Sardinian/Printable version


Sardinian

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https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Sardinian

Permission is granted to copy, distribute, and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.


Alphabet

It's a typical Latin-derived alphabet, as follows

  1. A (A)
  2. B (Bi)
  3. C (Ci)
  4. D (Di)
  5. E (E)
  6. F (Efa)
  7. G (Gi)
  8. H (Aca)
  9. I (I)
  10. J (Jota)
  11. K (Kappa)
  12. L (Ella)
  13. M (Emma)
  14. N (Enna)
  15. O (O)
  16. P (Pi)
  17. R (Erra)
  18. S (Essa)
  19. T (Ti)
  20. TZ (Zeta surda)
  21. U (U)
  22. V (Vu)
  23. X (Ìchisi)
  24. Z (Zeta sonora)



Pronounce

One of the major complications is the difference between the written form and the spoken one, given one must follow specific rules: it is important to mention at least some in the generality of cases.

It is highly recommended to learn as reported below, since the actual pronunciation of what is written shall be taken for granted.



Articles

DefiniteEdit

Singular Plural
Masculine Su = the Sos = the
Feminine Sa = the Sas = the

IndefiniteEdit

Masculine Feminine
Unu = a Una = a



Prepositions

Prepositions go before a noun, pronoun, adjective or verb to indicate their function in a sentence; and may be simple, contracted or improper.

Simple prepositionsEdit

  • A = to
  • Chin o Cun = with
  • De = of
  • Dae = from / by
  • In = in
  • Pro = because of / to
  • Tra = between / among
  • Peri = towards

Contracted prepositionsEdit

These are generally formed by simple prepositions + the definite article.

  • A su / sa ; A sos / sas
  • Chin su / sa ; Chin sos / sas
  • De su / sa ; De sos / sas
  • Dae su / sa ; Dae sos / sas
  • In su / sa ; In sos / sas

Improper prepositionsEdit

  • Sutta = under / beneath / below
  • Supra = above
  • Sicunde = according to
  • Chentza = without
  • Francu = with the exception of

Prepositional phrasesEdit

  • In fattu [de] = behind
  • Finas / Fintzas [a] = until
  • Prima [de] = before
  • [a] Pustis [de] = after
  • [a] Curtzu [de] = near / close to
  • [in] S'oru [de] = near to the edge of
  • Attesu [dae] = far (away) from
  • Innedda [dae] = far (away) from
  • [a] Largu [dae] = far (away) from
  • Paris [chin] = together with
  • Affaccu [de] = next to
  • [a] Costazu [de] = next to
  • Contr'[a] = against
  • [a] Cara [de] = before / in front of
  • Fora [de] = out of / outside of
  • Intro [de] = inside / within
  • [in] Cambiu [de] = in exchange for / in return for
  • Imbetzes [de] = instead of
  • Because of the abovementioned pronunciation rules, the pronunciation of the prepositions is as follows:
A ssu / ssa ; A ssos / ssas
Chi' ssu / ssa ; Chi' ssos / ssas
De ssos / ssas ; De ssos / ssas
Dae su / sa ; Dae sos / sas
I' ssu / ssa ; I' ssos / ssas
I 'ffattu 'e ...
Affacch 'e ...
  • In spoken form, when in o chin are bound to the indefinite article unu / -a, a -d is added.
Cantande ind unu tzilleri (Singing in a bar)
Fipo chind un'amica (I was with a friend)
  • In spoken form, the -D of De often is not pronounced; so that the preposition becomes 'e.



Cardinal numbers

  • Unu = 1
  • Duos = 2
  • Tres = 3
  • Battor = 4
  • Chimbe = 5
  • Ses = 6
  • Sette = 7
  • Otto = 8
  • Nove = 9
  • Deche = 10
  • Undichi = 11
  • Doichi = 12
  • Treichi = 13
  • Battordichi = 14
  • Bindichi = 15
  • Seichi = 16
  • Dechessette = 17
  • Decheotto = 18
  • Dechennove = 19
  • Binti = 20
  • Bintunu = 21
  • Bintiduos = 22
  • Bintitres = 23

...

  • Trinta = 30
  • Trintunu = 31
  • Trintaduos = 32
  • Trintatres = 33

...

  • Baranta = 40
  • Barantunu = 41
  • Barantaduos = 42
  • Barantatres = 43

...

  • Chimbanta = 50
  • Chimbantunu = 51
  • Chimbantaduos = 52
  • Chimbantatres = 53

...

  • Sessanta = 60
  • Sessantunu = 61
  • Sessantaduos = 62
  • Sessantatres = 63

...

