Power in Nursing: The Impact of Gender Roles in Nursing edit

Nurse detail in 1918 Toul, France- Group of nurses, Base Hospital

Modern nursing appeared in 19th century Germany, with Theodor Fliedner (1800–1864) organizing deaconesses in Germany-where young women from small villages and lower classes moved from around Germany to Kaiserswerth to be trained in nursing care[1]- and Britain, with Florence Nightingale(1820-1910): known as the founder of modern nursing and as a social reformer in the medical field[2]. Although the action of caring for the ill was already in practice sine circa 1–500 AD, when religious organizations were the care providers[3], nursing became a certified profession only in the 19th century.[4]

How Gender Roles impacted early Nursing?

A wet-nurse attempts to breast feed John the Baptist

The roles that women were taking as care-takers or housewives shaped how they were perceived in society. In the late Middle Ages, words of the semantic domain of "mother" and of "woman" were associated with caring meanings[5] It was a sensible implication, provided the conceptions the society had in those times, that since women carry tasks such as delivering babies, they must also be able to care for them and for others.[6]

Wet-nursing was a common practice before infant formulas were invented in 1865.[7] Women were breastfeeding abandoned or orphan children and children whose mothers could not breastfeed them, sometimes for money[8], thus encouraging the reasoning behind's women's image as the care-taker of a family.

Nuns are another example of women whom it was expected from to be able to care for the poor and ill, they were viewed as charitable practitioners and were highly esteemed in the society.[9] Before nursing became officially a profession, in the Civil War, the term 'nurse' could be, as well, misconstrued. Since there were no nursing schools yet, nor official nursing credentials, a 'nurse' could have been the wife of a soldier on the battlefield. The nurses that volunteered on the battlefield were usually professionally inexperienced; their experience came from caring for their loved ones. [10]

The Age of Modern Nursing

Florence nightingale at st thomas

Multiple practice schools for nurses opened in the late 19th century, most notably, Florence Nightingale's school of Nursing and Midwifery at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, which opened in 1860. Although, at first, nursing as a discipline was criticized because of its lack of theoretical rigor and its emphasis on practice and caring, a committee for the study of nursing education, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, encouraged in the Goldmark Report(1923), that nursing schools should be more academical and become a discipline at universities(that students no longer provide free services for their practices) [11] The majority of male nurses from the early 20th century worked in mental hospitals(psychiatric hospitals) and received very little training; they were perceived as less qualified and of lower status than female nurses, thus establishing a gender stereotype within modern nursing: men worked in mental nursing, women worked in general nursing. Many schools even rejected male students for they could have seduced or upset the female students. In the UK, after World War II, when the Ministry of Health saw those male and female nurses can work together(nurses had to work together regardless of gender due to a shortage in the number of nurses available) the employment of male nurses in both mental and general nursing increased. The ministry arranged a one-year training course for men leaving military services and offered male nurses full-time jobs by the NHS. By 1960, men were allowed to become members of the Royal College of Nursing and there was a gradual rise in the number of male nurses. [12]

Covid-19 San Salvatore 05

How Past Gender Roles in Nursing impact our Society today?

Despite more men being associated with nursing jobs today, the gender divide remains uneven with 11.2% of nurses and health care workers employed by the NHS being men, in 2015. [13] The term midwife is used to this day, although there are male nurses who have this profession as well as women. The slang job titles being attributed to males in nursing positions such as, murse(a male nurse) or midhusband(male midwife), continue to show that to this day, gender roles imprinted in the early basis of the nursing discipline carry on to this day. As of 2016, a study by Health Education England shows that children feel more at ease having a woman as their nurse and that they perceive females as nurses and males as doctors. [14]

In 2019 roughly 16,000 students graduate from UK nursing schools, both men and women, according to the Royal College of Nursing[15]; despite a shortfall in the number of students that graduate each year, and the misconceptions of gender roles from the past that follow the profession, today people realize the importance of nurses and nursing students in society due to the deadly 2020 pandemic[16]: COVID-19.

The Controversy regarding Truth in Theology edit

The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church

Theology is the study of the divine; of religious faith, practice, and experience. [17] The term derives from the Greek theologia (θεολογία): theos (Θεός, 'god') and logia (λογία, 'utterances, sayings, oracles').[18] Religion plays a major role in society: there are roughly 10.000 different religions worldwide, which include Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Atheism.[19] Despite theology's prevalence in history and social evolution, scientist often view this field of study deprecatingly, due to its lack of vigor and evidence in claims; that being said, theology's truth does not lie in evidence, but faith. [20]

Truth in Theology and Faith

Theology uses mainly constructive truth in its studies since it is rooted in tradition and social evolution, perception. Despite the emphasis on perception, the use of reason and logic is discouraged in theological studies; in Christianity, logic, and reason can interfere with the biblical truth, distorting its ground beliefs, allowing the misinterpretation of prophecies and values.[21]

The Questions in Truth

One lingering question in theology is the relation between God and time. While the Greeks viewed God as a "static perfection inhabiting eternity, detached from the flux of the world", modern theological perceptions-process theology-view God as evolving within time. [22] Because of the theological materials'(such as the bible) open-to-interpretation factor, questions arise about the validity of the information presented in them.

