Transportation Deployment Casebook/2018/Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway

Introduction of Beijing-Shanghai High-speed RailwayEdit

The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway, also known as the Beijing-Shanghai Passenger Dedicated Line, serves as the Beijing-Shanghai rapid passenger transportation route and is one of the “four vertical and four horizontal” passenger dedicated line networks in China. It is also a large-scale investment in China’s Medium- and Long-term Railway Network Plan. A project with high technical level.

The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is a high-speed railway with long mileage, large investment and high standards since the founding of New China. April 18, 2008 was formally started, and it was opened to traffic on June 30, 2011. At that time, Premier Wen Jiabao chaired the opening ceremony. On December 3, 2010, in the pilot and comprehensive test of the pilot section of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway from Zaozhuang to Bengbu, the maximum test speed of the CRH380AL "harmony" high speed EMU was up to 486.1 km/hour. The line runs from Beijing South Railway Station to Shanghai Hongqiao Station. It has a total length of 1,318 kilometers and runs through Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and the Shandong, Shandong and Shandong provinces, and connects the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration and the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The total investment is about 220.9 billion yuan, with 23 stations. The infrastructure design speed is 380 km/h, and the current maximum operating speed is 350 km (acted by CR400 series “Fuxing” trains). The fastest G7 from Beijing to Shanghai is only 4:24. In 2014, the daily average of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway exceeded 290,000 passengers, and the high-speed rail passenger ticket revenue was approximately 30 billion yuan. The number of passengers transported exceeded 100 million, an increase of 27% over the same period of the previous year, and a profit of approximately 1.2 billion yuan was realized. During the four-year operation of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway, 330 million people were transported.Page text.[1]


Technical features and advantagesEdit

  • Large transport capacity

Large transport capacity is one of the major technological advantages of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway. At present, the high-speed railways in various countries can almost meet the requirements for a minimum traffic interval of 5 minutes. The minimum traffic design interval of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is 4 minutes. A train can carry 1,000 to 1,200 passengers. Between the Beijing and Shanghai, it can issue 120-days. 130 pairs of high-speed trains, the ability to transport passengers is strong.


  • Fast

Speed is the most important symbol of high-speed railway technology. Countries are constantly improving the speed of trains. The maximum operating speed of high-speed trains in France and Japan reached 300 kilometers per hour, and Italy also reached 250 kilometers. The design speed of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is 300 kilometers per hour. It takes only 5 hours from Beijing to Shanghai. Compared with civil aviation, under normal weather conditions, the full time of Beijing-Shanghai travel by plane (including the urban area to the airport, waiting time, etc.) is about 5 hours, and the high-speed rail is equivalent to the aircraft. Compared with the expressway, take the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity High Speed Railway as an example. In the 14032 Beijing-Tianjin-Tianjin Highway, the average automobile speed is 85 kilometers per hour, and the journey time is 1 hour and 40 minutes. It takes 1.5 hours to enter and exit Beijing and Tianjin. Travel time is more than 3 hours, while high speed trains take only 30 minutes.


  • Good security

Since the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is operated in a fully enclosed environment and has a series of comprehensive safety and security systems, its safety is unmatched by any means of transportation. From the perspective of foreign countries, in addition to the occurrence of an accident on the reconstruction line of the ICE high-speed train in Germany during the 40 years since the launch of the high-speed railway, there have been no major traffic accidents on high-speed railways in various countries and no casualties have been caused by accidents. This is rare in all modern modes of transportation. Therefore, high-speed rail is considered the safest. In contrast, according to statistics, there are approximately 253,000 to 300,000 people dead each year in the world due to highway traffic casualty accidents, and the average number of civil aviation deaths per billion people per kilometer is as high as 140.