  • Settanta = 70
  • Settantunu = 71
  • Settantaduos = 72
  • Settantatres = 73

...

  • Ottanta = 80
  • Ottantunu = 81
  • Ottantaduos = 82
  • Ottantatres = 83

...

  • Novanta = 90
  • Novantunu = 91
  • Novantaduos = 92
  • Novantatres = 93

...

  • Chentu = 100
  • Chent'e unu = 101
  • Chent'e duos = 102
  • Chent'e tres = 103
  • Chentuchimbantunu = 151
  • Duchentos/-as = 200
  • Duchentos/-as e unu/-a = 201
  • Duchentos/-as e duos/-as = 202
  • Duchentos/-as e tres = 203
  • Duchentos/-as bintitres = 223
  • Trechentos/-as = 300
  • Battochentos/-as = 400
  • Chimbichentos/-as == 500
  • Seschentos/-as = 600
  • Settechentos/-as = 700
  • Ottochentos/-as = 800
  • Novechentos/-as = 900
  • Milli = 1000
  • Mill'e unu/-a = 1001
  • Mill'e duos/-as = 1002
  • Duamiza = 2000
  • Tremiza = 3000
  • Battomiza = 4000
  • Chimbemiza = 5000
  • Semiza = 6000
  • Settemiza = 7000
  • Ottomiza = 8000
  • Novemiza = 9000
  • Dechemiza = 10000
  • Doichimiza = 12000
  • Bintunamiza e deche = 21010



Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers serving as adjectivesEdit

  • Primu/-a = first
  • Sicundu/-a = second
  • Tertzu/-a = third
  • Cuartu/-a = fourth
  • Cuìntu/-a = fifth
  • Sestu/-a = sixth
  • Sèttimu/-a = seventh
  • Ottavu/-a = eighth
  • Nonu/-a = ninth
  • Décimu/-a = tenth

Ordinal numbers serving as pronounsEdit

  • Su 'e unu = the first
  • Su 'e duos = the second
  • Su 'e tres = the third
  • Su 'e battor = the fourth
  • Su 'e chimbe = the fifth
  • Su 'e ses = the sixth
  • Su 'e binti = the twentieth
  • Su 'e bintunu = the twenty-first
  • Su 'e bintiduos = the twenty-second
  • Su 'e trinta = the twenty-third
  • Su 'e chentu = the one hundredth
  • Su 'e milli = the one thousandth



Verbs

Sardinian has the following moods and tenses:

Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative Infinitive Participle Gerund
• Present
• Imperfect
• Preterite♦
• Present Perfect
• Past Perfect
• Future
• Future Perfect
•Present
•Imperfect
•Past
•Pluperfect
•Present
•Past
•Present
•Future
•Present
•Past
•Present♦♦
•Past
•Present
•Past



Verbs/Conjugation of ÈSSER

IndicativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo so
  • Tue ses
  • Issu/Issa est
  • Nois semus
  • Bois sezis
  • Issos/Issas sun

ImperfectEdit

  • Deo fippo
  • Tue fis
  • Issu/Issa fit
  • Nois fimus
  • Bois fizis
  • Issos/Issas fin

Present PerfectEdit

  • Deo so istau/-da
  • Tue ses istau/-da
  • Issu/Issa est istau/-da
  • Nois semus istaos/-das
  • Bois sezis istaos/-das
  • Issos/Issas sun istaos/-das

Past PerfectEdit

  • Deo fippo istau/-da
  • Tue fis istau/-da
  • Issu/Issa fit istau/-da
  • Nois fimus istaos/-das
  • Bois fizis istaos/-das
  • Issos/Issas fin istaos/-das

FutureEdit

  • Deo app'a esser
  • Tue as a esser
  • Issu/Issa at a esser
  • Nois amus a esser
  • Bois azes a esser
  • Issos/Issas an a esser

Future PerfectEdit

  • Deo app'a esser istau/-da
  • Tue as a esser istau/-da
  • Issu/Issa at a esser istau/-da
  • Nois amus a esser istaos/-das
  • Bois azes a esser istaos/-das
  • Issos/Issas an a esser istaos/-das

SubjunctiveEdit

PresentEdit

  • (Chi) Deo sìa
  • (Chi) Tue sìas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa sìat
  • (Chi) Nois siàmus
  • (Chi) Bois siàzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas sìan

ImperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo (es)sèrepo
  • (Chi) Tue (es)sères
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa (es)sèret
  • (Chi) Nois (es)sèremus
  • (Chi) Bois (es)sèrezes
  • (Chi) Issos (es)sèren

