The Sakha language/Printable version
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Phonology and alphabet
|Letter||IPA pronunciation||Closest approximation|
|Б б||B b||bird||/b/ (help·info)|
|В в||V v||vase||/v/ (help·info)|
In Sakha, there are numerous consonant assimilations that differ by suffixes. As in /Nouns, there are also articulation of the corresponding native consonants. The definitions include:
- Sonorants: In most cases, all sonorant consonants (й, р) except nasals. The suffix form's first letter usually has voiced consonants.
- Nasals: All nasal consonants (м, н, ҥ). The suffix form's first letter usually has м or н. However I found a Chinese-language source that the plural suffix , for example, have the assimilated form after -ҥ- ( → ), although in fact, the nasal velar variant is almost non-existent except the Baidu Baike page and its mirrors.
- The Sakha suffixes shown at the page are actually made-up, since it has non-existent genitive case.
Unlike Turkish and other many Turkic languages, Sakha has more irregular plurals than its sisters. For example, English has irregular plural forms man — men, person — people, or child — children. Regular plurals in Sakha are formed by the surface form -ЛАр. These are the assimilated forms of this suffix:
|а, э, и, ы, о, ө, у, ү, л|
|м, н, ҥ|
|к, п, с, т, х|
In addition, there is also numerous irregular plurals in Sakha:
|Assimilating nouns||Distantly related nouns||Suppleted|
The accusative case are used as a direct object (I see the car) of a verb or certain prepositions of verbal origin. While the divisions of the surface formare somewhat simple, but the treatment of stems of nouns ending in a consonant is rather complex.
|а, э, и, ы, о, ө, у, ү|
|к, л, м, н, ҥ, п, р, с, т, й, х|
Nouns ending in -с and -х usually change to -һ and -ҕ, respectively (nom. — acc. "head"). However, nouns ending in -CVC (-C- = consonants, -V- = short close vowel) are elided to -CC- (also before other suffixes starting with a consonant) causing -һ and -ҕ devoices to -с and -х before other consonants.
In addition, there is also an accusative-collective case, used for denoting a completely-affected object ("whole face"). Its formation is completely the same as accusative plural, but this case only exists in singular so there is no such forms like .
- Грамматика якутского языка
- Do not confuse with !
- The examples found are rare in nouns: "go out" — "going out". Therefore, this was rather a verb.
- It was intended to be the accusative-collective case. However, I chose to shorten this case name to save space. Do not confuse with collective nouns. ;)