  • Little change due to climate change, high accuracy

The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is fully automated and can be operated around the clock unless an earthquake occurs. According to the wind speed regulation, if a wind wall is installed, the train can reach 160 km/h even if the wind speed reaches 25-30 meters per second. Aircraft, airports, highways, etc. must be shut down in severe weather conditions such as dense fog, heavy rain, and ice and snow. Due to the reliability of the high-speed railway system equipment and the higher transport organization level, the high positive point rate of the passenger train can be achieved.


  • Comfortable and convenient

The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is designed to issue a train every 4 minutes. Passengers can basically go with them and do not need to wait. In order to make it easier for passengers to travel by train, the operation of high-speed trains is regularized, and the platform is fixed by train number. This is unmatched by other means of transportation. The layout of the high-speed train is scientific and reasonable, the facilities are complete, the seats are spacious and comfortable, the running performance is good, and the operation is very stable. Shock absorption, sound insulation, quiet inside the train.


  • Low energy consumption and low environmental impact

According to research estimates, the energy consumption per person/kilometre is used for comparison. The high-speed railway is 1, then the sedan is 5, the bus is 2 and the airplane is 7. High-speed train utilization.[2]

The transportation market before the appearance of high-speed railEdit

Before the completion of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail, the main ways to travel between Beijing and Shanghai were civil aircraft and the Beijing-Shanghai railway. The Beijing-Shanghai Railway, as a very common mode of transportation, has previously had very large passenger pressure. Because it is the north-south artery of China's railways, it starts from Beijing in the heart of the motherland and in the south to the “Pearl of the East.” It has a total length of 1,463km (including 1,429km of positive lines). The entire line passes through Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei Province, Shandong Province, Anhui Province, Jiangsu Province and Shanghai Municipality from the north to the south. It runs through the four major river basins of the Haihe River, the Yellow River, the Huaihe River, and the Yangtze River. After many cities, the rail transit network is very complicated, which greatly increases the passenger pressure and the speed is not fast enough. The train is crowded and the passenger experience is poor. The Beijing-Shanghai Railway connects the two largest cities in China. Most of the roads along the route are the coastal economically developed areas. At the same time, they have promoted the development of northern Jiangsu and northern Anhui, thus becoming one of the busiest railway lines in China. On June 30, 2011, the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail was opened to traffic, which greatly relieved the pressure on the Beijing-Shanghai line.

Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail technology coreEdit

Settlement control of deep soft soil foundationEdit

The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail with a total length of 1,318 kilometers is the highest-tech high-speed rail line in the world. It not only marks China's comprehensive mastery of high-speed rail core technology, but also contributes a large number of innovative technological achievements to the world. Among them, deep soft soil foundation settlement control, construction of deep-water large-span bridges, high-speed train streamlined front design, high-performance catenary wire and other technical problems have become the most beautiful crystallization of China's high-speed rail independent innovation.

According to Guo Zhiyong, deputy chief engineer of the China Railway Construction Fourth Survey and Design Institute, the subgrade settlement control of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail adopts the world's most stringent standards. Within a 100-year life span, the general settlement is less than 15 mm, and the adjacent two piers are The difference in settlement must not exceed 5 mm. To meet this demanding requirement, the ordinary roadbed treatment cannot be met. The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway creatively adopted the construction plan of the bridge-generation road and used the deep underground pile foundation to avoid settlement.

The length of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail line accounts for more than 80%. Underneath the sturdy bridge piers, lined columns and column piles with a depth of several tens of meters or even hundreds of meters are like the underground Great Wall, ensuring that the subgrade settlement of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is stable. Usually, there are 8 bridge pile supports below a pier. In the thickest soft soil road section, these bridge piles are more than 100 meters deep, and they stand on a relatively solid and stable stratum through the silt. If the partial road bridge pile cannot be probed into the stable formation, large-diameter and high-strength friction piles are used to increase the friction with the soft soil, thereby reducing the probability of settlement. Therefore, there are some piers on the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway, supporting more than 12 pile foundations.

