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Sparse text 0% Developing text 25% Maturing text 50% Developed text 75% Comprehensive text 100%
A human brain

The Opensource Handbook of Neuroscience 25% developed

Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system.

This wikibook Neuroscience is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. Such studies may include the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. Traditionally it is seen as a branch of biological sciences. It can involve convergence of interest from many allied disciplines, including psychology, computer science, statistics, physics, and medicine. The scope of neuroscience has now broadened to include any systematic scientific experimental and theoretical investigation of the central and peripheral nervous system of biological organisms. The methodologies employed by neuroscientists have been enormously expanded, from biochemical and genetic analysis of dynamics of individual nerve cells and their molecular constituents to imaging representations of perceptual and motor tasks in the brain. Neuroscience is at the frontier of investigation of the brain and mind. The study of the brain is becoming the cornerstone in understanding how we perceive and interact with the external world and, in particular, how human experience and human biology influence each other.

Brief introductions to the parts

to give a quick overview

Detailed descriptions

(100% developed-icons are individual web pages; Numbers are sub-sections)


Why is nanotechnology such a 'hot' subject - and is it more hype than substance? This part gives a brief introduction to the visions of nanotechnology and why so many people are working on it around the world. To help set a perspective there are overview tables with timelines, length scales and information resources.


100% developed Perspective

  1. A perspective on Nanotechnology
  2. Nanocomponents, Tools, and Methods
  3. Hot and hyped

100% developed Overviews

  1. Internet Resources
  2. Journals
  3. Nanotech Products
  4. A nano-timeline
  5. A nano-scale overview

100% developed About the Book

  1. Vision
  2. How to contribute
  3. History
  4. Authors and Editors
  5. Support and Acknowledgments
  6. How to Reference this Book

100% developed Reaching Out

  1. Teaching Nanotechnology
  2. Outreach projects
  3. Demonstration experiments

Microscopes allows us to probe the structure of matter with high spatial resolution, making it possible to see for instance individual atoms with tools such as the scanning tunneling microscope, the atomic force microscope, and the transmission electron microscope. With the related spectroscopic methods, we can study the energy levels in nanosystems. This part gives an overview of the tools and methods used in microscopy and spectroscopy of nanostructures.


25% developed Optical Methods

  1. Optical Microscopy
  2. Confocal Microscopy
  3. X-ray Microscopy
  4. UV/VIS Spectrometry
  5. Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR)
  6. Terahertz Spectroscopy (THz)
  7. Raman Spectroscopy
  8. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

50% developed Electron Microscopy

  1. The Electron Optical System
  2. Electron Range
  3. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
  4. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

50% developed Scanning probe microscopy

50% developed Atomic force microscope (AFM)

25% developed Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)

25% developed Scanning Near-field optical microscopy (SNOM)


25% developed Additional methods

  1. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED)
  2. Reflection High Energy Electron diffraction (RHEED)
  3. X-ray Spectroscopy and diffraction
  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
  5. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR /ESR)
  6. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)
  7. Mössbauer spectroscopy

On the nanoscale force that we in everyday life do not consider strong, such as contact adhesion, become much more important. In addition, many things behave in a quantum mechanical way. This chapter looks into the scaling of the forces and fundamental dynamics of matter on the nanoscale.


25% developed Intro to Nanophysics

  1. Scaling laws
  2. Quantized Nano Systems
  3. Bulk matter and the end of bulk: surfaces

25% developed Modelling Nanosystems

  1. The Schrödinger equation
  2. Hartree-Fock (HF) or self-consistent field (SCF)
  3. Density Functional Theory (DFT)
  4. Transport phenomena

25% developed Physical Chemistry of Surfaces

  1. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces
  2. Surface Energy
  3. Surface Diffusion
  4. Mass transport in 1, 2, and 3D

25% developed Background material

  1. Dispersion relations

Many unique nanostructured materials have been made, such as carbon nanotubes that can be mechanically stronger than diamond. This part provides an overview of nanoscale materials such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots and nanoparticles, their unique properties and fabrication methods.


25% developed Overview of Production methods

  1. Commercial suppliers of nanomaterials

25% developed Semiconducting Nanostructures

  1. Buckyballs - carbon 60
  2. Carbon nanotubes
  3. Semiconducting nanowires
  4. Semiconducting nanoparticles

25% developed Metallic Nanostructures


25% developed Organic Nanomaterials


To understand the novel possibilities in nanotechnology, this part gives an overview of some typical nanoscale systems - simple experimental devices that show unique nanoscale behavior useful in for instance electronics.


25% developed Nanoelectronics

  1. Diffusive and Ballistic Electron Transport
  2. Double barrier systems
  3. Moletronics

25% developed Nano-optics


25% developed Nanomechanics

  1. Mechanics of beams and cantilevers
  2. The harmonic oscillator

25% developed Nanofluidics


Combining nanodevices into functional units for real life application is a daunting task because making controlled structures with molecularly sized components requires extreme precision and control. Here we look at ways to assemble nanosystems into functional units or working devices with top-down or bottom-up approaches.

See also the Wikibook on Microtechnology which contains information about many fabrication and processing details.


25% developed Top-down and bottom-up approaches

  1. Microfabrication made smaller

25% developed Self assembly

  1. Selfassembled monolayers
  2. Bottom-up chemistry
  3. Molecular engineering

25% developed Lithography

  1. Electron beam lithography (EBL)
  2. Nano imprint lithography (NIL)
  3. Focused Ion Beam (FIB)

50% developed Electron Beam Induced Deposition (EBID or EBD)


25% developed Nanomanipulation

  1. AFM manipulation
  2. STM manipulation
  3. In-situ SEM manipulation
  4. In-situ TEM manipulation

Your body is based on a fantastic amount a biological nanotechnology happening right now in each of your body's cells, that has evolved to an awesome level of complexity. Much of nanotechnology is aimed at bio-applications, such as bio-sensors and biologically active nanoparticles for medical therapy or targeting cancer. This part is an introduction to this cross-disciplinary field.


25% developed Nano-bio Primer

  1. Biological building blocks
  2. Lenghts and masses
  3. Cells
  4. Virus
  5. Bacteria
  6. The body

25% developed Biosensors

  1. Typical applications and Analytes
  2. Sensor principles

25% developed Targeting Diseases

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  2. Cancer


People are very enthusiastic about the visions of nanotechnology, but at the same time there is a natural worry about the environmental issues of the emerging technologies. This area is being increasingly brought into focus to ensure a healthy development.


25% developed Health effects of nanoparticles

  1. Particles around us
  2. Characterizing Particles
  3. Biodistribution
  4. Particles in nature
  5. Sooth
  6. Asbestos
  7. Silicate particles

25% developed Environmental Impact

  1. Ecological Footprints
  2. Nanostructure Lifecycles

25% developed Nano and Society

  1. The Nano-hype
  2. The Nano-scare
  3. Funding, science and the political aspects