**Note:** This article requires basic knowledge of PL/I which can be found in Software Engineers Handbook/Language Dictionary/PLI.

### Bit Strings "as Strings"Edit

In PL/I bit strings formally are declared as strings of "1-bit-letters", i.e. all builtin string functions may be used for it,

dcl my_chars char (8) varying init ( 'ABCDCD' ); dcl my_bits bit (8) varying init ( '01010'B ); put skip list ( length ( my_chars ) ); /* output is 6, the current length of the varying string */ put skip list ( length ( my_bits ) ); /* output is 5, the current length of the varying string */ put skip list ( index ( my_chars , 'CD' ) ); /* output is 3, the first position of substring 'CD' */ put skip list ( index ( my_bits , '10'B ) ); /* output is 2, the first position of substring '10'B */

### Bit Strings as Boolean ValuesEdit

The common use of bit strings is to employ them as bit vectors, especially bit (1) strings represents single boolean values:

- '1'B is interpreted as True
- '0'B is interpreted as False

Bit (1) strings may be used as boolean expressions in conditional and loop statements.

dcl one_bit bit (1); one_bit = ( 1 < 2 ); /* now one_bit has the value '1'B */ one_bit = ( 2 < 1 ); /* now one_bit has the value '0'B */ if one_bit then put skip list ( 'value of one_bit is true' ); else put skip list ( 'value of one_bit is false' ); do while ( one_bit ); ..... end;

Bit strings used in an expression expecting a bit (1) value are interpreted as '1'B = True if and only if at least one bit has then value '1'B.

dcl many_bits bit (99); if many_bits then put skip list ( 'at least one of the bits has value1'B' ); else put skip list ( 'none of the bits has value1'B' ); do while ( many_bits ); /* do while at least one bit is set */ ..... end;

### Fundamental Boolean OperatorsEdit

Boolean operators may be used for calculating new bit (1) values:

- The prefix operator
**¬**is used as logical NOT. - The infix operator
**&**is used as logical AND. - The infix operator
**|**is used as logical OR.

dcl bit_a bit (1); dcl bit_b bit (1); dcl result bit (1); result = ¬ bit_a; /* result = '1'B if and only if bit_a is '0'B */ result = bit_a & bit_b; /* result = '1'B if and only if both bit_a and bit_b are '1'B */ result = bit_a | bit_b; /* result = '0'B if and only if both bit_a and bit_b are '0'B */

Note: Using compile-time options NOT operator and OR operator may be replaced by other symbols,

for being compatible with existing PL/I programs often **^** is used as NOT, **!** is used as OR.

Note: In *Enterprise PL/I for z/OS* **¬** may also by used as an infix operator, A ¬ B means A XOR B (exclusive-or).

Boolean operators may also be used for bit (n) strings with n > 1,

in this case calculation is done in a bit-by-bit way, i.e.

- 1st bit of ( A & B ) = ( 1st bit of A ) & ( 1st bit of B )
- 2nd bit of ( A & B ) = ( 2nd bit of A ) & ( 2nd bit of B )
- and so on ...

If A and B have different length the shorter of them is padded on the right with '0'B.

dcl bit_a bit (3) init ( '101'B ); dcl bit_b bit (4) init ( '1100'B ); put skip list ( ¬ bit_a ); /* '010'B */ put skip list ( ¬ bit_b ); /* '0011'B */ put skip list ( bit_a & bit_b ); /* '1000'B */ put skip list ( bit_a | bit_b ); /* '1110'B */

### Builtin Function BOOLEdit

All of the 16 possible binary boolean operations can be done with the BOOL function.

BOOL ( A , B , pattern_4 )

where A and B are bit strings and pattern_4 is a bit (4) string.

Let us as first assume A and B would be bit (1), then the function of pattern_4 is:

- 1st bit of pattern_4 defines the result of bool if A = '0'B and B = '0'B
- 2nd bit of pattern_4 defines the result of bool if A = '0'B and B = '1'B
- 3rd bit of pattern_4 defines the result of bool if A = '1'B and B = '0'B
- 4th bit of pattern_4 defines the result of bool if A = '1'B and B = '1'B

If A or B is bit (n) with n > 1 then calculation is done in a bit-by-bit way, see above.

Some possible values of pattern_4:

alternative meaning bool ( A , B , '0001'B ) A & B A AND B logical AND bool ( A , B , '0111'B ) A | B A OR B logical OR bool ( A , B , '0110'B ) A ¬= B A XOR B exclusive-OR bool ( A , B , '1110'B ) ¬ ( A & B ) A NAND B NOT AND bool ( A , B , '1000'B ) ¬ ( A | B ) A NOR B NOT OR bool ( A , B , '1001'B ) A = B A IFF B equivalence bool ( A , B , '1101'B ) ¬A | B A -> B implication: if A then B bool ( A , B , '1011'B ) A | ¬B a <- B implication: if B then A

### Array OperationsEdit

The builtin function ALL and ANY expects an array as argument.

Let us as first assume the argument ARRAY would be an array of bit (1), then

**ALL**returns '1'B = True if and only if all elements of ARRAY are '1'B.**ANY**returns '1'B = True if and only if at least 1 element of ARRAY is '1'B.

If argument ARRAY is an array of bit (n) with n > 1 then calculation is done in a bit-by-bit way, see above.

dcl array (3) bit (8) init ( '11110000'B , '11001100'B , '10101010'B ); dcl number (42) bin fixed (15); put skip list ( ALL ( array ) ); /* output is '10000000'B */ put skip list ( ANY ( array ) ); /* output is '11111110'B */ if ANY ( number < 0 ) then /* expression "number < 0" returns an array of 42 bit (1) strings */ put skip list ( 'at least 1 number is negative' );