Evolution in Theology

Queer Theology emerged in the late 20th century and it emphasizes the rudimentary interpretation of passages from the bible and the importance of evolution in theology along with societal evolution. Although Queer Theology does not disregard the fact that homosexual acts were looked down upon in the bible, it is believed that this interpretation was a matter of social beliefs that reflected the times the Old and New Testament were written in (165 BC, first century AD), rather than actual religious beliefs. Despite that, sociologists found traces of queer stories in the bible that were not condemned, only brushed off, such as in the Epistle to the Romans where Paul visits 'unusual households' not led by married men. [23] . Because of society's constant evolution and theology's ground materials for practice and study, such as the bible, being unclear and left open-to-interpretation, the truth in theology lies in beliefs rather than logic and evidence.

The Use of Evidence in Journalism & its Fight for Relevance in the Digital Age edit

File:The News Is The News.jpg
The News Is The News, a live news-satire program aired in 1983 on NBC, criticizing the real news of the preceding seven days


Journalism has continuously been in a perpetual state of evolution because of technological advancements. It is perceived that with the emergence of a new information-sharing platform, another one dies; therefore, the debate regarding journalism's future has been grim since the upheaval of social media. It is believed that journalists fears' are inclined towards how to attract new audiences and how to stay relevant in the new media era.[25]

Forms of Data Journalism Uses in the New Media Era

Journalists use both quantitative and qualitative data in their writings. Multiple data gathering methods have been used since the beginning of newspapers, in the late 1400s' Europe[26], such as eyewitness observation, the interview.[27] Recently, technological advancements expanded the options journalists have in collecting data-photography, videos, online interviews-making it easier to find evidence, both quantitative and qualitative in backing up stories. The type of evidence used depends on the tone of an article(politically and health-related coverages require quantitative evidence, empirical data, to stay relevant), while other articles stand out through their story, stemming from qualitative data.[28]

How the New Media Era influences Journalism's Practice of Displaying Evidence?

Journalism goes through a popularity fight, with all other media platforms, since being earnest and providing useful pieces of information is no longer required for staying relevant. The audience's availability puts pressure on how journalists structure articles because people are prone to consume media based on how easily they can access it, rather than based on their personal preferences.[29] Since sensational headlines catch the readers' attention easily and fact-checking news information is becoming increasingly hard with the numerous online media content available, there has been a great rise in 'Fake Media'[30]. 'Fake Media' manages to be successfully spread to a wide audience through 'relevance' algorithms which are based on popularity (the more popular a topic is, regardless of its truth value, the more it is displayed on social media).[31] That being said, 'Breaking News' stories could become easily viral, regardless of their content (their truth value)[32], therefore journalism can stay relevant in the digital age while providing true information to its readers.[33]

History of Disciplines: The Short-Lived Paradigm Shift between Historical and New Musicology edit

Musicology is the field of study and research of music, which differs from composition or performance. While the first forms of musical instruments date about 400—100 BCE (Before the Common Era) [34] and music has been studied, since its discovery, throughout centuries, the term of Musicology was first coined only in 1863, as Musikalische Wissenschaft[35] (German for Science of Music), by Friedrich Chrysander.

While music genres have evolved constantly,(50s Rock and Roll evolved into the 60s Psychedelic Rock, 70s Disco evolved into 80s Synth Pop and, today, Electronic Dance Music (EDM) is rooted in the 90s Hip Hop), musicology's evolution remained constant until the mid-80s when professionals realized how the field of study became gradually interdisciplinary, cultural and ideological[36].

Musicologist first approach was to analyze music historically- in the words of the German musicologist, Heinrich Besseler, from 1931- "What modernity failed to offer was sought and found in history"[37]. In the late 70s until the early 90s, there was a great difference between the music analyzed at higher institutions and the music people listened to daily, such as rock music or popular music. Perceiving all forms of music as social constructs, including classical music, implied that music had to be seen both from a cultural and social point of view [38]. Therefore, the novelty of interdisciplinary in a field that has remained faithful to its roots led to a paradigm shift in Musicology, which resulted in the birth of two subdisciplines: New Musicology and Old/Historical Musicology.[39]

Although the discrepancy between subdisciplines was short-lived, since many musicologists started adopting an interdisciplinary approach to analyzing musical pieces afterwards, the short-lived paradigm shift had a long-lasting impact on how musicologists approach their work-no longer disregarding new music, in favor of classical-and cast light on the importance of evolution in maintaining the relevance of a well-established discipline.

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