PastEdit

  • (Chi) Deo sìa istau/-da
  • (Chi) Tue sìas istau/-da
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa sìat istau/-da
  • (Chi) Nois siàmus istaos/-das
  • (Chi) Bois siàzes istaos/-das
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas sìan istaos/-das

PluperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo (es)sèrepo istau/-da
  • (Chi) Tue (es)sères istau/-da
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa (es)sèret istau/-da
  • (Chi) Nois (es)sèremus istaos/-das
  • (Chi) Bois (es)sèrezes istaos/-das
  • (Chi) Issos (es)sèren istaos/-das

ConditionalEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo dìo esser
  • Tue dìas esser
  • Issu/Issa dìat esser
  • Nois diàmus esser
  • Bois diàzes esser
  • Issos/Issas dìan esser

PastEdit

  • Deo dìo esser istau/-da
  • Tue dìas esser istau/-da
  • Issu/Issa dìat esser istau/-da
  • Nois diàmus esser istaos/-das
  • Bois diàzes esser istaos/-das
  • Issos/Issas dìan esser istaos/-das

ImperativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Sìas (tue!)
  • Sìat (issu / issa!)
  • Siàmus (nois!)
  • Siàzes (bois!)
  • Sìan (issos / issas!)

FutureEdit

  • As a esser (tue!)
  • At a esser (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a esser (nois!)
  • Azes a esser (bois!)
  • An a esser (issos / issas!)

InfinitiveEdit

PresentEdit

  • Èsser

PastEdit

  • Èsser istau/-da

ParticipleEdit

Istau/-da ; Istaos/-das

GerundEdit

PresentEdit

  • (Es)sende

PastEdit

  • (Es)sende istau/-da ; (Es)sende istaos/-das



Verbs/Conjugation of other auxiliary verbs

ÁER (To have)Edit

IndicativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo appo
  • Tue as
  • Issu/Issa at
  • Nois amus
  • Bois azes
  • Issos/Issas an

ImperfectEdit

  • Deo aìo
  • Tue aìas
  • Issu/Issa aìat
  • Nois abamus, ajabamus
  • Bois abazes, ajabazes
  • Issos aìan

Present PerfectEdit

  • Deo app'àppiu
  • Tue as àppiu
  • Issu/Issa at àppiu
  • Nois amus àppiu
  • Bois azes àppiu
  • Issos/Issas an àppiu

Past PerfectEdit

  • Deo aìo àppiu
  • Tue aìas àppiu
  • Issu/Issa aìat àppiu
  • Nois abamus àppiu
  • Bois abazes àppiu
  • Issos/Issas aìan àppiu

FutureEdit

  • Deo app'àer
  • Tue as' àer
  • Issu/Issa at' àer
  • Nois amus' àer
  • Bois azes' àer
  • Issos/Issas an' àer

Future PerfectEdit

  • Deo app'àer àppiu
  • Tue as' àer àppiu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer àppiu
  • Nois amus' àer àppiu
  • Bois azes' àer àppiu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer àppiu

SubjunctiveEdit

PresentEdit

  • (Chi) Deo appa
  • (Chi) Tue appas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat
  • (Chi) Nois appamus
  • (Chi) Bois appazes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan

ImperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo
  • (Chi) Tue aères
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret
  • (Chi) Nois aerèmus
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren

PastEdit

  • (Chi) Deo app'àppiu
  • (Chi) Tue appas àppiu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat àppiu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus àppiu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes àppiu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan àppiu

PluperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo aèrep' àppiu
  • (Chi) Tue aères àppiu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret àppiu
  • (Chi) Nois aerèmus àppiu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes àppiu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren àppiu

ConditionalEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo dìo àer
  • Tue dìas àer
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer
  • Nois diàmus àer
  • Bois diàzes àer
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer

PastEdit

  • Deo dìo àer àppiu
  • Tue dìas àer àppiu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer àppiu
  • Nois diàmus àer àppiu
  • Bois diàzes àer àppiu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer àppiu

ImperativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Appas (tue!)
  • Appat (issu / issa!)
  • Appamus (nois!)
  • Appazes (bois!)
  • Appan (issos / issas!)

FutureEdit

  • As' àer (tue!)
  • At' àer (issu / issa!)
  • Amus' àer (nois!)
  • Azes' àer (bois!)
  • An' àer (issos / issas!)

