli became a naturalized French citizen in December 1661 and took the French variation of his name, Jean Baptiste Lully. It was around this time that Lully’s Italian music output reduced significantly in favour of a more French style. The combination of Lully’s comedic style with “France’s greatest comic playwright”, Jean Baptiste Molière, was an extremely successful partnership. Together, they worked on writing comediès-ballets. Comedies-ballades, spoken comedies with songs and dance interludes, were referred to as divertissements. The breakthrough of unifying stageplay and ballet laid the foundations for what would become French opera and tragédies lyriques. The duo's final collaboration was Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, which premiered in 1670.  Lully continued to experiment with developing French style by setting the French language in recitatives; he turned to contemporary playwrights to see how they set the spoken word and developed a system that maintained the clarity of French with the addition of music.

The years 1673 to 1687 were the most prolific for Lully. He developed a monopoly over French music. Lully’s friendship with the king put him in a privileged position over his contemporaries. This impacted contemporary composer and competitor Pierre Perrin. Perrin had received a twelve-year privilege to establish music academies to serve as a center of French opera, to train individuals in the developing French operatic tradition and to serve as venues for performances. Perrin fell into debt because of dishonest business partnerships and was unable to recover. Lully received crown approval and bought Perrin’s operas privileges, and due to his friendship, received additional privileges from the king that solidified Lully’s absolute control over all aspects of French stage music. Lully’s complete monopoly of music posed a threat to many musicians, and the other composers of the time tried to prevent it, including Moliere, who had collaborated with Lully in the past. Despite the opposition, Lully had “the power of the throne behind him.” Because French opera was “wholly centralized”, it was impossible for anyone to oppose, no matter how outrageous the patents Lully received. France’s political system was rooted in hegemony, and Lully’s ties with the King gave him the ability to take over the musical world completely. While Lully’s works borrowed from the Italian opera tradition, he  paired them with French verse and French ballet styles in the service of a state-sponsored approach to opera.

Tragédie Lyrique: Definition and Characteristics edit

Lully’s experimentation with the French style “aspired to the status of a full-fledged tragédie en music”, a genre that served as an outward manifestation of the grandeur and authority of the French court. His collaboration with librettist Phillipe Quinault was particularly fruitful, bringing forth thirteen Tragédie Lyriques. Tragédie Lyrique (tragédie en musique) emerged as a genre that integrated music, poetry, and dance and continued to emphasize the value of spoken drama while enriching it with music.

Like Italian opera, Lully’s tragédies drew inspiration from Greek myths and heroic historical narratives. These tragédies featured themes of chivalric love and romance. Lully used mythological elements, such as gods, battles, monsters, and transformations into trees, rivers, and birds. Grandiose elements were a staple, boasting lavish sets, elaborate staging and ornate costuming. Louis XIV handpicked some of the subjects himself, demonstrating how intertwined politics and music were in France. The structure of these operas reflected the structure of a spoken tragedy in that they both featured five acts. However, tragédies lyriques added an overture and a prologue. The overture set the tone for the performance and was in tripartite or ABA format. It started with A, in which a slow syncopated dotted rhythm gave way to B, a fast imitative section that contained fugal elements and ornamentation–specifically sprezzaturas –before returning to the original motif. Traditionally, the prologue served as a way to provide background information and contextualize the plotline. However, in tragédies lyriques, the prologue had nothing to do with the play. Instead, its sole purpose was the “glorification of the king”. Mythological beings were used as devices to pay homage and extol the king. The emphasis on spectacle extended to the incorporation of ballet de cour, or court ballet. Throughout each act, there were movements called divertissements, which featured elaborate dances that allowed the dancers to show off their grace and skill. The singing in tragédie lyriques diverged from the virtuosic style prevalent in the Italian operatic tradition, which the French viewed as excessive and subpar. Lully sacrificed musical complexity to maintain textual clarity. Instrumentation was sparing, with singing rarely accompanied by a full orchestra–another way Lully maintained an emphasis on the spoken word.

