This is the grammar of the Tajik language.

Ҷонишинҳои шахсӣ (Personal pronouns)

Singular Plural
1st person Ман Мо
2nd person Ту Шумо
3rd person Вай, ӯ Онҳо

Now we will create simple phrases with the pronouns and the words хона - house and доштан (асоси замони ҳозира: дор) - have.

Ман хона дорам - I have a house

Мо хона дорем - We have a house

Ту хона дорӣ - You have a house

Шумо хона доред - You (pl.) have a house

Вай хона дорад (Ӯ хона дорад) - He has a house

Онҳо хона доранд - They have a house

Асосҳои феълӣ (Verb stems)


Масдар (Infinitive)


The infinitive in Tajik consists of the past tense stem and the infinitive ending -ан.

пухтан - to bake

рафтан - to go

кардан - to do

харидан - to buy

омадан - to come

бурдан - to carry

гирифтан - to take

доштан - to have

додан - to give

рақсидан - to dance

гуфтан - to say

хӯрдан - to eat

афтидан - to fall

нӯшидан - to drink

давидан - to run

мондан - to lay (transitive verb)

Асоси замони гузашта (Past tense stem)


The past tense stem indicates the singular 3rd person past simple verb (he did, etc.). To form the past tense stem, the -ан ending is detached from the infinitive. However, some verbs are irregular.

афтод - he fell

Асоси замони ҳозира (Present/future tense stem)


The present/future tense stem is mostly irregular. It indicates the imperative.

паз - bake!

рав - go!

кун - do!

хар - buy!

ой - come!

бар - carry!

гир - take!

дор - have!

деҳ - give!

рақс - dance!

гӯй - say!

хӯр - eat!

афт - fall!

нӯш - drink

дав - run!