The Computer Revolution/Computer Crime in the Workplace< The Computer Revolution
Computer crime in workplaceEdit
Computer crime is increasing commonly in workplace, such as employees use their authorization to get some business data and change it or sell it in order to make money themselves. Such illegal activities may cause big negative effects to organization. To prevent these activities, companies provide employees their own user name and password, so all the employees need to log in their account before they using computers, this is effectively decrease such activities happened because companies can monitor their employees’ computer activities all the time.
Software theft can be defined as the unauthorized use or illegal copying of computer software. This can take many forms such as commercial counterfeiting, deliberate and unauthorized copying by dealers, unlicensed copying and use by "end users" and plagiarism by competitors.
Theft of hardware has increased from warehouses and manufacturing facilities due to the growing demand for high-tech products such as microprocessors, computer memory, microcomputers/PCs, Laptop/notebook, palmtop, hard disk drivers and cellular phone that are valuable, compact and easy to transport. For example, a suitcase of microprocessors is worth more than an equivalent volume of cocaine.
Approximately, 4 percent of the hardware theft accounted for over 60 percent of total company losses. While the average high-tech hardware theft is probably in the low thousands of dollars, it is the high-value thefts that dominate overall company losses. Hardware theft has created different levels of cost. In addition of the direct cost of replacing stolen equipment from manufacturers, there are other indirect costs.
Misuse of technologyEdit
The big problem about technology misuses can be resume in two words: culture and education. Some people do not have culture to use technology suitably such as a tool because they use it as an easy way solution of fashionable trending. Also, these people also do not have education for using it correctly.
Because of hundreds of services that technology offers, there are many techniques to harm persons and waste time. People use their time wrongly to harming others even though knowing that this is not good like crimes among others. For example, people use technology manufacturing weapons to destroy instead of developing themselves.
Actually, people are concern about misuse and abuse of technology. Society states that internet uses lead to intimidate or threaten people as well as allow software piracy downloading illegal music and doing plagiarism. Educational institutions are worried about student’s development in their classes due to misuses of technology. For instance, learners are using cellphones, playing games and surfing on some pornographic web sites and other non suitable sites during class. It is a fact that there are children who start to use cellphones at the age of ten. This is not bad at the beginning because both parents are working and have to leave their children with baby sitter. It is good to have communication with them. Nowadays, children not only want to have cellphones, but also prefer to have the latest version of it. If children do not have it, they feel ashamed with their friends and prefer to leave their old- fashioned cellphone at home. Moreover, the latest version of cellphones have an incorporate camera and some people use it to record pictures or videos that can be put in damage reputation’s people. Because all of above these, some people say and think that the technology is responsible and it is not good for society. However, people have to understand that this is happening because of the misuse of technology. Misuse of it is a threaten for society. Even though of misuses of technology, people continue using it.
Information Overload in the workplaceEdit
Today’s workers are in an epidemic where work life-balance has begun to diminish due to an increased work day for many reasons but one of the most glaring reason is workers are bombarded with information due to such an advancement in technology throughout the last century. Increased progress in the field of information technology has increased the speed, quantity and how you communicate with co-workers and clients. Email and fax have dramatically increased the speed and frequency of communication in the workplace. Email allows you to communicate without actually having a physical conversation. Email also allows you to send and share documents over long distances. Fax and scanning machines are also pieces of technology that have vastly improved the communication process. Many professionals also carry tools like cell phones, blackberries and laptop computers. Essentially an employee can be reached at all times of day. This 24/7 attitude has become somewhat of a standard in the corporate world especially once you reach the higher ranks in an organization. The separation from home and work becomes blurred. Advancements in technology have also contributed to people working from home which now allows people to take their work home from there again losing their work life balance. Although many of the increased technology has greatly improved how we do business it has also caused excess stress, strain and burnout for the average worker. When you are overloaded with anything, in this case information you tend to forget tasks, fail to prioritize therefore your tasks will be completed with less care and detail. This information overload is causing many workplace illnesses and health problems. Information overload has become part of our daily work life and it has become a standard of work however with increased health concerns we are now seeing today we need to take this topic seriously and try to think of ways to get back to a balanced healthy way of life that can handle all of the information we need to do our best at our occupation.
Workplace Crime: Productivity IssuesEdit
A Look at Productivity over TimeEdit
Most prevalent among workplace productivity issues appear to be such things as fussing and theft of time and services. In fact, Michael Kanell states that "growth in the amount Americans produced each working hour last quarter fell to zero". So what has happened in the workplace to result in such dismal returns.
Historically and following primary activities of traditional society, secondary activities of manufacturing became front and center in the work world and each new tool or invention was implemented to boost production. Productivity would eventually level off under the newly adopted process (sometimes decreasing with other factors such as breakdowns), then encounter another leap forward with the next change, upgrade or invention. These productivity increases were evidenced from World War II until the more sluggish progress of the 1970s .
Tertiary industries proliferated in the more modern society. Production had become highly automated and service industries became the name of the game in the business world. But how could productivity be measured in the service sector? Workers may not directly produce physical “items”, so productivity and efficiency are more difficult to determine. It became necessary to find alternative means of measuring productivity. Economic returns are one piece of evidence for productivity and one indicator of how good one’s economy is can be found in its productivity – a somewhat circular argument!