Atys edit

Atys, written in 1676, was based on Ovid’s ‘Fasti’ and is centred around the love triangle of Atys, who is in love with earth goddess Cybele, and Sangaride, who is in love with Atys. Atys contained a feature that became a standard feature of the genre: an enchanted slumber from which the protagonist awakened. Additionally, Atys contained the element of buffo. Only two of Lully’s tragedies contain buffo elements because it was not well received by the French. Buffo was an Italian element which showed Lully’s heritage. In the end, Lully eliminated the feature from the remaining eleven tragedies.

Conclusion edit

In 1687, Lully was set to perform his Te Deum as a get-well gift to King Louis XIV, who was in recovery from an illness. During his performance, Lully accidentally struck his foot with his conducting staff, and while it was a minor injury, gangrene later set in. Despite treatment and the advice to amputate his leg, Lully refused the solution. He succumbed to his injury and died on March 22nd, 1687.

Jean Baptiste Lully played an integral role in the history of music. He bridged the gap between Italian operatic tradition and France’s love of poetry and dance. His close friendship with the king gave him the resources, connections, and audience needed to lay the foundations for the distinctive French operatic style. Lully captured the essence of French culture and courtly grandeur in his tragédie lyriques. His operas remained fixtures of the French repertory and continued to impact the operatic landscape in the subsequent decades.

Henry Purcell (1659 - 1695) edit

Purcell was an English composer, born in Westminster, now part of London. He is best known for his opera Dido and Aeneas, semi-operas, and incidental music. He also wrote much chamber music and harpsichord suites.

Dido and Aeneas edit

This was Purcell's only true opera, based on the Aeneid by the ancient Roman poet Virgil. In this opera, soldier-of fortune Aeneas falls in love with Dido, queen of Carthage. Then he deserts her, sailing off to found the city of Rome. In Virgil's original story, Dido stabs herself with Aeneas's sword, but in Purcell's opera, she dies of a broken heart. This is the subject of the famous aria "When I am laid in earth."

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre (1665 - 1729) edit


While not commonly known, Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre was a musical phenomenon of her time. Her skill in the harpsichord and organ and her dedication to French and Baroque music are not widely recognized. While her music and talent are being rediscovered, Jacquet de la Guerre did not receive the recognition she deserved during her lifetime due to her gender. However, her family standing and relationship with the King of France helped her gain musical insight and training.

Family Background

The Jacquets were a prominent musical family. They “descended from an old, widely branched Parisian family tree” that was involved in music either through composing, building, teaching, or playing.[35] However, because of their “broad” musical knowledge, the Jacquet family was in the lowest class in the social structure in the French musical baroque world. The highest class in the hierarchy were those dancing in salons or the Académie Royale de Musique. Then, in order of instrument, the lutenists, harpsichordists, violinists, and oboists. The lowest class consisted of the artisans, who were well-rounded in their musical skills by selling and fixing instruments.[36]

Jacquet de La Guerre’s great-grandfather, Marceau Jacquet, was a master architect who grew up in Paris. His brothers were somehow involved in the musical world, whether that was through marrying into a musical family or building instruments. The Jacquet family was also highly regarded by the La Barre family, who were considered their “godfathers”.[37] Maceau had two sons: Jehan Jacquet the Elder and Jehan Jacquet the Younger. His eldest son was a master instrument builder. His younger son was Jacquet de La Guerre’s grandfather and fathered Claude Jacquet.

Both Jehan Jacquet the Younger and Claude Jacquet were harpsichord makers during a time when this profession was a very flourishing trade in France.[38] The family’s harpsichords remained popular even years after Claude Jacquet’s death. Claude Jacquet also played the harpsichord and organ. He married Anne de La Touche, whose background is mainly known based on her first husband and their son. Claude and Anne had four children: Elisabeth-Claude, Pierre, Nicolas, and Anne. All four children were professionally involved in music in some way. Pierre and Nicolas went on to become organists at their respective Churches in France, and Anne served in the femme de chambre music ensemble.[39]

Early Life

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet was born on March 17, 1665, in the heart of France – Ile Saint-Louis, one of the two islands on the Seine River in Paris. While the eldest son was often favoured and given most musical training during this time, Claude Jacquet gave each of his children equal opportunity. His name was even part of his eldest daughter’s baptism name: Elisabeth-Claude. Claude Jacquet was also most likely the one to begin teaching his children musical skills and started them off at a young age. Growing up in Paris proved crucial to her musical upbringing, as she was surrounded by music in every corner. She gained exposure to the French baroque style and its cultural and artistic impact on music.

