## Contents

## TokensEdit

A Standard ML program consists of a sequence of "tokens"; these may be thought of as the "words" of the language. Some of the most common token types are:

token type | examples |
---|---|

special constants | `2` , `~5.6` , `"string"` , `#"c"` |

alphanumeric identifiers | `x` , `mod` , `'a` |

symbolic identifiers | `+` , `-` , `*` , `/` |

keywords | `val` , `=` , `(` , `)` |

## Arithmetic expressionsEdit

Arithmetic expressions are similar to those in many other languages:

3 + 4 3.0 / 4.0 (2 - 3) * 6

However, a few points bear note:

- Unary negation is expressed using the tilde
`~`rather than the hyphen`-`; the latter is used only for binary subtraction. For example, three minus negative-two is written`3 - ~2`or`3 - ~ 2`. - Though the operators are "overloaded" to support multiple numeric types — for example, both
`3 + 4`and`3.0 + 4.0`are valid (the former having type`int`

, the latter type`real`

) — there is no implicit promotion between types. Therefore, an expression such as`3 + 4.0`is not valid; one must write either`3.0 + 4.0`, or`real 3 + 4.0`(using the basis function`real`to convert`3`to`3.0`). - Integer division is expressed using the special operator
`div`rather than the solidus`/`; the latter is used only for real-number division. (And since there is no implicit promotion between types, an expression such as`3 / 4`is not valid; one must write either`3.0 / 4.0`or`real 3 / real 4`.) There is also a modulus operator`mod`; for example, seventeen divided by five is three-remainder-two, so`17 div 5`is`3`and`17 mod 5`is`2`. (More generally, if*q*is a positive integer, thenand*d*=*p*div*q*are integers such that*m*=*p*mod*q*,*p*=*d***q*+*m*, and*m*>= 0. If*m*<*q**q*is a negative integer, then,*p*=*d***q*+*m*, and*m*<= 0.)*m*>*q*

## Function callsEdit

Once a function has been declared:

funtriple n = 3 * n

it is called simply by following the function-name with an argument:

valtwelve = triple 4

In the general case, parentheses are not necessary, but they are frequently necessary for grouping. Also, as we saw in the chapter on types, tuples are constructed using parentheses, and it is not uncommon to construct a tuple as a function argument:

fundiff (a, b) = a - bvalsix = diff (9, 3)

Function calls have very high precedence, higher than any infix operator; so, `triple 4 div 5`

means `(3 * 4) div 5`

, which is 2, rather than `3 * (4 div 5)`

, which is 0. Also, they are left-associative; `f x y`

means `(f x) y`

(where `f`

takes `x`

as its argument and returns a function that accepts `y`

as *its* argument), not `f (x y)`

.

### Infix function callsEdit

A binary function — that is, a function whose parameter type is a 2-tuple type — can be turned into an infix operator:

funminus (a, b) = a - bvalthree = minus (5, 2)infixminusvalseven = 4 minus ~3valtwo =opminus (20, 18)

An infix operator can have any precedence level from 0 to 9, 0 (the default) being the lowest precedence, 9 being the highest. The Standard Basis provides these built-in infix specifications:

infix7 * /divmodinfix6 + - ^infixr5 :: @infix4 = <> > >= < <=infix3 :=oinfix0before

Notice that in the third line, `::` and `@` are made infix using `infixr` rather than `infix`. This makes them *right*-associative rather than *left*-associative; whereas `3 - 4 - 5` means `(3 - 4) - 5`, `3 :: 4 :: nil` means `3 :: (4 :: nil)`.

An identifier can actually be declared infix even before it refers to a specific function:

infixpowfunx pow y = Math.pow (x, y)valeight = 2.0 pow 3.0

Note that in this case, the infix notation is already used in declaring the function. Another way of doing this is by using `op` in the function declaration, which works regardless if the function has already been declared infix or not:

funop pow (x, y) = Math.pow (x, y)

The preferred style is usually to not do this, but it can be useful if the declaration happens in a setting where it is not certain whether the function has been declared infix or not, or when `use` might be called on a file containing such a function declaration more than once, where the function is declared as infix after its definition. It can also be a way of signalling that the function might be declared as infix later on, possibly in another file, in which case it can be useful to ensure that the order of parsing the files does not matter.

## Boolean and conditional expressionsEdit

### ComparisonsEdit

As we saw in the chapter on types, the `bool`

(boolean) type has two values, `true`

and `false`

. We also saw the built-in polymorphic equality operator `=`

, of type `''a * ''a -> bool`

. Closely related is the *inequality* operator `<>`

, also of type `''a * ''a -> bool`

, which returns `true`

when `=`

would return `false`

, and vice versa.

