User:Saltrabook/Early diagnosis, prognosis, follow-up and prevention guidelines
Seafarers travel across the globe, and very often it is difficult to seek timely health services. In this sense they are hard to reach population group. This makes pre-service examinations fundamental, as they need to comply with specific requirements in order to get their work fitness certificate. Good health is a prerequisite for seafarers to serve at sea. Though the medical clinical guidelines are developed globally for decennia, it hasn´t been developed and adapted to a high degree in the maritime medicine. The overall aim is to improve health and safety for seafarers and fishermen by adapting the best possible clinical evidence based early diagnosis, prevention and personal advice to the seafarers and the ship-owners. The aim is also to make some preliminary steps to create the maritime medical speciality. The Wikibook is intended to be gradually developed in the Network of IMHA members and many others. It is intended to be created in collaboration with other maritime health clinics in order to develop the guidelines gradually to the highest quality. In Denmark, maritime doctors designated by the DMA to provide fit-for work certificates. They are mainly general practitioners (GPs). The seafarers every second year need to renew their health certificate but in the meantime they could visit the same doctor for having consultations. This allows doctors exercising a full range of service provision including diagnostics and management of diseases as the seafarers are regularly enrolled on their list of customers. However this is not the case for flag states, in which the specific seafarers´ health clinics do not serve as the seafarer´s family practice. This serious problem was never questioned in the WHO/ILO guidelines for routine pre-entry health examinations ! This means that the detection of for example Diabetes-2 and Pre-diabetes-2 will not be further controlled and prevented until the diabetes is fully developed. With reference to the interest for early diagnosis of Diabetes-2 it is proposed not to use urine dipstick but the highly sensitive blood test, Hb1Ac or similar valid tests for early diagnose for T2DM when seafarers and fishers attend for their biannual fit-for duty medical examinations. See https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Maritime_Health_Research_and_Education-NET/DM2The urine dipstick should still be used as a basic diagnostic tool to determine pathological changes in a patient's urine but due to low sensibility with many false negatives it cannot be used for early diagnosis of diabetes type 2.The early diagnosis and follow-up with prevention of the chronic non-contagious diseases are not included in the seafarers ‘international fit for duty guidelines. However, the emerging global epidemic of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases calls for attention to this important problem for seafarers. Moreover the early diagnosis and plan for integrated prevention has not yet been included in the WHO/ILO Guidelines for pre-entry health examinations for seafarers. Therefore IMHA Research has taken the initiative to develop such integrated clinical and public/occupational health guidelines and we invite all interested health professionals to contribute to the development of these guidelines. The global inter-clinical-collaboration will be facilitated by the use of the Maritime Clinical Colloquial Network
Pre-diabetes and Diabetes-2Edit
In medical examinations it is important with an adequate clinical history, with the primary goal of early diagnosis of diseases that may be exacerbated by the maritime labor. Early diagnosis and start of prevention at home and at sea through the detection of modifiable risk factors to prevent the development of diseases that undermine the health of people sea. A clinical condition that deserves compulsory care in medical examinations of seafarers because of their importance are the changes in blood glucose levels that do not correspond with diabetes but neither is considered normal, this intermediate stage of metabolic relevance today called prediabetes. With reference to the relevant scientific evidence it is proposed not to use urine dipstick but the highly sensitive blood test, Hb1Ac or similar for early diagnose for T2DM when seafarers and fishers attend for their biannual fit-for duty medical examinations.
The urine dipstick should still be used as a basic diagnostic tool to determine pathological changes in a patient's urine but due to low sensibility with many false negatives it cannot be used for early diagnosis of diabetes type 2.
Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers. The systolic blood pressure (the top number) equals the pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts. The diastolic pressure (the bottom number) is the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes. Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called "pre-hypertension," and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high while a systolic blood pressure of about 90 to 100 is considered low blood pressure.