The Royal Court

It is uncertain at what age Jacquet de La Guerre had the opportunity to play for King Louis XIV of France, but it was when she was quite young. Playing for the King was a crucial moment in her musical career. Having had the opportunity to play for the Sun King through her father, the King noticed her and invited her to join his court. While many claim she was a child prodigy, it is not valid. Jacquet de La Guerre was an exceptional musician for her time, but no scholars regard her as a prodigy. Évrad Titon du Tillet, a scholar during de La Guerre’s lifetime, spoke highly of her but did not claim anything about her being a child prodigy. If she had been a child prodigy, she would have been an “on-off, unique, a lone genius whose gift [would appear] as if by magic” and not known for her musical career.[40]

The King filled Jacquet de La Guerre’s time at the Royal Court with great opportunities. She was under the protection of Madame de Montespan, the king’s mistress, who undertook all her musical and academic needs. The audience began to love Jacquet de La Guerre’s gift for improvisation on the harpsichord and organ and the fact she accompanied herself while singing.[41] As she grew older, the King began to take notice of Jacquet de La Guerre’s compositional gift and sponsored performances of her works even after she left the Royal Court.[42] The support from the Sun King became one leading factor that helped this young female composer pursue and maintain a music career.

Marriage and Musical Career

On September 23, 1684, when she was nineteen years old, Jacquet de La Guerre married organist Marin de La Guerre. Her father most likely arranged the marriage as the de La Guerre family was in the same social class as the Jacquets. While this was not the most “advantageous” match for her, Marin de La Guerre’s family could be considered slightly better than hers. He was from a family of organists, and his grandfather was the organist at the Notre Dame Cathedral.[43] Her new husband also allowed Jacquet de La Guerre to continue her musical explorations and profession, which was uncommon at the time. Usually, once a female composer was married, she was no longer allowed to pursue music to the same degree, another reason for Elisabeth-Claude de La Guerre’s musical success and legacy.

She gave birth to her son and only child in 1694, who became quite the musician himself under his mother’s tutelage. However, quite little is known about the young boy, and it is only through some works published later that we know the couple had a son. Titon du Tillet noted that “at 8 years of age [Jacquet de La Guerre’s son] surprised those who heard him play… whether in Solo performances or in accompanying“.[44]

Between 1698 and 1704, tragedy struck her life, with many close relations passing. In 1698, her mother died, and in 1702, her father. Yet, sorrow continued as she lost both her husband and son in 1704. With many of her immediate family gone, Jacquet de La Guerre moved back to her Ile Saint-Louis, the Island of her birth. Whereas most composers (especially female ones) isolated themselves from society, she did not. While she did not publish anything between 1694 and 1707, Jacquet de La Guerre was still very involved in music through teaching, playing, and giving concerts in her home.[45] She never remarried and relied on her musical skills and compositions as an income during her twenty-five years as a widow.

Social Politics

Some of the biggest factors that have always influenced music are social structures and the politics attached to it. During the Baroque period, there were strict gender roles and many limitations of women. In a male-dominated society, most females had no opportunity for formal education. They were bound under their fathers or brothers’ will and, later, their husbands. Some women were fortunate enough to have had music training as children and even became quite prolific during their teenage years. Yet, when they were married, all the musical training ceased, and they became their husband’s companions, out of society's eyes.

While Jacquet de La Guerre still faced many of these challenges, she somehow was able to surpass them. It seemed her father treated her and her sister equally to her brothers, which was unusual for the time. It was common for fathers to elevate the eldest brother above the rest, as he was the heir. As briefly mentioned earlier, Claude Jacquet also gave his name to his eldest daughter, showing his respect for her. Furthermore, she continued her musical development and compositions when she married Marin de La Guerre. He did not hinder her musical growth; in fact, her life does not seem to be defined or dictated by him, but he endorsed her musical skills.[46]

Not only did Jacquet de La Guerre have to navigate gender roles, but France was also heavily influenced by the music of Jean-Baptiste Lully. He was considered the “head” of France and dominated much of the musical society. His tragédie lyrique became the musical template for French Opera, and the people loved his dance music. It became hard for other musicians to compose music society would like, so Lully’s music became a model for others to use. King Louis XIV was also a big proponent of Lully’s music and was one of the main reasons Lully climbed the social ladder as much as he did. Even after Lully died in 1687, his spirit loomed over the musical world. It was hard for anyone to compose and become prominent; society still wanted Lully.

Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre must have been an exceptional composer, considering the king endorsed her works even though she was a female. Titon du Tillet also highly praised her, basically placing her compositions under Lully’s. He mentioned:
“One might say that never has a person of her sex had such great talent for the composition of music, and for the admirable manner in which she played on the harpsichord and on the organ.”[47]

Thus, it is essential to recognize the social standings and politics behind Jacquet de La Guerre’s life in France. While she had the opportunity to become somewhat recognized as a composer, it was still through the influence of a man (her father and King Louis XIV). Even though females were still limited to the harpsichord organ and vocal performances after de La Guerre’s death, her acceptance into society paved the way for future female composers.

Notable Compositions

Jacquet de La Guerre composed many works throughout her lifetime, both vocal and instrumental. It is also said that she has an “unusual use of melodic bass…[and she] was the first French composer to use the viol to double the bass lineand as a melody instruent within a single sonata movement”.[48] Her first work, Premier livre de pièces de clavessin, was published in 1667 and printed in 1687, the same year Lully died. In 1690, she composed a Ballet, Les jeux à l'honneur de la Victoire, however, it was lost. She wrote many sonatas and cantatas as well.

De La Guerre was the first female to compose an opera, Céphale et Procris. It premiered in 1694 at the famous Académie Royale de Musique. It features Lully’s tragédie lyriqu style and uses Greek Mythology as its setting and story. However, the opera was not well received, most likely because of the text the librettist had written.[49] Even her husband did not let society disregard his wife, and it is said that:
“The day after the premiere, Monsieur de La Guerre, who loved and tenderly esteemed his wife, found himself with several people who were criticizing the new opera, imposed silence on them, telling them, ‘Messieurs, I assure you that my wife’s opera is very good, it is only your overture that is excessive.”[50]
Though her opera may not have had the best premier in society, this did not discourage Jacquet de La Guerre from composing and improving her musical skills.

Legacy and Final Years

After King Louis XIV’s death in 1715, Jacquet de La Guerre removed herself from the public eye, occasionally publishing a short work.[51] 1729, she fell ill, and on June 27, 1729, Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre died. The following day, she was buried at the church near the island she grew up in.

While not having the recognition to the extent Lully or Bach may have had, Jacquet de La Guerre made a lasting impact in music history. She is credited with many firsts – the first woman to compose pieces for the harpsichord and an opera. Many of her works survived and are being revived today. Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre was able to face and oppose societal norms and have a profession in music. Even though she had some help from King Louis XIV and her father, there was enthusiastic support and endorsement from them. She surprised everyone by “accepted the limitations imposed upon her but went beyond them, composing music in every genre available to her”, and her hard work and stamina brought her to successfully pursue a profession in music.[52] Her legacy and dedication made a lasting impact on Baroque music.

Francois Couperin (1668 - 1733) edit

Couperin was one of the leading French composers of the Baroque era, born in Paris. Like Bach, he was from a family of musicians and composed no operas. He wrote some choral and vocal music, but is best known today for his instrumental music, especially his harpsichord works.

Arcangelo Corelli (1653 - 1713) edit

Corelli was an Italian composer, violinist, and teacher and was very influential to succeeding Baroque composers. He wrote 48 trio sonatas, 12 sonatas for violin and continuo, and 12 concerti grossi. Perhaps his most famous composition is the Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 6, better known as the "Christmas Concerto".

George Frideric Handel (1685 – 1759) edit

Handel studied the organ at the age of 9, and was teaching and composing by the time he was 11. His output consists mainly of English oratorios and some 39 Italian operas, the latter based on ancient Greek and Roman history and mythology (e.g., 'Julius Caesar'). With the exception of the "Messiah", stories from the Old Testament form the basis of his oratorios. He also wrote a great deal of instrumental music, ranging from solo harpsichord works and sonatas for small combinations to orchestral concerti grossi and celebratory music (e.g. "The Water Music")

His music, which embraces both homophonic and polyphonic styles, contains frequent changes of texture and sharp changes of mood, and often shifts between major and minor keys.

