USMLE Step 1 Review/Free association

Clinical - Free Association edit

Proud Dead Guys and Other Diseases

a edit

  • Addison’s Disease - primary adrenocortical deficiency
  • Addisonian Anemia - pernicious anemia (antibodies to intrinsic factor or parietal cells - IF - Vit B12 - macrocytic non-megaloblastic anemia)
  • Albright’s Syndrome - polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café au lait spots, short stature, young girls
  • Alport’s Syndrome - hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness, Type 4 collagen defect (basement membranes)
  • Alzheimer’s - progressive dementia; tau proteins, neurofibrillary tangles, apolipoprotein E4 allele, narrow gyri and wide sulci (atrophy), occipital sparing, hydrocephalus ex vacuo, plaques in hippocampus and cortex,  Acetylcholine, Hiramo bodies (inrtacellular inclusion bodies in hippocampal cells)
  • Argyll-Robertson Pupil - loss of light reflex constriction (contralateral or bilateral)
  • “Prostitute’s Eye” - accommodates but does not react
  • Pathognomonic for Tertiary Syphilis
  • Arnold-Chiari Malformation - cerebellar tonsil herniation

b edit

  • Barrett’s esophagus- columnar metaplasia of lower esophagus (* risk of adenocarcinoma)
  • Bartter’s Syndrome - hyperreninemia
  • Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy - similar to Duchenne, but less severe (deficiency in dystrophin protein)
  • Bell’s Palsy - CNVII palsy (entire face; recall that UMN lesion only affects lower face)
  • Berger’s Disease - IgA nephropathy
  • Bernard-Soulier Disease - defect in platelet adhesion (abnormally large platelets & lack of von willenbrand factor receptor GP 1b platelet-surface glycoprotein)
  • Berry Aneurysm - circle of Willis (subarachnoid bleed),often associated with ADPKD
  • Bowen’s Disease - carcinoma in situ on shaft of penis (* risk of visceral ca)
  • Briquet’s Syndrome - somatization disorder,psychological: multiple physical complaints without physical pathology
  • Broca’s Aphasia - Motor Aphasia intact comprehension

Bronchiolitis RSV

  • Brown-Sequard - hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch, UMN)
  • Bruton’s Disease - X-linked agammaglobinemia
  • Budd-Chiari - post-hepatic venous thrombosis
  • Buerger’s Disease - acute inflammation of small, medium arteries * painful ischemia * gangrene * Japan * smoking
  • Burkitt’s Lymphoma - small noncleaved cell lymphoma,EBV,8:14 translocation

c edit

  • Caisson Disease - gas emboli
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Median nerve entrapment in the Carpel tunnel
  • Chagas’ Disease - Trypansoma infection sleeping disease, cardiomegaly with apical atrophy, achalasia
  • Chediak-Higashi Disease - Phagocyte Deficiency: neutropenia, albinism, cranial & peripheral neuropathy• repeated infections
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-hydroxylase deficiency: virilism, no cortisol, salt loss, hypotension
  • 11-hydroxylase deficiency: virilism, no cortisol, salt retention, hypertension
  • Conn’s Syndrome - primary aldosteronism
  • Cori’s Disease - glycogen storage disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease - prion infection * cerebellar & cerebral degeneration
  • Crigler-Najjar Syndrome - congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated),self mutilation,glucuronyl transferase deficiency
  • Crohn’s • IBD; ileocecum, transmural, skip lesions, lymphocytic infiltrate, granulomas

(contrast to UC: limited to colon, mucosa & submucosa, crypt abscesses, pseudopolyps, * colon cancer risk)

  • Croup - Parainfluenza
  • Curling’s Ulcer - acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
  • Cushing’s Disease - hypercorticism 2* to * ACTH from pituitary (basophilic adenoma)
  • Cushing's Syndrome: hypercorticism of all other causes (1* adrenal or ectopic)
  • Cushing’s Ulcer - acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS trauma

d edit

  • de Quervain’s Thyroiditis - self-limiting focal destruction (subacute thyroiditis)
  • DiGeorge’s Syndrome - thymic hypoplasia * T-cell deficiency,hypoparathyroidism
  • Doll's Eyes - patient comatose with intact brain stem, eyes remain fixed and seem to move opposite the movement of the head
  • Down’s Syndrome - trisomy 21 or translocation
  • Dressler’s Syndrome - Post-MI Fibrinous Pericarditis autoimmune
  • Dubin-Johnson Syndrome - congenital hyperbilirubinemia (conjugated),striking brown-to-black discoloration of the liver
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy - deficiency of dystrophin protein, MD X-linked recessive

e edit

  • Edwards’ Syndrome - trisomy 18,rocker-bottom feet, low ears, heart disease
  • Ehler’s-Danlos - defective collagen
  • Eisenmenger’s Complex - late cyanotic shunt (R to L) pulmonary HTN & RVH secondary to long-standing VSD, ASD, or PDA
  • Erb-Duchenne Palsy - trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip
  • Ewing Sarcoma - undifferentiated round cell tumor of bone. Translocation (11;22)
  • Eyrthroplasia of Queyrat - carcinoma in situ on glans penis

f edit

  • Fanconi Syndrome - impaired proximal tubular reabsorption secondary to lead poisoning or Tetracycline.

Useful Websites edit