InfinitiveEdit

PresentEdit

Áer

PastEdit

Áer àppiu

ParticipleEdit

Áppiu

GerundEdit

PresentEdit

Aènde

PastEdit

Aènde àppiu

DÈPER (Must / To have to)Edit

IndicativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo depo
  • Tue depes or des
  • Issu/Issa depet or det
  • Nois depimus or demus
  • Bois depies or dezis
  • Issos/Issas depen or den

ImperfectEdit

  • Deo depìo or dìo
  • Tue depìas or dìas
  • Issu/Issa depìat or dìat
  • Nois depiabàmus or diàmus
  • Bois depiabàzes or diàzes
  • Issos/Issas depìan or dìan

Present PerfectEdit

  • Deo appo dèpiu
  • Tue as dèpiu
  • Issu/Issa at dèpiu
  • Nois amus dèpiu
  • Bois azes dèpiu
  • Issos/Issas an dèpiu

Past PerfectEdit

  • Deo aìo dèpiu
  • Tue aìas dèpiu
  • Issu/Issa aìat dèpiu
  • Nois abamus dèpiu
  • Bois abazes dèpiu
  • Issos aìan dèpiu

FutureEdit

  • Deo app' a deper
  • Tue as a deper
  • Issu/Issa at a deper
  • Nois amus a deper
  • Bois azes a deper
  • Issos/Issas an a deper

Future PerfectEdit

  • Deo app' àer dèpiu
  • Tue as' àer dèpiu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer dèpiu
  • Nois amus' àer dèpiu
  • Bois azes' àer dèpiu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer dèpiu

SubjunctiveEdit

PresentEdit

  • (Chi) Deo depa
  • (Chi) Tue depas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa depat
  • (Chi) Nois depamus
  • (Chi) Bois depazes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas depan

ImperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo dière
  • (Chi) Tue dières
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa dièret
  • (Chi) Nois dierèmus
  • (Chi) Bois dierèzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas dièren

PastEdit

  • (Chi) Deo appa dèpiu
  • (Chi) Tue appas dèpiu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat dèpiu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus dèpiu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes dèpiu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan dèpiu

PluperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo dèpiu
  • (Chi) Tue aères dèpiu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret dèpiu
  • (Chi) Nois aerèmus dèpiu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes dèpiu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren dèpiu

ConditionalEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo dìo deper
  • Tue dìas deper
  • Issu/Issa dìat deper
  • Nois diàmus deper
  • Bois diàzes deper
  • Issos/Issas dìan deper

PastEdit

  • Deo dìo àer dèpiu
  • Tue dìas àer dèpiu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer dèpiu
  • Nois diàmus àer dèpiu
  • Bois diàzes àer dèpiu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer dèpiu

ImperativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Depas (tue!)
  • Depat (issu / issa!)
  • Depamus (nois!)
  • Depazes (bois!)
  • Depan (issos / issas!)

FutureEdit

  • As a deper (tue!)
  • At a deper (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a deper (nois!)
  • Azes a deper (bois!)
  • An a deper (issos / issas!)

InfinitiveEdit

PresentEdit

Dèper

PastEdit

Áer dèpiu

ParticipleEdit

Dèpiu

GerundEdit

PresentEdit

Depende

PastEdit

Aènde dèpiu



Verbs/All the three conjugations

FIRST CONJUGATION: verbs ending in ~ARE eg: Cantare (to sing / to chant)Edit

IndicativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo cànto
  • Tue càntas
  • Issu/Issa càntat
  • Nois cantàmus
  • Bois cantàes
  • Issos/Issas càntan

ImperfectEdit

  • Deo cantàbo
  • Tue cantàbas
  • Issu/Issa cantàbat
  • Nois cantabàmus
  • Bois cantabàzes
  • Issos/Issas cantàban

Present PerfectEdit

  • Deo appo cantàu
  • Tue as cantàu
  • Issu/Issa at cantàu
  • Nois amus cantàu
  • Bois azes cantàu
  • Issos/Issas an cantàu

Past PerfectEdit

  • Deo aìo cantàu
  • Tue aìas cantàu
  • Issu/Issa aìat cantàu
  • Nois abamus cantàu
  • Bois abazes cantàu
  • Issos/Issas aìan cantàu

FutureEdit

  • Deo app'a cantàre
  • Tue as a cantàre
  • Issu/Issa at a cantàre
  • Nois amus a cantàre
  • Bois azes a cantàre
  • Issos/Issas an a cantàre

Future PerfectEdit

  • Deo app'àer cantàu
  • Tue as' àer cantàu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer cantàu
  • Nois amus' àer cantàu
  • Bois azes' àer cantàu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer cantàu

SubjunctiveEdit

PresentEdit

  • (Chi) Deo cànte
  • (Chi) Tue càntes
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa càntet
  • (Chi) Nois cantémus
  • (Chi) Bois cantézas
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas cànten

ImperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo cantàrepo
  • (Chi) Tue cantàres
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa cantàret
  • (Chi) Nois cantarémus
  • (Chi) Bois cantarézes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas cantàren

PastEdit

  • (Chi) Deo appa cantàu
  • (Chi) Tue appas cantàu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat cantàu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus cantàu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes cantàu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan cantàu

PluperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo cantàu
  • (Chi) Tue aères cantàu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret cantàu
  • (Chi) Nois aerémus cantàu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes cantàu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren cantàu

ConditionalEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo dìo cantàre
  • Tue dìas cantàre
  • Issu/Issa dìat cantàre
  • Nois diàmus cantàre
  • Bois diàzes cantàre
  • Issos/Issas dìan cantàre

PastEdit

  • Deo dìo àer cantàu
  • Tue dìas àer cantàu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer cantàu
  • Nois diàmus àer cantàu
  • Bois diàzes àer cantàu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer cantàu

ImperativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Cànta (tue!)
  • Càntet (issu / issa!)
  • Cantémus (nois!)
  • Cantàe (bois!)
  • Cànten (issos / issas!)

FutureEdit

  • As a cantàre (tue!)
  • At a cantàre (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a cantàre (nois!)
  • Azes a cantàre (bois!)
  • An a cantàre (issos / issas!)

InfinitiveEdit

PresentEdit

Cantàre

PastEdit

Áer cantàu

ParticipleEdit

Cantàu

GerundEdit

PresentEdit

Cantànde

PastEdit

Aènde cantàu

SECOND CONJUGATION: verbs ending in ~ER eg: FÀCHER (to do / to make)Edit

IndicativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo fàco
  • Tue fàches
  • Issu/Issa fàchet
  • Nois fachìmus
  • Bois fachìes
  • Issos/Issas fàchen

ImperfectEdit

  • Deo fachìo
  • Tue fachìas
  • Issu/Issa fachìat
  • Nois fachiabàmus
  • Bois fachiabàzes
  • Issos/Issas fachìan

Present PerfectEdit

  • Deo appo fàttu
  • Tue as fàttu
  • Issu/Issa at fàttu
  • Nois amus fàttu
  • Bois azes fàttu
  • Issos/Issas an fàttu

Past PerfectEdit

  • Deo aìo fàttu
  • Tue aìas fàttu
  • Issu/Issa aìat fàttu
  • Nois abamus fàttu
  • Bois abazes fàttu
  • Issos aìan fàttu

FutureEdit

  • Deo app' a fàcher
  • Tue as a fàcher
  • Issu/Issa at a fàcher
  • Nois amus a fàcher
  • Bois azes a fàcher
  • Issos/Issas an a fàcher

Future PerfectEdit

  • Deo app' àer fàttu
  • Tue as' àer fàttu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer fàttu
  • Nois amus' àer fàttu
  • Bois azes' àer fàttu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer fàttu

SubjunctiveEdit

PresentEdit

  • (Chi) Deo fàca
  • (Chi) Tue fàcas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa fàcat
  • (Chi) Nois facàmus
  • (Chi) Bois facàzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas fàcan

ImperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo fachérepo
  • (Chi) Tue fachéres
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa fachéret
  • (Chi) Nois facherémus
  • (Chi) Bois facherézes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas fachéren

PastEdit

  • (Chi) Deo appa fàttu
  • (Chi) Tue appas fàttu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat fàttu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus fàttu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes fàttu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan fàttu

PluperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo fàttu
  • (Chi) Tue aères fàttu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret fàttu
  • (Chi) Nois aerèmus fàttu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes fàttu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren fàttu

ConditionalEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo dìo fàcher
  • Tue dìas fàcher
  • Issu/Issa dìat fàcher
  • Nois diàmus fàcher
  • Bois diàzes fàcher
  • Issos/Issas dìan fàcher

PastEdit

  • Deo dìo àer fàttu
  • Tue dìas àer fàttu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer fàttu
  • Nois diàmus àer fàttu
  • Bois diàzes àer fàttu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer fàttu

ImperativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Fàche (tue!)
  • Fàcat (issu / issa!)
  • Facàmus (nois!)
  • Fachìe (bois!)
  • Fàcan (issos / issas!)

FutureEdit

  • As a fàcher (tue!)
  • At a fàcher (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a fàcher (nois!)
  • Azes a fàcher (bois!)
  • An a fàcher (issos / issas!)