Messiah (1741) edit

The best-known of all oratorios, the 2 ½ hour long "The Messiah" took Handel just 24 days to write, and was first performed in 1742 in Dublin. It consists of three parts. The first part deals with the Messiah’s coming, and uses the New Testament extensively. There is a total of 50 movements in this oratorio. The famous Hallelluja chorus occurs at the end of the 2nd movement (movement no. 44). All movements are contrasting between major and minor keys.

Georg Philipp Telemann (1681 - 1767) edit

Telemann, a German, was the most famous composer in Europe during his lifetime, over Bach and Handel, both of whom are now, ironically, more highly renowned than Telemann. He was born in Magdeburg. He wrote the first of his 40 operas at the age of 12. Other than operas, Telemann wrote numerous sacred music, but is best known today for his instrumental music. Among his most notable works is the Suite for recorder, strings, and continuo in A minor, TWV 55:a2, the Hamburger Ebb und Fluht, TWV 55:C3 overture in C major, and the Trumpet Concerto in D major, TWV 51:D7.

Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683 - 1764) edit

Like Couperin, Rameau was one of the most famous French composers of the Baroque era. Besides composing instrumental music, he also composed a handful of ballets, motets, and during the second half of his career, many operas, making him a versatile composer. Some of his most famous works include Pièces de clavecin, Pièces de clavecin en concerts, and operas such as Hippolyte et Aricie, Castor et Pollux, and Zoroastre. He also wrote an influential treatise on music theory that paved the way for many developments which followed.

Jacopo Peri (1561-1633) edit

During the Baroque, Jacopo Peri (1561-1633) had a significant job in the development of opera. An influential figure in improving drama as a free fine art, Peri was brought into the world in Florence and filled in as a writer, singer, and music scholar. "Dafne" was made by him and debuted around 1597. It was a creative mix of music and show. Recitative, a singing music genre that mimics the rhythms and pitches of ordinary speech, was created by Peri and added to the class. Jacopo Peri's "Euridice" is a fundamental work in the standard of Florid drama. "Euridice" appeared in 1600 and featured Peri's imaginative, melodic, and sensational approach. Peri's ability to make storytelling music is shown based on the Greek story of Orpheus and Eurydice. Some Baroque elements in "Euridice" are expressive recitative, basso continuo, and luxurious vocal expression.

Jacopo Peri (1561-1633)

It was to his musically gifted family that Jacopo Peri came into this world in 1561 in Florence, Italy. We don't know much about his young life, yet he most likely concentrated on music in Florence, Italy, with probably the most renowned specialists of his day. Florence, a flourishing social city throughout the Renaissance and Baroque, significantly affected his development through his initial focus on music. Peri became interested in Florence's flourishing music scene as his singing and lyric abilities became evident. He became associated with the Florentine Camerata, a scholarly group of intellectuals and musicians planning to revive traditional Greek theatre's melodic parts. The Camerata would significantly affect Peri's strategy for making and his work with opera. The Extravagant Time in Italy in Authentic Setting: From the late sixteenth to the mid-eighteenth century, Italy was in the Florid time frame, set apart by significant changes in work, legislative issues, and culture. Even throughout the Extravagant Time frame, Florence's status as an important Renaissance city implied that it had a lasting effect on Italian culture. Traditional practices came back in various ways, including music, during this period in Italy because of an interest in old-style Greek and Roman culture. Jacopo Peri flourished in this unique social climate, where he could take motivation from the period's scholarly talk and imaginative advancement. An Outline of Drama's Rise as a Florid Fine Art: Drama arose during the Extravagant time frame, just like one's own artistic expression, moving away from the Renaissance's melodic standards (Carter.,2003). The show focused on various imaginative practices to create intense drama, including music, verse, dramatization, and acting. With the end goal of re-making the old style of Greek traditions, Jacopo Peri and his counterparts were pioneers in the development of the opera. Early opera's expressive recitative style starts in the Florentine Camerata's study with monody, a type of solo vocal music supported by a basic chordal backup. The techniques of music and show that were normal for the Elaborate time frame are on full presentation in "Euridice," a drama by Peri that was written in 1600 and is believed to be one of the most established live exhibitions of the class. Its remarkable achievement introduced another age in melodic history and established the show's rising fame as a main emotional work of art.

