Transportation Deployment Casebook/Aircraft

Introduction Edit

Air transport is a transportation system for moving passengers or good by the air such as aircraft. Aircraft is a machine that able to transform from one place to another destination through the air. It come from the force of gravity by using the static lift or dynamic lift of an airfoil which is downward thrust from the jet engines.

Technological Characteristic of an Aircraft Edit

  • Engine

The purpose of aircraft engine is to provide a force to propel the aircraft to the air. There are other propulsion can be classified such as Piston engine, Turbo Jet, Rocket, Turbo fan and Piston engine.

  • Propeller

It is a conventional piston engine aircraft. The engine and propeller are in front which is tractor types and also known as a pusher installation.

  • Wings

Aircraft wings is for support the machine in the air when the engine has given the forward speed.

  • Flaps

It looks like an Ailerons and use to increase the lift on aerofoils.

  • Tricycle under-carriage

To support the aircraft while it approach to the ground and also absorb landing shocks and enable the aircraft to maneuver on ground.

  • Fuselage

It is a main Aircraft body and provide the power plant, fuel, cockpit, passenger and cargo.

  • Three Controls

Three axes are in space to move. It also controls at the tail end fuselage and the pilot from the cabin.

Main Advantages Edit

The main advantage of aircraft is high speed with the fastest mode of transport and require less time. Air transport provide a conducive environment such as efficient and quick service. It is no capital investment needed and require less cost mode of transport. Air transport is easily to access anywhere compare to land as some further places is not reachable. On the other hand, air transport is basically free physical barrier as it takes the shortest way to reach the destination. Air transport play an important role in the national defence of the country as during the modern period wars was using with the help of aero planes.

Main Market Edit

Air transport is an intensely competitive market and it has a collaborative approach with a wide range of operator such as multiple airlines. The growth of the number of planes and commercial services were leading to growth of the number of passengers. There are 3 types of important servicing a specific air transport due to the market increasing:

  • Short range aircraft
  • Medium range aircraft
  • Long range aircraft

Based on the above 3 ranges, it will attract more customers to fly their own destination. As the planning of flight schedules increased the number of passengers also increased. However, due to the competitiveness of attraction revenue, the airlines flight schedules will getting complex.

Other Modes Available Edit

There is another similar transportation of passenger and good such as railway. The railway is long enough to carry all the passengers or goods no matter what size or capacity.

Limitations Edit

  • Huge capital Outlay
  • Lack of Flexibility
  • Unstable for short distance and small loads
  • No rural service
  • Under-utilised Capacity
  • Monopoly

Markets for Transportation Evolvement Edit

During 1804’s train managed to pull 25 tonnes of iron material and 70 people over the distance of 10 miles. However, currently it become train transport estimated 40 % of world’s cargo. The speed of the train from 96km/h increased to above 200km/h and bullet train can go over 500km/h. In 21st century the aviation become increasing interest in fuel saving and fuel diversification such as budget airlines and facilities. Moreover, it attracts more people and become one of the famous transportation in the world.

Factors of the New Possibilities Edit

For the new possibilities of transportation such as safety, efficiency and save costs for the movement of passenger and cargo. Hence, it will bring the improvement for the transportation in the future.

Invention of Air Mode/Technology Edit

On 17 December 1903, the invention of air transport was made by the wright brother which is the successful power ,controlled and sustained air flight with three axis control. They also solve the power and control problems by inventing the wing warping for roll control and Yaw control with a steerable rear rudder. In the early stage, the aircraft construction methods using the monocoque and aluminium. There are different types of technological in the wold that brought together as well such as Global positioning system (GPS), air-ground datalinks, automatic dependent surveillance (ADS), synthetic version and pilot and controller decision aids. During the initial design for the first powered airplane, which is called flyer. They returned to their wind tunnel data and lift and drag equations. To support this weight of an engine, propellers and added structural reinforcement, so they increased wing area with more than 500 square feet.

Different types of technological expertise Edit

As we can see in 1903 Wright brother have been successfully invented the aircraft and bringing into around the world. Moreover, there are thousand of planes are flying in the sky through different destination. The development of air transportation is gradually increase and become famous until now. In the new era of globalisation, the aircraft is become stronger and reliable and many of people using it now. However, there are a few importance of technical aircraft structure such as fuselage, engine, systems, cabins and wings.

Experience of the Aircraft Design Edit

From the Pictures below, we can see there are significant changes of air transportation from the early stage until now. Figure 1 aircraft was invented by Wright Flyer in 1903. Figure 2 was the latest aircraft Boeing 747. As we know from 1903 to 2019 the aircraft is potentially transformed from one passenger to many passengers. Nowadays the aircraft become more reliable and efficiency.

1903 Wright Flyer

Figure 1: 1903 Wright Flyer

Early Market Development Edit

In the early market development, the air transportation is still in improving their quality and assurance. At this stage, it become more visible to people as the market value is increasing. Currently, they aiming for more customers who interested or not interested and also develop the market to reach out more people outside the world.

Initial Market Niches Edit

Marketing of niche is aiming the plan for customers so that they can enjoy the beneficial and privilege during the flight. The initial market niche is spending more money and enjoy the deluxe usage such as the total time travel will be shorten, rapid the efficient of mobility. Hence, the profit will be increasing as well. They also targeting for the group traveller as it is easy to earn the profit like introducing a package to them. As we know, passengers who sit in the business class on American Airlines are just paying coach fares and filling the plane rather than buying a expensive premium service such as business class. Hence, this will leading the seats are unsold. Other airlines also increasing the tailoring services for the market niche. Lufthansa and Singapore airlines have made some business class as well. Airline from France, they have their own vision which is called dedicate. This is to cater the narrow group of business traveller who are must often travel to out of the way places where tourist rarely travel.