The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail has also adopted many other innovative techniques to overcome the difficulties of soft soil foundation settlement control. If the ballastless track is laid, the embankment should be secured for a period of 6 to 18 months before it is laid and then tracked with high-precision settlement observation. Although this cycle is obviously shorter than the natural settlement cycle of foreign high-speed railways in the first three to four years before the installation, the builders took measures such as mechanical roller compaction to accelerate the speed of the soil under the line.


Construction of deep water long-span bridgeEdit

The widely acclaimed Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge is the world’s highest-designed high-speed railway bridge. It is listed by the Ministry of Railways as “the key control project with the highest technical content and the most difficult construction of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway”. The bridge is also the world’s first six-lane railway bridge. The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail line, the Shanghai-Hangzhou-Chongqing double-track line, and the Nanjing Metro double-line will pass through the bridge.

Jiang Zhongwei was the biggest problem at the beginning of Dashengguan Changjiang Bridge. It is not easy to locate the steel cofferdams of No. 6 and No. 8 piers weighing more than 6,000 tons in a depth of 51 meters. Wen Wusong, project manager of the Datieguan Bridge of the China Railway Bridge Bureau, said that the Yangtze River has a short dry period. If it fails to complete the set construction targets on time, the construction period will lag behind for a hydrological year. What is even more serious is that such a huge steel cofferdam is like a bomb threatening the safety of the Yangtze River fairway. At any time, there will be a situation in which “bridges will die”. After careful consideration, Dashengguan Bridge built the foundation for the first time using high-pile pile caps on the Yangtze River, and completed construction of all bored pier piles with high quality in just one year, creating a new construction for the rapid construction of multiple bridges in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Record.

The Dashengguan Bridge, with a total length of 9.3 kilometers, is designed to ensure the smooth passage of 10,000 tons of ships under the bridge. The net clearance for navigation is to reach 32 meters. There are 11 bridge piers built by Jiangzhong to lift the bridge high, and the main span reaches an astonishing 336 meters. The meter became the "first cross in the world".


Design of streamline type head for high-speed trainEdit

Among the many technical difficulties that were solved in the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail project, the CRH380A resembles the unique front of the rocket, and is definitely the bright spot in the highlights.

Prior to 380A, CSR Sifang Stock Co., Ltd. had already conquered the high-speed train front with a speed of 200 kilometers per hour and 300 kilometers per hour. However, when the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail once again increased the speed limit to 380 kilometers, the challenge faced by the R&D team was already designed for the target aircraft. "The higher the speed, the greater the resistance to traffic and the higher the proportion of aerodynamics in the resistance." said Du Jian, head of the cab division of the 380A front design team. When the speed reaches 380 kilometers, the frontal resistance will have 90% comes from aerodynamic drag, and wheel-rail drag drops to about 10%. Therefore, each speed increase of the high-speed rail will mean that a more powerful front will be born.

Starting from this design concept of bionics, through 32 design variables and more than 200 model optimizations, 20 head designs were formed. The evaluation and screening of these programs is also a huge project. Each program must carry out 17 and 75 three-dimensional simulation analyses on the computer, and analyze its advantages and disadvantages from the aspects of dynamics, aerodynamics, traction braking, vibration, noise, and structural reliability. After comprehensive comparison and selection, 10 programs entered the second round. After optimization and revising, 5 of the remaining 10 schemes remained in the second screening. Entering the final five races, each candidate head model was modeled at a ratio of 1 to 8 and sent to the China Aerodynamic Development Research Center for wind tunnel tests. Previously here were scientists in the aerospace field. To verify the train technology here, 380A was the first one.

It not only has the fastest speed in the world, but also has a resistance of 15.4% less than the previous two generations of vehicles with speeds of 200 km/h and 300 km/h. The rear lift is almost zero, and it has achieved a total technical surpass. The test data shows that when the 380A train with reduced resistance is running at a speed of 300 kilometers per hour, the per capita passenger energy consumption of the 380A train is only 3.64 kWh, which is equivalent to one tenth of the aircraft.