"Euridice": Composition and Reception edit

Orpheus and Eurydice by Alessandro Varotari

Ottavio Rinuccini composed the lyrics for Jacopo Peri's creation, "Euridice," based on the legend of Orpheus and Eurydice. As the show opens, gifted artist Orfeo is lamenting the death of his better half, Eurydice. Immersed in distress, Orfeo chooses to go into Gehenna to save her. Orfeo enters the hidden world with the assistance of his hypnotizing music and asks Pluto, leader of the underworld, to free Eurydice. After listening to Orfeo's music, Pluto consents to his request — yet provided that he vows not to look back at Eurydice until they're back in the world of the living. On their process back, Orfeo and Eurydice are disturbed by vulnerabilities and fears, making him oppose Pluto's rules and look back at his lover. At that exact moment, Eurydice vanishes from his view, damning Orfeo to an existence of eternal hopelessness. The opera by Peri depends on the lyrics by Ottavio Rinuccini, which offers a beautiful and suggestive story. The expressive recitative that Peri utilizes in the show, with its flourishing voice and careful replication of designs, escalates the story's emotional impact. Peri likewise utilizes basso continuo, a quality of Baroque music, to establish the vibe for the show's vocal and instrumental parts. "Euridice" represents the Elaborate style regarding emotional exhibition and drama. The show's remarkable storytelling and profound depth, representing devotion, sadness, and recovery, resonate with Floridian time ideas. Concerning organizing, "Euridice," in all probability, utilized elaborate ensembles and scenery intended to submerge watchers in Greek folklore. Visual aspects, alongside the expressive music of Peri and the verse lyrics of Rinuccini, would have created a vivid experience that would have captivated and fascinated audience members in the tale of the drama. As a work of art, the show advanced rapidly because of the drama's notable combination of music and show, which motivated the resulting writers. Because of "Euridice" and different shows like it, opera spread across Europe, and writers were allowed to try various things with new types of melodic narrating. Peri's weighty work formed the operatic way for quite a long time, which made it ready for drama buffa and show seria (Carter., 1987).

"Euridice" by Jacopo Peri confirms his inventive work that redirected the Florid show. A common element of Florid music is the basso continuo, which provides a strong foundation for the vocal and instrumental themes of the drama. The harpsichord, organ, cello, or bassoon provides a foundational theme that enhances the message's content by giving the vocal songs more depth and resonance. Ornamentation is a component of Baroque music, one of Peri's devices for upgrading the vocal lines in "Euridice," supplementing the basso continuo. The skill of entertainers is shown through ornamentation, such as quavers, turns and melismatic entrances. These intricate passages enhance the expressive strength of the performance. Moreover, the emotional quickness of the show is improved by Peri's expressive vocal style, particularly in the recitative areas. Recitative singing allows the vocalist to convey the text with closeness and feeling. The audience better understands the story and the characters' feelings because of Peri's particular utilization of melodic shapes and textural varieties. The developments that Peri integrates into "Euridice" exhibit a remarkable order of Extravagant melodic parts and assume a critical part in the development of Baroque drama. Peri crafted an incredible theatrical work that sets the stage for future writing. Comparing "Euridice" to various tragedies composed by writers such as Giulio Caccini and Jacopo Corsi, we can see intricate contrasts and collaborative strategies that enhance operatic growth. The developments presented by Peri in "Euridice" continue to significantly affect the expressive words and stunning displays of Baroque drama despite each arranger committing to the class (Povoledo, 2017).