Functional Enhancement /Functional Discovery in Market Development Edit

In the functional enhancement, the quality, assurance, results and scope are very important due to deliver all the customers. These are the crucial features in the market development. In the functional discovery, to identify and understand the demand of the customers such as products and features and sell the product to them .This will take a longer time to evaluate the results and also need a cash flow to support this activity. However, it also target the main aim of the market development.

Policy in the Birthing Phase Edit

The policy of aviation insurance was set in the early of years 20th century. This was written by Lloyd’s of London in 1911. There are few types of policy in the early stage:

  • Public Liability Insurance
  • Passenger Liability
  • Combined Single Limit (CSL)
  • Ground risk hull insurance not in motion
  • Ground risk hull insurance in motion
  • In-flight insurance

Besides all type of insurance on the above, there are other type policy coverage such as safety, operational aircraft, accidental damage and etc.

Growth of the Mode Edit

The growth of air transport was started in 1919 when the air France and UK were the commercial international air transport. During the world war 1, the aircraft for commercial market is small due to expensive cost. However, the government staffs are able to afford to travel. After the world war 2, the air transportation become crucial to all the people. Hence, there are increasing growth number pf planes due to the commercial services. In 1945, the air transportation become more efficiency in speed and greater payload. Nowadays, we can see that there are millions of people are flying every day around the world.

Policymaking Edit

In the air transport they are produce emission from aircraft, water pollution and noise pollution Moreover, the environmental impact also caused one of the problem as it release the unwanted gasses, greenhouse effect and apparently affected the soil and environment. Those effects will affect the policymaking. However, the environmental policy should be enforced the regulation so that it can be improved the quality of the environment.

Roles of the Public and Private sectors play in the growth Edit

In the 21st century, the air transportation of the Navigation services has been set by the public. Moreover, from the past years the private sector has been increased with different type of aircraft models. However, government urge to concern and build more of transport network for air transport.

Suggestion Edit

Nowadays, the technology development is growing rapidly as there are many new of invention and innovation around the world. Hence, it will definitely bring the technology to be better in future. The opportunities that I see to “re-invent” the mode to serve the need of today and tomorrow. We can estimate the future number passenger of travel and create a new model of aircraft. To shorten the travel duration, an aircraft with the fastest speed is needed.

Results Edit

Data Edit

The table below shows the total number of passenger and year. The calculation for the predicted total passengers formula S(t) = K/[1+exp(-b(t-t0)]. However, K is saturation status level, b is a coefficient, t0 is the inflection time, S(t) is the status measure and t is time. All the data are calculated from Excel.

Year total Passengers(thousands) K value S(t) = K/[1+exp(-b(t-t0)] Y =LN(Passengers /(K-Passengers))
1985 34512233 250000000 31969589.85 -1.8315903
1986 36198735 250000000 34251980.11 -1.77602274
1987 39574453 250000000 36669910.64 -1.67094811
1988 40926163 250000000 39227494.21 -1.63091794
1989 31975932 250000000 41928399.75 -1.91962197
1990 41498045 250000000 44775763.53 -1.6143021
1991 50093275 250000000 47772096.7 -1.38396412
1992 51605439 250000000 50919190.75 -1.34663071
1993 55959800 250000000 54218022.94 -1.24343178
1994 61748332 250000000 57668663.7 -1.11471276
1995 66215535 250000000 61270188.55 -1.02084858
1996 68331404 250000000 65020597.36 -0.97781467
1997 69554169 250000000 68916743.8 -0.95332477
1998 70855387 250000000 72954277.95 -0.92755238
1999 74916740 250000000 77127605.13 -0.84888427
2000 81927820 250000000 81429863.68 -0.71855491
2001 74813437 250000000 85852924.17 -0.85085397
2002 77751449 250000000 90387412.13 -0.79542131
2003 88281038 250000000 95022755.48 -0.60533469
2004 98482409 250000000 99747257.61 -0.43082379
2005 103997499 250000000 104548195.6 -0.3392569
2006 112082877 250000000 109411942.8 -0.20741438
2007 120120667 250000000 114324113.2 -0.07810902
2008 122014844 250000000 119269725.1 -0.04777158
2009 127179292 250000000 124233380.6 0.034872205
2010 135008667 250000000 129199454.9 0.160482216
2011 137271992 250000000 134152293.2 0.196986392
2012 142728320 250000000 139076406.7 0.285578281
2013 146569863 250000000 143956665.5 0.348605815
2014 147372413 250000000 148778481.7 0.361856029
2015 152356647 250000000 153527977.7 0.444902549
2016 156484102 250000000 158192137.5 0.514822966
2017 161288450 250000000 162758936.2 0.597804282
Intercept -159.69
b 0.0795
tnought 2009.2
RSQ 0.860083927
Best fit 260000000

Table 1: Data Collections with excel calculated values

Graph Edit


Figure 3:Years Vs Total Passengers

Based on the figure 3 above, the total number of passengers and years who travel in the Australia came from different worlds starting from the year 1985 till 2017. Therefore, the graph shows the number of passengers are gradually increasing according by each year. However, we can see the total number of passengers are still increasing until when reaching a certain peak which is the k value ( 250000000 ) then it stops increasing. At this point, the graph will become continuously decreases. In conclusion, we can conclude that there is slightly accurate in this data.

Reference(s) Edit

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