The Housework Manual/Laundry/Separation and Washing

< The Housework Manual

This article describes how the laundry separation and washing options should be set. Special focus is given on a simplified procedure; one which still ensures proper washing yet on a speedy/simple manner. Some methods describe more separation of laundry and several washing periods (for several types of fabrics), yet this method consumes more time, electricity and cleaning agent.

Contents

SeparationEdit

When a cloth is dirty and thus removed from the body, it should be separated immediately into a correct bin, so that the sorting of the laundry does not need to be done twice. If the 1st separation method is followed, 2 bins should be placed in the room where the filthy clothes are discarded. These containers include 1 bin for white & heavily polluted clothes and 1 bin for colored clothes.

Separation method 1Edit

  • White and heavily polluted clothes and fabrics are sorted together. These include white clothing and fabrics as towels (kitchen towels, bath towels, ...), linen, white socks, and heavily polluted clothing as underwear, handkerchiefs, pillow cases, ... Note that most of the heavily polluted clothes are generally white as well so that no color blending can occur, in regions or instances where this is not the case, a alternative method should be used. Also note that heavily polluted clothing refers to the amount of bacteria/microorganisms the clothing generally carries after use, rather than the degree of visible filth.
  • Colored clothes. These include pants, shirts, colored socks, skirts, ...

Washing procedureEdit

Washing method 1 (requires additional ironing afterwards)Edit

The washing method for washing laundry with a washer machine after the separation method 1 has been followed is the following:

  • The separated laundry piles (see laundry separation above) are inserted separately in the machine (thus in 2 runs). When the separation method 1 is used, the white and heavily polluted clothes/fabrics are washed at 60°Celsius and the colored clothes are washed at 40°Celsius.
  • Never wash dish cloths, face towels, towels or sheets with soiled underwear and socks. New studies have shown that faecal bacteria can transfer to these items during the washing cycle.

Faecal colibacteria (enterobacteriaceae) are a subgroup of colibacteria. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most comminly known species of faecal colibacterium.

Faecal colibacteria are different from other species of colibacteria, because they grow under conditions of increased temperature, and because they are only present in human and animal faeces.

Bacterial feed with cfu coliforms

When faecal colibacteria are present in aquatic environments, this indicates that water is polluted by human or animal faeces. This generally leads to the conclusion that pathogenic bacteria or viruses are present, which come from faeces. These microorganisms can introduce disease in humans and animals that swim in polluted water. Waterborne diseases linked to these microorganisms include fever, intestinal disease and hepatitis A.

The presence of faecal colibacteria is an indicator of a potential health risk for linens. Faecal colibacteria enter surface water sources from the soiled undergarments and socks which in turns is absorbed into the towels and linens through discharge of human and animal waste.

Determining the amount of colibacteria in the water is carried out by membrane filtration. Bacteria do not pass the membrane filter, and can be separated and analyzed in the laboratory. Each separate cell develops to a colony forming unit (cfu), and these can be counted.

Like colibacteria, streptococci are present in human and animal intestines, but also in the stomach. Many species of strepotcoccus are pathogenic. They cause diseases such as bacterial pneumonia, ear infection and bacterial meningitis. Faecal strepotococci (enterococcus) are a subgroup of the genus streptococcus. Faecal streptococci can be found within stomachs and intestines of humans and animal. They can be distinguished because of their great resistance.

Faecal colibacteria Colibacteria are relatively harmless microorganisms, which are present in the intestines of humans and animals in large numbers. They play an important role in food digestion. Faecal colibacteria (enterobacteriaceae) are a subgroup of colibacteria. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most comminly known species of faecal colibacterium.

Faecal colibacteria are different from other species of colibacteria, because they grow under conditions of increased temperature, and because they are only present in human and animal faeces.


Bacterial feed with cfu coliforms

When faecal colibacteria are present in aquatic environments, this indicates that water is polluted by human or animal faeces. This generally leads to the conclusion that pathogenic bacteria or viruses are present, which come from faeces. These microorganisms can introduce disease in humans and animals that swim in polluted water. Waterborne diseases linked to these microorganisms include fever, intestinal disease and hepatitis A.

The presence of faecal colibacteria is an indicator of a potential health risk for swimmers. Faecal colibacteria enter surface water sources from sewer overflows and through discharge of human and animal waste.

Determining the amount of colibacteria in the water is carried out by membrane filtration. Bacteria do not pass the membrane filter, and can be separated and analyzed in the laboratory. Each separate cell develops to a colony forming unit (cfu), and these can be counted.

Faecal streptococci Like colibacteria, streptococci are present in human and animal intestines, but also in the stomach. Many species of strepotcoccus are pathogenic. They cause diseases such as bacterial pneumonia, ear infection and bacterial meningitis. Faecal strepotococci (enterococcus) are a subgroup of the genus streptococcus. Faecal streptococci can be found within stomachs and intestines of humans and animal. They can be distinguished because of their great resistance.


Faecal streptococci

Like faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci are applied as indicators for water pollution. The presence of faecal streptococci indicates the presence of faecal pathogens in water.

Faecal streptococci have a number of characteristics, distinguishing them from faecal colibacteria:

- Are a less specific indicator for pathogens in faeces; because of their great resistance they also survive on other locations besides the stomach and intestines - Are more suitable for food sampling than surface water sampling - Are present in faeces in lower numbers than coliforms - Always or almost always present in human and animal faeces; coliforms are sometimes absent - Incredible resistance to changing conditions

IroningEdit

Usually, after the separation and washing, the clothes undergo another procedure called ironing. This procedure de-wrinkles the clothes and again kills off leftover bacteria in the clothes due to the process of rapid heating (to 100°Celsius) and cooling. The de-wrinkling is often unnecessary in the developing world for casual dressing; if the wrinkling is not excessive (in first world countries, appearance is more strictly guarded). In such cases, this step could be thus be skipped, if the wrinkling is kept to a minimum by tricks as adding vinegar to the washing machine and optimizing air flow. This discarding of the ironing however also has a antibacterial working, meaning that the laundry separation & washing method 1 can not be used. Instead, higher temperatures (nearing 100° Celsius; e.g. 90° Celsius) should be used.

External linksEdit