Peri's Personal and Collaborative Aspects edit

His confidential life and situation in the Florentine melodic world greatly impacted how Jacopo Peri progressed in drama. Peri was brought into the world in Florence in 1561 into a musical family that valued culture and development. He most likely accepted his inherent experience as an entertainer and lyricist in Florence. His participation in the Florentine Camerata was significant to Peri's imaginative development, a relationship between researchers and performers focused on restoring the creative practices of the old style of Greece. As a participant in this respected assembly, Peri had the opportunity to discuss emotions and musical theories with many authors, composers, and scholars. Among Peri's numerous connections and collaborators were pioneer Jacopo Corsi and arranger Giulio Caccini, who helped to expand his melodic range and influence his composing style. Like Peri, Caccini had a place with the Florentine Camerata and was eager to find the possibilities of combining music and drama. Jacopo Corsi, a wealthy Florentine patron and music intellect, was crucial in Peri's rise to fame. With Corsi's assistance, Peri could organize dramas like "Euridice." Joint efforts and creative trades worked by Corsi's huge organization throughout the Florentine melodic world improved Peri's clever outcome. With the Florentine Camerata's assistance and his associations with Caccini and Corsi, Peri gave "Euridice" a new, stronger and more emotional tone. Combining ornamentation, expressive recitative, and basso continuo into the drama shows Peri's association with current melodic patterns and his commitment to growing the class' limits. Similarly, because of Corsi's support and help, Peri had the option to do his creative vision, and "Euridice" turned into an operatic example that will be performed for a long time into the future ((Povoledo, 2017).

Finally, Jacopo Peri's "Euridice" is an extraordinary work that demonstrates his unique style of music and shows, and it marks a massive achievement in the development of Baroque drama. Peri's relationship with the Florentine Camerata, his coordinated efforts with outstanding craftsmen like Jacopo Corsi and Giulio Caccini, and his childhood in Florence all contributed to his development as a writer and the progression of drama. Peri could try out different melodic styles and sensational sorts because of the reassuring climate he found at these social events. "Euridice" features Peri's mastery in integrating Baroque viewpoints into his work, like ornamentation, basso continuo, and expressive vocal methods. His use of these parts spread a standard for Baroque drama's emotional guidelines and expressive language. Different inspirations and creative considerations were added to "Euridice" through Peri's relationship with Caccini and Corsi, which impacted its execution. "Euridice" was a phenomenal achievement in operatic history, made possible by these individuals' help, who gave Peri the essential assets to finish his creative vision. To improve the show as a thing of beauty, "Euridice" also means a turning point in Peri's calling. His imaginative method for managing music and shows, close by his helpful demeanour and creative vision, has made a super durable engraving on the music universe. Peri's effect on creators and performers is, at this point, felt today.