InfinitiveEdit

PresentEdit

Fàcher

PastEdit

Áer fàttu

ParticipleEdit

Fàttu

GerundEdit

PresentEdit

Fachénde

PastEdit

Aènde fàttu

THIRD CONJUGATION: verbs ending in ~ÌRE eg: FINÌRE (to end / to finish)Edit

IndicativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo fìno
  • Tue fìnis
  • Issu/Issa fìnit
  • Nois finìmus
  • Bois finìes
  • Issos/Issas fìnin

ImperfectEdit

  • Deo finìo
  • Tue finìas
  • Issu/Issa finìat
  • Nois finiabàmus
  • Bois finiabàzes
  • Issos/Issas finìan

Present PerfectEdit

  • Deo appo finìu
  • Tue as finìu
  • Issu/Issa at finìu
  • Nois amus finìu
  • Bois azes finìu
  • Issos/Issas an finìu

Past PerfectEdit

  • Deo aìo finìu
  • Tue aìas finìu
  • Issu/Issa aìat finìu
  • Nois abamus finìu
  • Bois abazes finìu
  • Issos/Issas aìan finìu

FutureEdit

  • Deo app'a finìre
  • Tue as a finìre
  • Issu/Issa at a finìre
  • Nois amus a finìre
  • Bois azes a finìre
  • Issos/Issas an a finìre

Future PerfectEdit

  • Deo app'àer finìu
  • Tue as' àer finìu
  • Issu/Issa at' àer finìu
  • Nois amus' àer finìu
  • Bois azes' àer finìu
  • Issos/Issas an' àer finìu

SubjunctiveEdit

PresentEdit

  • (Chi) Deo fìna
  • (Chi) Tue fìnas
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa fìnat
  • (Chi) Nois finàmus
  • (Chi) Bois finàzes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas fìnan

ImperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo finìrepo
  • (Chi) Tue finìres
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa finìret
  • (Chi) Nois finirémus
  • (Chi) Bois finirézes
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas finìren

PastEdit

  • (Chi) Deo appa finìu
  • (Chi) Tue appas finìu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa appat finìu
  • (Chi) Nois appamus finìu
  • (Chi) Bois appazes finìu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas appan finìu

PluperfectEdit

  • (Chi) Deo aèrepo finìu
  • (Chi) Tue aères finìu
  • (Chi) Issu/Issa aèret finìu
  • (Chi) Nois aerémus finìu
  • (Chi) Bois aerèzes finìu
  • (Chi) Issos/Issas aèren finìu

ConditionalEdit

PresentEdit

  • Deo dìo finìre
  • Tue dìas finìre
  • Issu/Issa dìat finìre
  • Nois diàmus finìre
  • Bois diàzes finìre
  • Issos/Issas dìan finìre

PastEdit

  • Deo dìo àer finìu
  • Tue dìas àer finìu
  • Issu/Issa dìat àer finìu
  • Nois diàmus àer finìu
  • Bois diàzes àer finìu
  • Issos/Issas dìan àer finìu

ImperativeEdit

PresentEdit

  • Fìni (tue!)
  • Fìnat (issu / issa!)
  • Finàmus (nois!)
  • Finìe (bois!)
  • Fìnan (issos / issas!)

FutureEdit

  • As a finìre (tue!)
  • At a finìre (issu / issa!)
  • Amus a finìre (nois!)
  • Azes a finìre (bois!)
  • An a finìre (issos / issas!)

InfinitiveEdit

PresentEdit

Finìre

PastEdit

Áer finìu

ParticipleEdit

Finìu

GerundEdit

PresentEdit

Finìnde

PastEdit

Aènde finìu



Verbs/Irregular verbs

AEdit

  • APÈRRER (to open)
Other verbs such as copèrrer, iscopèrrer etc. are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo apérjo, tue apéris, issu/-a apérit, nois aperímus, bois aperíes, issos/-as apérin
IND.(IMPERF.): deo aperío, tue aperías etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo apérja, (chi) tue apérjas etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): apèri (tue!), aperíe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): apértu
GER.(PRES.): aperìnde
  • ANDÀRE (to go)
IMPER.(PRES.): bàe (tue!), bàzze (bois!)