High performance contact wireEdit

Passengers enjoying the fast and comfortable Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail may find it difficult to notice the tight contact wire at 5.3 meters above the track, which is the key to the high-speed rail traction power supply system. The average length of the catenary wire with the average length of 1.4 to 1.6 kilometers per section allows the horizontal accuracy error during the erection process to be less than 0.1 millimeter, while the actual precision of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail has reached the world leading level of 0.03 to 0.05 millimeter, ensuring that the train is powered smoothly Sex, continuity.

These wires are not ordinary wires, because the high-speed rail system has very high requirements on the performance of the contact wire. One is to have sufficient strength and the other is to have a high conductivity. However, in metal materials science, strength and conductivity are just a pair of contradictions - the higher the strength, the worse the conductivity; the higher the conductivity, the worse the strength. The search for high-strength, high-conductivity contact wire has been considered by the industry as a “crown jewel” for the core technology of high-speed rail traction power supply.[3]

The Role and Significance of Market Economy DevelopmentEdit

The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail linking the two major economic regions of the Bohai Rim and the Yangtze River Delta has developed industrial and commercial areas along the route and has gathered a large amount of human-logistics logistics. Before the construction of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail, the traffic economic belt entered a relatively high-speed development stage. With the opening of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway, logistics, people flow and capital flow are more convenient, enabling linkage development among multiple economic circles. After the completion of the project, it greatly enhanced the vitality of the region and accelerated the formation of a benign development relationship between the two economic circles around the Bohai Sea and the Yangtze River Delta. The completion of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway can enable different industries in the region to be laid out in a stepped manner, strengthen the professional division of labor and collaboration capabilities of different industries in different regions, and upgrade the space transportation among cities at all levels to form close links. Upstream and downstream industry integration, production and sales integration, regional transportation integration.

The radiation generated by high-speed railways is significant, and the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway not only changes the space-time distance, but also expands the scope of urban agglomerations; promotes the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure; and improves the comprehensive transportation system.

The cities along the route have created the “city-wide” public transportation channel. The “one-hour” life circle and two-hour service circle have emerged, which has promoted the exchange of economic and technological technologies, increased the opportunities for internal and external communication, and strengthened the cities along the border and cities on the periphery. The connection has expanded the influence of the central city. A large number of high-tech industries, productive service industries, and tourism, leisure, commerce and other consumer-oriented service industries have developed in cities along the route. After the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail, cities along the route have opened up the door to opening up to the outside world, introduced many favorable policies, and promoted the integration of the capital industry.[4]

Finance and policyEdit

The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail is the backbone line of the “four vertical and four horizontal” railway rapid passenger transport network in China, passing through four cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. The total length is 1,318 kilometers. The Tianjin West Railway Station and Jinan West are located. The preliminary design estimates for 24 stations, including the station, Nanjing South Railway Station, and Shanghai Hongqiao Station, totaled 217.6 billion yuan, of which: land acquisition, house demolition, station construction, and construction and other investments were 163.8 billion yuan; EMU purchases, construction period interest, and basic liquidity were 53.8 billion yuan. yuan. Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Beijing-Shanghai) is a project construction unit. Local governments of provinces and cities along the line are responsible for the land acquisition and demolition in the provinces and cities. The cost of land acquisition and demolition is used as a share.

In order to further standardize the management of railway construction projects and the use of construction funds, we have ensured the successful construction of the longest-term, most-invested, and highest-standard high-speed railway in China’s history, and gave full play to the “immune system” function of audits. The high-speed rail construction project carried out a full-process follow-up audit. In the past three years, an average of more than 100 auditors and more than 100 days of on-site audits have been invested each year. At present, the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail has been opened to traffic, and the phased goals of the follow-up audit have been basically completed.