Notes edit

  1. a b Dietrich Bartel, Musica Poetica. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997: 30.
  2. a b c Blake Wilson, George J. Buelow, and Peter A. Hoyt. "Rhetoric and music." Grove Music Online. 2001.
  3. Bartel, xiv
  4. Definitions are based upon provided definitions in Bartel’s Musica Poetica.
  5. Note that in this sonata, scordatura is used to lower to E string to sound as a D. This means the notated A will sound as a G.
  6. Bartel, 214
  7. English translation: weeping, lamentation, worry.
  8. English translation: flees
  9. Burmeister, Musica Poetica, 154-5
  10. Bukofzer, Manfred F. Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach. London: Dent, 1948, 141.
  11. Bukofzer, Manfred F. Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach. London: Dent, 1948, 153.
  12. Bukofzer, Manfred F. Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach. London: Dent, 1948, 144.
  13. Bukofzer, Manfred F. Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach. London: Dent, 1948, 152.
  14. Joseph A. Mann, Printed Musical Propaganda in Early Modern England (Clemson: Clemson University Press, 2020), 35.
  15. Joseph A. Mann, Printed Musical Propaganda in Early Modern England (Clemson: Clemson University Press, 2020), 32.
  16. Joseph A. Mann, Printed Musical Propaganda in Early Modern England (Clemson: Clemson University Press, 2020), 33.
  17. Joseph A. Mann, Printed Musical Propaganda in Early Modern England (Clemson: Clemson University Press, 2020), 37.
  18. Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach (London: Dent, 1948), 203.
  19. Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach (London: Dent, 1948), 203.
  20. David Hume, Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects, in Four Volumes. Containing Essays, Moral and Political (London: A. Millar, 1753), 119.
  21. Roland Vaubel, “The Role of Competition in the Rise of Baroque and Renaissance Music,” Journal of Cultural Economics 29, no. 4 (2005): pp. 277-297, 282.
  22. Roland Vaubel, “The Role of Competition in the Rise of Baroque and Renaissance Music,” Journal of Cultural Economics 29, no. 4 (2005): pp. 277-297, 280.
  23. Roland Vaubel, “The Role of Competition in the Rise of Baroque and Renaissance Music,” Journal of Cultural Economics 29, no. 4 (2005): pp. 277-297, 280.
  24. Roland Vaubel, “The Role of Competition in the Rise of Baroque and Renaissance Music,” Journal of Cultural Economics 29, no. 4 (2005): pp. 277-297, 295.
  25. Richard Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 224.
  26. Richard Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 224.
  27. Timothy A. Smith, “More Evidence of Numeral-Logical Design in Bach’s ‘St. Matthew Passion.’” Bach 17, no. 2 (1986): 24-25.
  28. Two is the number of Christ to represent his two natures: the human and the divine.
  29. Robin A. Leaver. "Number Associations in the Structure of Bach's 'Credo, BWV, 232.'” Bach 7, no. 3 (1976): 17–24.
  30. Friedrich Smend. Bach-Studien, ed. C. Wolff (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1969), p. 187
  31. a b c d Rosand 1978
  32. Fontijn 2020
  33. a b c d Kolb and Swanson 2018
  34. a b c Heller 2007
  35. Porter, Cecelia Hopkins. Five Lives in Music : Women Performers, Composers, and Impresarios from the Baroque to the Present. University of Illinois Press, 2012, 44
  36. See Porter, Five Lives in Music : Women Performers, Composers, and Impresarios from the Baroque to the Present. 45-46
  37. Ibid, 46
  38. Beer, Anna R. Sounds and Sweet Airs : The Forgotten Women of Classical Music. Oneworld Publications, 2016: 90
  39. Porter, Five Lives in Music” 47
  40. Beer, Sounds and Sweet Airs : The Forgotten Women of Classical Music” 91
  41. Cyr, Mary. “Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre: Myth or Marvel? Seeking the Composer’s Individuality.” The Musical Times 149, no. 1905 (December 1, 2008): 79
  42. Porter, Five Lives in Music. 48
  43. Beer, Sounds and Sweet Airs, 100
  44. Porter, Five Lives in Music. 51
  45. ibid
  46. See quote under “Notable Compositions”
  47. Cyr,. Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre: Myth or Marvel? Seeking the Composer’s Individuality, 80
  48. Ibid, 83
  49. See Pilcher, Ryan. The Impact of Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre on Gender Roles in Music. The Owl 4, no. 1 (March 1, 2014) 77-79.
  50. Ibid, 79
  51. Beer, Sounds and Sweet Airs, 52
  52. Cyr, Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre: Myth or Marvel?, 87

References edit

  • Kolb, Richard; Swanson, Barbara (2018). "Chapter 4: Barbara Strozzi, Apresso ai molli argenti (1659)". In Parsons, Laurel; Ravenscroft, Brenda (eds.). Analytical Essays on Music by Women Composers. Oxford University Press. pp. 74–106.
  • Fontijn, Clair (2020). "Representations of Weeping in the Laments of Barbara Strozzi". Uncovering Music of Early European Women. Routledge. pp. 145–170.
  • Rosand, Ellen (1978). "Barbara Strozzi, 'Virtuosissima Cantatrice': The Composer's Voice". Journal of the American Musicological Society. 31 (no. 2): 241–281. {{cite journal}}: |issue= has extra text (help); Unknown parameter |ref name= ignored (help)
  • Heller, Wendy (2007). "Usurping the Place of the Muses: Barbara Strozzi and the Female Composer in Seventeenth-Century Italy". In George, Stauffer (ed.). The World of Baroque Music: New Perspectives. Indiana University Press. pp. 145–168.
  • Beer, Anna R. Sounds and Sweet Airs : The Forgotten Women of Classical Music. Oneworld Publications, 2016.
  • Porter, Cecelia Hopkins. Five Lives in Music : Women Performers, Composers, and Impresarios from the Baroque to the Present. University of Illinois Press, 2012.
  • Cyr, Mary. Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre: Myth or Marvel? Seeking the Composer’s Individuality. The Musical Times 149, no. 1905 (December 1, 2008): 79–87
  • Cyr, Mary. Representing Jacquet de La Guerre on Disc: Scoring and Basse Continue Practices, and a New Painting of the Composer. Early Music 32, no. 4 (November 2004): 549–67
  • Pilcher, Ryan. The Impact of Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre on Gender Roles in Music. The Owl 4, no. 1 (March 1, 2014).