BEdit

  • BÀLER (to be worth)
IND.(PRES.): deo bàzo, tue bàles, issu/-a bàlet, nois balímus, bois balíes, issos/-as bàlen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo balío, tue balías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo bàza, (chi) tue bàzas, (chi) issu/-a bàzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): bàle (tue!), balíe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): bàfiu
GER.(PRES.): balénde
  • BÈNNER (to come)
Other verbs such as cumbènner, imbènner, prebènner, etc. are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo bénzo, tue bénis, issu/-a bénit, nois benìmus, bois beníes, issos/-as bènin
IND.(IMPERF.): deo benío, tue benías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo bénza, (chi) tue bénzas, (chi) issu/-a bénzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): béni (tue!), beníe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): bènniu
GER.(PRES.): benìnde
  • BÍER (to see)
IND.(PRES.): deo bìo, tue bìes, issu/-a bìet, nois (b)idímus, bois (b)idíes, issos/-as bìen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo bidío, tue bidías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo bìa, (chi) tue bìas, (chi) issu/-a bìat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): bìe (tue!), (b)idíe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): bìdu oppure bìstu
GER.(PRES.): biénde
  • BÒLER (to want)
IND.(PRES.): deo bòzo, tue bòles, issu/-a bòlet, nois bolímus, bois bolíes, issos/-as bòlen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo bolío, tue bolías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo bòza, (chi) tue bòzas, (chi) issu/-a bòzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): bòle (tue!), bolíe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): bòfiu
GER.(PRES.): bolénde

CEdit

  • CHÉRRER (to want)
IND.(PRES.): deo chérjo, tue chéres, issu/-a chéret, nois cherìmus, bois cheríes, issos/-as chéren
IND.(IMPERF.): deo cherío, tue cherías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo chérja, (chi) tue chérjas, (chi) issu/-a chérjat, etc.
PART.(PAST): chérfiu
GER.(PRES.): cherénde

DEdit

  • DÀRE (to give)
IND.(PRES.): deo dào, tue dàes, issu/-a dàet, nois dàmus, bois dàzes, issos/-as dàen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo dàbo oppure daío, tue dàbas oppure daías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo día, (chi) tue días, (chi) issu/-a díat, (chi) nois diàmus, (chi) bois diàzes, (chi) issos/-as dían
IMPER.(PRES.): dàe (tue!), dàze (bois!)
  • DÉPER (must / to have to)
Here is the conjugation of this verb in particular.
  • DÒLER (to hurt)
The conjugation is regular, with the exception of PART.(PAST) which is dòrfiu.

EEdit

FEdit

  • FÉRRER (to wound)
Other verbs such as offérrer, preférrer, reférrer etc. are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo férjo, tue féris, issu/-a férit, nois ferìmus, bois feríes, issos/-as férin
IND.(IMPERF.): deo ferío, tue ferías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo férja, (chi) tue férjas, (chi) issu/-a férjat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): féri (tue!), feríe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): fértu
GER.(PRES.): ferìnde

GEdit

HEdit

IEdit

  • ISTÈRRER (to extend)
IND.(PRES.): deo istèrjo, tue isterres, issu/-a isterret, nois isterrímus, bois isterríes, issos/-as isterren
IND.(IMPERF.): deo isterrío, tue isterrías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo istèrja, (chi) tue istèrjas, (chi) issu/-a istèrjat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): isterre (tue!), isterríe (bois!)

LEdit

MEdit

  • MANTÈNNER (to maintain)
This verb is to be conjugated just like TÈNNER, with the exception of the PART.(PAST) which is mantésu.
  • MÒRRER (to die)
IND.(PRES.): deo mòrjo, tue mòris, issu/-a mòrit, nois mòrimus, bois mòríes, issos/-as mòrin
IND.(IMPERF.): deo morío, tue morías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo mòrja, (chi) tue mòrjas, (chi) issu/-a mòrjat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): mòri (tue!), moríe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): mòrtu
GER.(PRES.): morìnde

NEdit

  • NÀRRER (to say)
This verb is particular, in that it belongs to the second cojugation just for the INF.(PRES.); all of the other moods seem to belong to the first one.
IND.(PRES.): deo nàro, tue nàras, issu/-a nàrat, nois nàramus, bois nàraes, issos/-as nàran
or even
deo nàro, tue nàs, issu/-a nàt, nois nàmus, bois nàzes, issos/-as nàn
IND.(IMPERF.): deo nàbo, tue nàbas, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo nìe, (chi) tue nìes, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): nàra (tue!), nàze (bois!)
PART.(PAST): naràu or even nàu
GER.(PRES.): narànde or even nànde

OEdit

PEdit

  • PÀRRER (to seem)
Other verbs such as appárrer, cumpárrer, iscumpárrer are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo pàrjo, tue pàres, issu/-a pàret, nois parìmus, bois paríes, issos/-as pàren
IND.(IMPERF.): deo parío, tue parías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo pàrja, (chi) tue pàrjas, (chi) issu/-a pàrjat, etc.
PART.(PAST): pàrtu
  • PÒDER (can)
IND.(PRES.): deo pòtto, tue pòdes, issu/-a pòdet, nois podìmus, bois podíes, issos/-as pòden
IND.(IMPERF.): deo podío, tue podías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo pòda, (chi) tue pòdas, (chi) issu/-a pòdat, etc.
PART.(PAST): pòttiu
  • PÒNNER (to put)
Other verbs such as cumpònner, dispònner, impònner, propònner etc. are to be conjugated just like this one.
IND.(PRES.): deo pònzo, tue pònes, issu/-a pònet, nois ponìmus, bois poníes, issos/-as pònen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo ponío, tue ponías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo pònza, (chi) tue pònzas, (chi) issu/-a pònzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): pòne (tue!), poníe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): pòstu
GER.(PRES.): ponénde

