Ring/Lessons/Operators

OperatorsEdit

In this chapter we will introduce the operators provided by the Ring programming language.

Arithmetic OperatorsEdit

The next table presents all of the arithmetic operators provided by the Ring language. Assume variable X=50 and variable Y=10 then:

+------------+---------------+----------+---------+
| Operator   | Description   | Example  | Result  |
+============+===============+==========+=========+
| +          |  Add          |  x+y     |  60     |
+------------+---------------+----------+---------+
| -          |	Subtract     |	x-y     |  40     |
+------------+---------------+----------+---------+
| *          |  Multiplies   |	x*y     |  500    |
+------------+---------------+----------+---------+
| /          |  Divide	     |	x/y     |  5      |
+------------+---------------+----------+---------+
| %          |  Modulus	     |	x%y     |  0      | 
+------------+---------------+----------+---------+
| ++         |  Increment    |	x++     |  51     |
+------------+---------------+----------+---------+
| --         |  Decrement    |	x--     |  49     |
+------------+---------------+----------+---------+

Relational OperatorsEdit

The next table presents all of the relational operators provided by the Ring language. Assume variable X=50 and variable Y=10 then:

+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| Operator   | Description         | Example     | Result  |
+============+=====================+=============+=========+
| =          |  Equal	           |    x = y    |  False  |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| !=         |	Not Equal          |	x != y   |  True   |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| >          |  Greater than       |	x > y    |  True   |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| <          |  Less than          |	x < y    |  False  |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| >=         |  Greater or Equal   |	x >= y   |  True   | 
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| <=         |  Less than or Equal |	x <= y   |  False  |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+

Logical OperatorsEdit

The next table presents all of the logical operators provided by the Ring language. Assume variable X=True and variable Y=False then:

+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| Operator   | Description         | Example     | Result  |
+============+=====================+=============+=========+
| and	     |  Logical AND        |    x and y  |  False  |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| or         |	Logical OR         |	x or y   |  True   |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+
| not	     |  Logical Not        |	not x    |  False  |
+------------+---------------------+-------------+---------+


Bitwise OperatorsEdit

The next table presents all of the bitwise operators provided by the Ring language. Assume variable X=8 and variable Y=2 then:

+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| Operator   | Description                 | Example     | Result  |
+============+=============================+=============+=========+
| &          |  Binary AND                 |    x & y    |  0      |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| |          |	Binary OR                  |	x | y    |  10     |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| ^          |  Binary XOR                 |	x ^ y    |  10     |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| ~          |  Binary Ones Complement 	   |	~x       |  -9     |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| <<         |  Binary Left Shift          |	x << y   |  32     | 
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| >>         |  Binary Right Shift         |	x >> y   |  2      |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+

Assignment OperatorsEdit

The next table presents all of the assignment operators provided by the Ring language.

Assume variable X=8 then:

+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| Operator   | Description                 | Example     | Result  |
+============+=============================+=============+=========+
| =          |  Assignment                 |    x = 10   |  x=10   |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| +=         |	Add AND assignment         |	x += 5   |  x=13   |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| -=	     |  Subtract AND assignment    |	x -= 3   |  x=5    |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| *=         |  Multiply AND assignment    |	x *= 2   |  x=16   |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| /=         |  Divide AND assignment      |	x /= 3   |  x=2.67 |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| %=         |  Modulus AND assignment     |	x %= 2   |  x=0    | 
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| <<=        |	Left shift AND assignment  |	x <<= 2  |  x=32   |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| >>=	     |  Right shift AND assignment |	x >>= 2  |  x=2    |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| &=         |  Bitwise AND assignment     |	x &= 4   |  x=0    |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| |=         |  Bitwise OR and assignment  |	x |= 3   |  x=11   |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+
| ^=         |  Bitwise XOR and assignment |	x ^= 4   |  x=12   |
+------------+-----------------------------+-------------+---------+

Misc OperatorsEdit

==============	======================================================================
Operator        Description
==============	======================================================================
:literal        using : before identifier mean literal
Start:End       create list contains items from start to end
[list items]    define list items
list[index]     access list item
obj.name        using the dot operator to access object members (attributes/methods).
obj {stmts}     execute statements with direct access to object attributes & methods
func(para,...)  call function using parameters separated by comma
==============	======================================================================

Operators PrecedenceEdit

The next table present operators from higher precedence (Evaluated first) to lower precedence.

+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| Operator                                                       |
+================================================================+
| .  []   ()     {}                                              |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| -  ~  :Literal  [list items]                                   |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| ++   --                                                        |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| Start:End                                                      |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| * /  %                                                         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| + -                                                            |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| <<   >>                                                        |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| &                                                              |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| \|  ^	                                                         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| <  >  <=  >=                                                   |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| =  !=                                                          |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| not                                                            |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| and   or                                                       |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| Assignment = += -= \*= /= %=>>= <<= &= ^= \|=                  |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+

Example:

	See 3+5*4	# prints 23