The Geology of Indonesia/Plate Tectonic

Indonesia is a meeting point of several tectonic plates. Indo-Australian Plate is moving northward, Eurasia Plate moves southeast direction. Both Filipino and Pacific plate move westward. The Indo-Australian plate was moved northward and partly subducted under the Eurasian plate. The subduction zone can be traced from northern tip of Sumatra until the Lesser Islands, that creates deep submarine trench. Most of the earthquake also concentrate in this subduction zone. This subduction also triggers the formation of volcanic range from Sumatra, Java to Lesser Islands.

Schematic cross section of Indonesia from west to east, showing the tectonic regions and their structural features.

The center part of Indonesia also experienced another subduction of Pacific plate that move southwesterly under the Eurasian plate. This subduction create the formation of volcanoes in the North Sulawesi, Sangihe and Halmahera.

The Australian and Pacific plate collides in the eastern part of Indonesia and formed the mountain range in central Papua, with Puncak Jaya / Carstenz Pyramide as the highest peak.

Below is a regional cross section of Indonesia from west to east showing the relationship of the tectonic components of Indonesia, their depth, and structural features.