QEdit

REdit

SEdit

TEdit

  • TÈNNER (to have)
The following compound verbs are conjugated similarly: astènner, cuntènner, mantènner, trattènner, retènner, sustènner etc.
IND.(PRES.): deo ténzo, tue ténes, issu/-a ténet, nois tenìmus, bois teníes, issos/-as ténen
IND.(IMPERF.): deo tenío, tue tenías, etc.
SUB.(PRES.): (chi) deo ténza, (chi) tue ténzas, (chi) issu/-a ténzat, etc.
IMPER.(PRES.): téne (tue!), teníe (bois!)
PART.(PAST): téntu
GER.(PRES.): tenénde
  • TRATTÈNNER (to hold)
This verb is to be conjugated just like TÈNNER, with the exception of the PART.(PAST) which is trattésu.

UEdit

VEdit

ZEdit



Interjections

The most basic and common interjections are presented here :


  • Ajò ! / archaically: Ajòni ! = Come on!
  • Eja! = Yes!
  • Emmo! = Yes!
  • Alé! = Hooray! / Come on! (different from "Ajò"; "Alé" is more "Hooray" than "Come on")
  • Ello...! = So...!
  • Uff'! = Phew!
  • Mah! =
  • Oh...! = [vocative / to call someone, or in formulation of a question]
  • Puh! / Putzidda! = Yuck!
  • Bo'! = Enough! [often preceded by "puntu e"]
  • Tittía! = It's cold! / What a cold! [often followed by da "bette frittu!", "bette astragu!", "su frittu chi b'at!" etc.]
  • Pistidda! = [for burning sensation]
  • Addolumannu! = Unfortunately! [ followed by the possessive to give references , eg. "addolumannu nostru!" or "unfortunately for us!"]
  • Mudu! = Shit up! (to a boy/man)
  • Muda! = Shit up! (to a girl/woman)
  • Innorobona! = Good luck!
  • Innoromala! = Go to hell!
  • Arguai! = Woe! (in the sense of "woe betide him who ...")
  • Iscuru! = Poor guy!
  • Iscura! = Poor girl/woman!
  • Pacubene! = [lamentation, sometimes followed by the possessive to give references , eg. "pacubene tuo!"]
  • Mamma mea! / Ma' Mea! = Oh my!
  • Oddeu'! / Oddé! = Yikes!
  • Sa làstima! = What a pity! [often ironic ]
  • Mancari! = If only... (literally "Maybe!")
  • Malaittu / -a! = Cursed (be you/him/her/it) [sometimes followed by "chi siat / sian"]
  • Raju! = Heck!, Wow!
  • Archibusada! = Wow!
  • Balla! = Wow!
  • Bene! = Good!
  • Marranu / -a! = [to taunt a victim to a duel]
  • Zée...! / Cée...! = [exclamation of surprise, especially negative]



Colours, months and seasons

Dies (days)Edit

Sa chida (the week)Edit

Sardu English
Lunis Monday
Martis Tuesday
Mércuris Wednesday
Jòbia Thursday
Chenàpura Friday
Sàpadu Saturday
Dumìnica Sunday

Festas (holidays)Edit

Sardu English
Prima di'e Annu New Year's Day
Pasca de sos tres Res Epiphany
Pasca de Frores Pentecost/Whitsunday
Mes'Agustu Mid-August/feast of the assumption
Pasca 'e Nadale Christmas
Pasca Easter

Meses (months)Edit

Sardu English
Jannàrju January
Freàrju February
Màrtu March
Aprìle April
Màju May
Làmpadas June
Trìbulas July
Agùstu August
Capidànne September
Santu Gabìne October
Sant'Andrìa November
Nadàle December

Istajones (seasons)Edit

Sardu English
Berànu Spring
Istíu Summer
Attùnzu Fall/Autumn
Ibèrru Winter

Colores (colours)Edit

Sardu English
Biancu (archaic: Arbu) white
Nigheddu black
Ruju red
Grogu yellow
Blu blue
Biaitu azure / sky-blue
Birde green
Aranzu orange
Tabachìnu brown
Murru gray
Rosa pink