Well, one step further and one is greeted by the world of quaternary activity – the information age – the age of computers and their connection to the world. While one has the potential to measure how many haircuts a service industry employee can do in a day’s work, it is substantially harder to measure productivity, at the least, and efficiencies, even more so, in this new age. More and more enterprises have become involved in assembling, processing and transmitting information. But how can this be measured or valuated? I guess there’s money to be made somewhere for some people in this information dependent time – Bill Gates is but one example. Therefore, if there’s economic return, there must be productivity somewhere in the system if previous statements are true.
If one cannot directly measure productivity and efficiency in the workplace, then, the workplace must depend upon countering any inefficiencies and loss of productivity. At first glance, there’s a lot of work done – or appears to be – but what about output? According to Kathryn Kobe of Economic Consulting Services in Washington, "you are seeing ... an output slowdown, which also leads to a productivity slowdown".
If these output and productivity slowdowns are happening, what is causing them? What workplace problems exist to create this situation or is this simply part of the normal growth-stability-next leap forward cycles that existed even in earlier periods (e.g., manufacturing sector's history)?
Workplace Problems & the Computer: A Waste of Time?Edit
No Crime, Just Lost Time?Edit
Williams and Sawyer have referred to goofing off in the workplace as “undertime” and further noted that some amount of this downtime was tolerated in the name of workplace morale. However, with the advent of the computer and especially with their superior level of interconnectivity worldwide, computer use has resulted in “new ways to slack off.”
How long do you have to wait for that program to load and run? Did you have to spend time, energy and money (ie, yours or your employers) in software training, upgrading or problem solving? How much time are you spending awaiting some technical support? Did you count the volume of junk e-mail and spam in your in-box? How much time did you devote to reading or deleting these? Did you have to sort out disk storage issues or re-organize your computer desktop today? Then, system maintenance interruptions – how much time did you lose waiting for the problem to be fixed and for the system to be returned to operation? Oh, just 10 minutes yesterday and another half hour today. Well, it all adds up!
One news article stated that "well over half of all emails received in the EU are unsolicited, despite the increased efforts of anti-spam and spyware to block out messages" and another report tallied it up and "found that spam cost US$51.1 billion worldwide in lost productivity and higher computing bills last year." Furthermore, Postini, an email security company, noted that "worldwide, nine out of 10 emails are junk" and in one month alone, "more than 7 billion junk emails were sent worldwide".
One word that has been adopted to describe wasting of time on computer issues or problems is "fussing", which maybe defined as "to trouble or worry over trifles ..., to get into or be in a state of ... useless activity, ... to vex with unimportant matters". While some of the aforementioned uses of time (e.g., waiting for computer to load) simply nibble away at your day and seem appropriately entitled as "fussing", others can consume an inordinate amount of one's workday. In these cases, they can truly become the "gigantic time sink" or "great campus goof-off machine".
Therefore, justice is not necessarily served in using the term "fussing". There maybe no crime committed in the truest sense of the word because no criminal intent is involved (i.e at least by the employee), but one could just as easily view it as a crime – especially from the employer’s viewpoint. Technology has robbed the workplace of it productivity!
The Real Time Crime in the WorkplaceEdit
An estimated "8.3 hours a week" are involved in "non-work-related" website "peeking". Add into this mixture the time spent employees may spend doing such things as downloading music, playing games and on-line shopping. These become the real crimes against the employer! The ultimate, however, is possibly conducting one’s own sideline business while on the employer’s time and using his/her company’s resources. There’s multi-tasking and then there’s lost productivity and revenues (also expenses) for the other party involved in this. What better business scheme than to make money twice over – with your own business (without overhead costs) and through the "unearned" company paycheck?
The "Inside Job" -- Computer Security in the WorkplaceEdit
To counter some of this lost revenue and productivity, there has been an increased need and demand for surveillance techniques to monitor employees. Employers have resorted to many means, even to the point of creating separate computer security departments or divisions to deal with both the internal and external threats.
In light of the statistics available or opinions espoused, there is no wonder such measures have had to be taken. For example, one survey discovered that in the opinion of some security personnel, "the greatest threat to their company’s technology infrastructure as a result of cyberattacks were current employees (53%), former employees (10%), and nonemployees (28%)" . In other cases, employees may “… use information technology for personal profit or to steal hardware or information to sell. They may also use it to seek revenge for real or imaged wrongs …” and, indeed, one report found that “… the disgruntled employee is a principal source of computer crime" .
A Final NoteEdit
So, where's the criminal? He or she maybe seated right outside the boss’s door or at the next desk. Workplace crimes can come in many forms and with many different faces, but the obvious from this brief overview is that the technological advances in the workplace have put the employer at risk of being robbed of time, energy and resources – all in the name of productivity.
- http://www.ajc.com/business/content/business/stories/2006/11/24/1124bizproductivity.html, Retrieved Nov 27, 2006
- Abler, R., J.S. Adams & P. Gould, 1971, Spatial Organization: The Geographer’s View of the World, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey, pp. 306-309; Rubenstein, J.M. 1994.
- The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp. 300-304
- Using Information Technology: A Practical Introduction to Computers & Communications, 7th ed., Montreal: McGraw-Hill, p. 477
- http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20061127/eu_email_061127/20061127?hub=TopStories Retrieved Nov 27, 2006
- http://www.thefreedictionary.com/fussing Retrieved Nov 27, 2006
- Williams & Sawyer, p. 489
- Nate Stulman in Williams & Sawyer, p. 489
- Williams & Sawyer, p. 477
- Williams & Sawyer, p. 472
- Williams & Sawyer, p. 475
- Williams & Sawyer, p. 476