In the process of follow-up auditing, we focus on identifying problems in the orientations and signs of systems, mechanisms, and management, with the aim of early detection, early rectification, early standardization, and early improvement, guaranteeing the quality of the project to be completed on time, and achieving expected overall benefits. The main contents of the audit are mainly the following aspects: First, supervising and rectifying the issues identified in previous years' annual follow-up audits, promoting related departments to improve related systems, and strengthening management; second, focusing on revealing and investigating project construction, fund use, and bidding The outstanding problems in material procurement, environmental protection, and land acquisition and demolition, ensure the smooth progress of project construction. Third, attention is paid to the establishment and implementation of the quality management system for the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail project, and the promotion of project quality management.[5]


Existing problemsEdit

The results of the three-year follow-up audit showed that the Ministry of Railways and the Beijing-Shanghai company have organized all units involved in land acquisition, demolition, construction and technological innovation in accordance with the requirements of “meticulous organization, careful design, careful construction, and careful management”. The construction task was completed well, but there are also some problems. In the aspect of project construction management, individual project management and supervision are not in place; in terms of the use of construction funds, the investment control of individual subprojects is not strict, the financial management is not strict, the accounts are falsely opened or falsified, and the construction enterprises along the lines are in arrears with materials. And engineering labor services, etc.; in bidding and material procurement management, mainly civil engineering construction and individual material procurement bidding management is not standardized; in environmental protection and land requisition and demolition, etc., mainly individual environmental protection measures are not implemented, individual grass-roots Units seized, intercepted or misappropriated funds for land acquisition and demolition. The railway sector has disclosed these issues in all three announcements.[6]

life-cycle of the modeEdit

Annual passenger traffic of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail dataEdit

year Passenger volume(thousands)
2011 44442
2012 65069
2013 83898
2014 105882
2015 122374
2016 137225
2017 151624

Table 1: The passengers data[7]

EquationEdit

Outline the life cycle of the model. Use the S-curve (state and time) to determine the stage of development and maturation. For the status, use the variables that reflect the mode deployment or use level (vehicle number, track kilometers, travel kilometers).

Use these data to estimate a three-parameter logistic function:

S(t) = K/[1+exp(-b(t-t0)]

where:

·     S(t) is the status measure (mileage for each year)

·     t is time in year

·     t0 is the inflection time (year in which ½ k is achieved)

·     K is the saturation status level

·     b is a coefficient

K and b are to be estimated.

The univariate linear regression simply estimates the coefficients c and b in the form model:

Y = b X + c

The question is, what is y (your dependent variable) and what is x (your independent variable)

Y = LN (passengers/(K-passengers))

X = year

Value of K and bEdit

In the beginning, the size of the K value was randomly assigned, but because K's initial value must also be slightly larger than the maximum value in the data. So in this case, the size of the K value is initially set to 165000, and then through gradual increments, it is found that when K is equal to 177000, the square of R will be the largest.

 
Table 2. The k and b value

S-CurveEdit


When K has a value of 177000, R-squared has a maximum value. However, from the generated S-curve, there is a big difference between the predicted passenger carrying capacity and the actual passenger carrying capacity trend. This result may have the following reasons:

1. The data is not accurate enough. Some of the data comes from media reports and another from the China Bureau of Statistics, which may cause data discrepancies.

2. The data sample is too small to be convincing. Because the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail has only been operating for 7 years since it was opened in 11 years, there are too few data samples, and some data anomalies may have a very big impact.

ReferencesEdit

  1. http://www.360doc.com/content/16/0308/11/7536781_540430138.shtml
  2. https://wenku.baidu.com/view/39337e28b4daa58da0114a12.html?re=view
  3. http://www.bda.gov.cn/cms/dxxw/43001.htm
  4. http://www.sohu.com/a/120263212_114735
  5. http://news.sohu.com/20110323/n279959845.shtml
  6. http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2012-03/19/content_2094586.htm
  7. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/