The `<`

(less than), `>`

(greater than), `<=`

(less than or equal to), and `>=`

(greater than or equal to) operators are overloaded to be usable with a variety of numeric, character, and string types (but as with the arithmetic operators, both operands must have the same type).

### Operations on booleansEdit

Three main functions operate on boolean values:

- The function
`not`

, of type`bool -> bool`

, maps`true`

to`false`

and vice versa. - The infix operator
`andalso`

, of type`bool * bool -> bool`

, maps`(true, true)`

to`true`

, and all other possibilities to`false`

. Furthermore, it is a "shortcutting" operator; if its first operand is`false`

, then it will return`false`

without even evaluating its second operand. - The infix operator
`orelse`

, of type`bool * bool -> bool`

, maps`(false, false)`

to`false`

, and all other possibilities to`true`

. Like`andalso`

it is a shortcutting operand, but in the opposite direction: if its first operand is`true`

, then it will return`true`

without even evaluating its second operand.

### Conditional expressionsEdit

One major use of boolean values is in conditional expressions. An expression of this form:

ifboolean_expressionthenexpression_if_trueelseexpression_if_false

evaluates to the result of `expression_if_true`

if `boolean_expression`

evaluates to `true`

, and to the result of `expression_if_false`

if `boolean_expression`

evaluates to `false`

. As with the shortcutting operators, the unneeded expression is not evaluated. This allows conditional expressions to be used in creating recursive functions:

funfactorial x =ifx = 0then1elsex * (factorial (x - 1))

It also allows for conditional side effects:

ifx = 0thenelse

Note that, since conditional expressions return a value, the "then" and "else" branches are both required to be present, and to have the same type, though they do not have to be particularly meaningful:

ifx = 0thenelse()

## Case expressions and pattern-matchingEdit

Functions may be composed of one or more rules. A rule consists of its function-name, an argument pattern and its expression. When the function is called the argument values will be matched to the patterns in top down order. Functions using pattern-matching are very similar to case expressions. In fact you can transform any case construct into a function. For example this snippet

casecompare(a,b)ofGREATER => 1 LESS => 2 EQUAL => 3

is semantically equal to

funcase_example_function GREATER = 1 | case_example_function LESS = 2 | case_example_function EQUAL = 3; case_example_function compare(a,b);

The first matching rule will get its expression evaluated and returned. That means if the patterns are overlapping (multiple patterns match a given argument value) one must keep in mind that **only the first matching rule gets evaluated**.

funlist_size (nil) = 0 | list_size (_::xs) = 1 + str_len xs;

The functions pattern is called **exhaustive** if there is a matching pattern for all legal argument values. The following example is **non-exhaustive**.

funlist_size ([a]) = 1 | list_size ([a,b]) = 2;

Any empty list or lists of *size>2* will cause a `Match`

-exception. To make it exhaustive one might add a few patterns.

funlist_size ([a]) = 1 | list_size ([a,b]) = 2 | list_size (nil) = 0 | list_size (_) = 0;

Lists of *size>2* will return 0 which does not make a lot of sense but the functions pattern is now **exhaustive**.

## ExceptionsEdit

Exceptions are used to abort evaluation. There are several built in exceptions that can be thrown using the `raise` keyword, and your can define your own using the `exception` keyword. Exceptions can have messages attached to them by writing `of` in the declaration and they are used much like datatype constructors. An exception can be caught using the `handle` keyword. Example:

exceptionExcofstring;fundivide (_, 0) =raiseExc("Cannot divide by zero") | divide (num, den) = num div denvalzero_or_infinity = divide (0, 0)handleExc msg => (print (msg ^ "\n"); 0)

This will print "Cannot divide by zero" and evaluate zero_or_infinity to 0 thanks to the `handle` clause.

Built in exceptions include Empty, Domain and Fail(msg).

## Lambda expressionsEdit

A lambda expression is an expression that can be evaluated into a function without the function being bound to an identifier, a.k.a. an anonymous function, function constant or a function literal. Such a function can be defined in Standard ML using the `fn` keyword. This is particularly useful for higher order functions, i.e. functions that take other functions as arguments, such as the built in `map` and `foldl` functions. Instead of writing:

funadd_one x = x + 1valincremented = map add_one [1, 2, 3]

You could simply write

valincremented = map (fnx => x + 1) [1, 2, 3]

Note that the `=>` operator is used instead of `=`. The `fn` keyword can be used in place of `fun`, including pattern matching and even recursion (if the `rec` keyword is used):

valrecfact =fn1 => 1 | n =>ifn > 1thenn * fact(n - 1)elseraiseDomain

Be aware that it is often considered better style to use the `fun` keyword.